Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda, hewan atau orang.

Contoh:

Raymond bought a new camera three months ago. He absolutely loves it.

Pada kalimat kedua di atas ada dua buah personal pronouns, yaitu He dan it. Kata he mengganti kata Raymond dan kata it mengganti kata camera.

Penggunaan personal pronouns tergantung dari beberapa hal, diantaranya yaitu:

  • Personal pronouns sebagai subject atau object
  • Personal pronouns sebagai singular atau plural
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang laki-laki atau perempuan
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga

Berikut ini adalah daftar kata personal pronouns:

Orang Jumlah Subject Object
Orang Pertama Singular I me
Orang kedua Singular you you
Orang ketiga Singular he/she/it him/her/it
Orang pertama Plural we us
Orang kedua Plural you you
Orang ketiga Plural they them

He/him digunakan untuk merujuk kepada laki-laki dan she/her untuk merujuk kepada perempuan. Saat kita tidak yakin apakah seseorang itu laki-laki atau perempuan maka kita bisa menggunakan they/them. Contoh:

  • This is Amadeo. He’s my brother. I don’t think you have met him.
  • This is Citra. She’s my sister. Have you met her before?
  • Talk to a teacher. Ask them to help you.
  • You could go to a friend. They might help you.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh penggunaan personal pronouns sebagai subject:

  1. You are happy.
  2. You are late.
  3. You are my best student.
  4. Do you like ice-cream?
  5. I like ice-cream.
  6. I love learning Japanese!
  7. I like your dress.
  8. I really like spaghetti.
  9. Ninda and I are meeting in Jakarta in July.
  10. He runs fast.
  11. He is my cousin
  12. He is clever.
  13. He is from Jogja.
  14. He is running up and down the stairs.
  15. She has a nice voice.
  16. She is on holiday
  17. She forgot his laptop.
  18. Novi did not come to school yesterday. She had to go to the doctor
  19. She is dreaming.
  20. She is riding his bike.
  21. She has got a sister.
  22. She often reads until late at night.
  23. Come look at my cat! She has climbed to the top of that tree.
  24. It doesn’t work.
  25. It is raining
  26. It was on the the refrigerator.
  27. It is easy to understand.
  28. It is Blue.
  29. We have to leave soon.
  30. We went home.
  31. We live in Australia.
  32. Should we go jogging before or after breakfast?
  33. Is it ok if we finish early today?
  34. We are watching TV.
  35. We would love for you to join us.
  36. Do you need a table for four?
  37. Would you prefer ice-cream or peppermint tea?
  38. They all cleaned up together.
  39. They come from Bandung.
  40. They all lived happily ever after.
  41. They won the league.
  42. I bought some batteries, but they weren’t included.
  43. They are on the wall.
  44. They are in the lobby.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh penggunaan personal pronouns sebagai object:

  1. Yayuk helped me.
  2. Can you help me please?
  3. Can they hear me?
  4. She is waiting for me.
  5. Stop laughing at me.
  6. Arif loves you.
  7. I can see you.
  8. I will wait for you.
  9. I’ll get it for you.
  10. Did Haryo beat him?
  11. Abe went with her.
  12. Ratri said she wants to marry him.
  13. She doesn’t like him.
  14. Give it to him.
  15. I told him to stay home and study instead of going out.
  16. Does Maryam know her?
  17. What’s wrong with him?
  18. I saw her in town yesterday.
  19. Krisna knows her.
  20. Why are you looking at her?
  21. I want him to listen.
  22. Can the man fix it?
  23. Who broke it?
  24. Please pick up that piece of paper and take it with you.
  25. Bluher drove us.
  26. He will email us tomorrow.
  27. Don’t take it from us.
  28. Did Orig and Kania beat you at doubles?
  29. Is anyone sitting next to you?
  30. Orig and Kania beat them.
  31. Ricky gave them the letter.
  32. I will take them.
  33. We saw them in campus yesterday, but they didn’t see [us.
  34. I’ll speak to them.
  35. Where are the reports? I thought I gave them to you.
  36. Ask them if they will be joining us.

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns digunakan untuk bertanya.

Kata yang termasuk interrogative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, dan what (Kata Whoever, whomever, whichever, dan whatever juga bisa digunakan sebagai interrogative pronouns walaupun jarang digunakan).

Kata who, whom dan which berguna untuk menggantikan orang sedangkan kata what dan which berguna untuk menggantikan hewan dan benda.

Berikut ini adalah contoh penggunaan kata interrogative pronouns:

  1. Who are you?
  2. Who called last night?
  3. Who came last night?
  4. Who is dancing?
  5. Who is laughing at me?
  6. Who is the villain here?
  7. Who is there?
  8. Who opened the refrigerator?
  9. Who said that?
  10. Who told you to do that?
  11. Who told you?
  12. Who was embarrassed the most?
  13. Who will design the new logo?
  14. Who won the race?
  15. Whom do I ask for at the desk?
  16. Whom do you suggest we nominate for class president?
  17. Whom did you call?
  18. Whom did you tell?
  19. Whom shall we ask?
  20. Whom were you speaking with this morning?
  21. Once you learn to speak Japanese, whom are you going to talk to?
  22. To whom are you speaking?
  23. To whom did you give the note?
  24. To whom was that said?
  25. Whose are these books?
  26. Whose camera is this?
  27. Whose is this?
  28. Whose question was that?
  29. Whose car is this?
  30. Whose socks are those?
  31. Whose watch is this?
  32. Which belongs to her?
  33. Which came first?
  34. Which did you buy?
  35. Which do you prefer?
  36. Which horse won the race?
  37. Which is the greater?
  38. Which is your coat?
  39. which jacket should I wear?
  40. Which keys are yours?
  41. Which of these two do you prefer?
  42. Which teacher said that?
  43. What are you talking about?
  44. What did you say?
  45. What do you want for your birthday?
  46. What do you want?
  47. What does the man want?
  48. What is that?
  49. What is the number on the door?
  50. What is your favorite color?
  51. What is your secret?
  52. What movie did you go to see last night?
  53. What’s happened?
  54. What’s your phone number?

Interrogative pronouns dengan akhiran -ever biasanya digunakan untuk memberi tekanan atau menunjukkan keterjutan.

  1. Whoever would want to eat such a gross thing?
  2. Whoever would want to do such a nasty thing?

Indefinite Pronouns

Penjelasan Indefinite Pronouns

Bila kita menggunakan demonstrative pronouns untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara jelas maka indefinite pronouns adalah kebalikannya.

Indefinite pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara tidak jelas. Secara tidak jelas maksudnya adalah benda yang ditunjuk tidak diketahui namanya, cirinya atau jumlahnya. Lihat contoh di bawah ini.

Somebody must have seen the driver leave.
(Indefinite pronouns = somebody. Somebody menunjuk kepada seseorang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia)

Everyone looked at me.
(Indefinite pronouns = everyone. Everyone menunjuk kepada semua orang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia)

Kata yang termasuk indefinite pronouns yaitu: all, another, any, anyone/anybody, anything, both, each, either, enough, everything, everyone/everybody, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, more, most, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, other, others, several, some, someone/somebody, something, such.

Singular atau Plural

Indefinite pronouns bisa berbentuk singular atau plural tergantung dari benda yang ditunjuk dan verb yang digunakan.

Singular: Another, Anybody, Anyone, Anything, Each, Either, Enough, Everybody, Everyone, Everything, Less, Little, Much, Neither, Nobody, No-one, Nothing, One, Other, Somebody, Someone, Something

Plural: Both, Few, Fewer, Many, Others, Several

Bisa keduanya (Singular dan Plural): All, Any, More, Most, None, Some, Such

Contoh Indefinite Pronouns

Di bawah adalah beberapa contoh indefinite pronouns dalam kalimat.

  1. All are welcome to attend the concert.
  2. All are welcome to come to the birthday party tonight.
  3. All are welcome to our house for Thanksgiving.
  4. All in the lobby must remain seated.
  5. All of the newspaper was soaked.
  6. All of the people clapped their hands.
  7. All have arrived.
  8. All is forgiven.
  9. You can fool all the people some of the time; you can fool some of the people all the time; but you can’t fool all the people all the time. (Abraham Lincoln, speech at the Republican state convention in Bloomington, Indiana, on May 29, 1856)
  10. He has one job in the day and another at night.
  11. Indrawan passed his card to another.
  12. That ice-cream was good. Can I have another?
  13. Windy gave the book to another.
  14. Are any coming?
  15. I don’t have any, but Betanti has some.
  16. I don’t have any.
  17. Is any left?
  18. Joko doesn’t have any.
  19. Anybody who came along would know something awful has happened here.
  20. Does anybody have a clue where the dog went?
  21. Does anybody have a clue?
  22. Does anybody have the time?
  23. Does anybody know a good place where I can go to get my nails done?
  24. I knocked on the door, but there was not anybody there.
  25. Is this anybody’s coat?
  26. Although it could have happened to anyone, it happened to me.
  27. Anyone can plainly see that she was asking for trouble.
  28. Anyone can play that game.
  29. Anyone can play the game as long as they follow the rules.
  30. Anyone can see what’s going on here.
  31. Anyone in their right mind would know better than to do that.
  32. Anyone that has ever lived in the city will never take for granted the peace of the country.
  33. Anyone would have agreed the woman in the black dress was gorgeous.
  34. Can anyone tell me why it is raining again?
  35. Can anyone answer this question?
  36. During my trip to the mall, I did not see anyone I knew.
  37. Have you told anyone about the treasure map?
  38. I needed to see if anyone was interested in dating my cousin.
  39. I will not dance on anyone’s grave. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
  40. If anyone cared about her, they certainly had an odd way of showing it.
  41. Is anyone available to babysit for me on Wednesday?
  42. Sometimes I wonder why anyone shops at this store.
  43. Anything is possible as long as you put your mind to it.
  44. Anything is possible if you believe.
  45. I don’t know anything about music. In my line, you don’t have to. (Elvis Presley, 1935-1977)
  46. My parents always told me that anything is possible.
  47. Sherly couldn’t hear anything at the concert.
  48. So that’s eggs, peas and chips. Do you want anything else?
  49. The doctor needs to know if you have eaten anything in the last two hours.
  50. When I looked around the house, I did not see anything out of the ordinary.
  51. Both are acceptable to me.
  52. Both of them are coming home tonight.
  53. Both of us match the donation.
  54. Yoga likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good.
  55. At the Thanksgiving dinner, each brought a plated dish to make the meal complete.
  56. Each brought a dessert to share.
  57. Each brought a dish to pass.
  58. Each of the members has one vote.
  59. Each of the players has a doctor.
  60. Each has his own thoughts.
  61. A little government and a little luck are necessary in life, but only a fool trusts either of them. (P. J. O’Rourke, Parliament of Whores. Grove Press, 1991)
  62. Do you want tea or coffee? / I don’t mind. Either is good for me.
  63. Either of the choices has its disadvantages.
  64. You may have either.
  65. Enough is enough.
  66. Everybody enjoyed the concert. They stood up and clapped.
  67. Everybody is busy finishing the quiz.
  68. Everybody left town for the weekend.
  69. Everybody likes a kidder, but nobody lends him money. (Arthur Miller, 1915-2005)
  70. Everybody loves Prismita.
  71. Everybody loves to eat chocolate.
  72. We can start the meeting because everybody has arrived.
  73. After the festivities, everyone was invited back to the house for the after-party.
  74. Everyone at the wedding could see how happy he made her.
  75. Everyone brought canned goods to the charity drive.
  76. Everyone clapped when the movie ended.
  77. Everyone did as he pleased.
  78. Everyone enjoyed the food and the company.
  79. Everyone enjoyed the movie.
  80. Everyone had a great time at the Christmas party.
  81. Everyone wandered aimlessly down the street wondering what would become of the space ships that occupied the otherwise clear blue sky.
  82. I really just needed some time away from everyone.
  83. Is everyone happy with his gift?
  84. Is everyone happy with his or her gift?
  85. Normally during the holidays, everyone leaves campus.
  86. Everything is fine between Caroline and Mariana.
  87. Everything is funny as long as it is happening to somebody else. (Will Rogers, 1879-1935)
  88. Everything is going as planned
  89. Everything is taken care of.
  90. Everything was ready for the party.
  91. I was told not to worry and that everything would be taken care of.
  92. It was a very clear day. We could see everything.
  93. They have no house or possessions. They lost everything in the earthquake.
  94. A few of the justices were voicing their opposition.
  95. Few came to the wedding after the bride had a melt down and lashed out at her family and friends.
  96. Few of the projects were good enough to go to the science fair.
  97. Few visited that park.
  98. Few have ever disobeyed him and lived.
  99. Of those who say nothing, few are silent. (Thomas Neill)
  100. Very few came to visit the crabby old woman on the corner, leaving many to wonder if anyone cared about her at all.
  101. Fewer are smoking these days.
  102. Less is more (Mies van der Rohe)
  103. Little is known about his early life.
  104. After the story of the plane crash hit the news, many called for information on loved ones aboard the flight.
  105. For many are called, but few are chosen. (Bible, Matthew 22.14)
  106. Many are planning to attend the party.
  107. Many are wishing they did.
  108. Many called for information.
  109. Many have expressed their views.
  110. Many missed the bus.
  111. Many have come already.
  112. More are coming.
  113. There is more over there.
  114. Most of the books are out of date.
  115. Most of the work is finished.
  116. Most have refused.
  117. Most is lost.
  118. Much has happened since we met.
  119. I keep telling Sofie and Anggia but neither believes me.
  120. Adhit told nobody the secrets that went on at her house.
  121. Asriningtias told nobody her secret.
  122. I phoned many times but nobody answered.
  123. Nobody came.
  124. I invited five friends but none have come.
  125. None are mine.
  126. None came forward to claim the prize.
  127. None is mine.
  128. They fixed the water so why is none coming out of the tap?
  129. All the family came, but no one else.
  130. I opened the door but there was no one at home.
  131. No one admitted to knocking over the base.
  132. No one came forward to admit the crime, so the whole class was punished.
  133. No one likes to eat vegetables.
  134. No one wants to hear about my sciatica. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
  135. No one was home at the neighbor’s.
  136. We knew that no one had eaten the salami.
  137. I have nothing to declare except my genius. (Oscar Wilde)
  138. If you don’t know the answer it’s best to say nothing.
  139. Nothing happened.
  140. Can one smoke here?
  141. All the students arrived but now one is missing.
  142. I met two girls. One has given me her phone number.
  143. One could see the mountains from miles away.
  144. One could see the tornado forming from miles away.
  145. One of the girls gave up her seat.
  146. One of the great things about that cabin is that everything is included.
  147. One was tall and the other was short.
  148. I’m sure that others have tried before us.
  149. Several of the documents were filled with errors.
  150. Several performances are scheduled for next week.
  151. Several signed the card.
  152. Several turned out for the concert.
  153. They all complained and several left the meeting.
  154. After I painted my walls a deep shade of purple and installed jet black carpet, my room may be considered too gloomy for some.
  155. Elizabeth wanted some, but I do not have any.
  156. Here is some.
  157. Please take some to Ms. Dita.
  158. Some have the power to coax others to do what they want while others lack the power to do anything but follow.
  159. Some just do not know when to quit while they are ahead.
  160. Some will do anything to gain the attention of others.
  161. Some have arrived.
  162. The room is too gloomy for some.
  163. We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)
  164. Would you like to try some of these cookies?
  165. Clearly somebody murdered him. It was not suicide.
  166. I will tell somebody that dinner is ready. They have been waiting a long time.
  167. If Sarah can’t come we’ll ask somebody else.
  168. Somebody ate my sandwich!
  169. Somebody called the store.
  170. Somebody has forgotten her purse.
  171. Somebody rang the doorbell.
  172. They were staying in somebody’s house.
  173. Desiana walked in and handed the piece of paper to someone.
  174. Everyone knows it is impolite to point at someone.
  175. Maryam gave her ticket to someone.
  176. Nela gave that book to someone and never got it back.
  177. Saniya gave the form to someone.
  178. Someone called to tell me the horrible news.
  179. Someone drank all the soda.
  180. Someone has taken my new chemistry book.
  181. Someone really needs to come and mow my lawn.
  182. Someone should sue the pants off of that guy!
  183. Someone walked past the window and shouted.
  184. Someone whispered in my ear, but when I turned around there was not anybody there.
  185. Someone will clean up the kitchen.
  186. Someone yelled my name.
  187. A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read. (Mark Twain, 1835-1910)
  188. Listen! I just heard something! What could it be?
  189. He was a foreigner and he felt that he was treated as such.

Demonstrative pronouns

Melanjutkan pembahasan pronouns.

Penjelasan demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara jelas. Secara jelas maksudnya adalah benda yang ditunjuk jelas adanya, bentuk dan ciri-cirinya diketahui. Selain itu, demonstrative pronouns juga menjelaskan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk adalah singular atau plural.

Yang termasuk demonstrative pronouns yaitu this, that, these dan those.

Perhatikan bagaimana demonstrative pronouns mengganti nouns di bawah ini.

  • The pretzel-like yoga move we’re doing really hurts. >>> This really hurts.
  • The dinner you are cooking smells delicious. >>> That smells delicious.
  • The food you’re cooking smells heavenly. >>> That smells heavenly.
  • What is the strange, polka-dotted, Sasquatch-like creature coming toward us? >>> What is that?
  • The delicious, pink petit fours on my plate are my favorites. >>> These are my favorites.
  • The cockroaches currently giving birth under our kitchen sink are totally gross. >>> Those are totally gross.

This dan That sebagai pengganti singular nouns

This menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya dekat.

  • This is ridiculous.
  • This is your shirt.
  • This is my car.
  • This is very smelly.
  • This is the one I left in the car.
  • This smells heavenly.
  • This tastes good.
  • This tastes delicious.
  • This tastes scrumptious.
  • I don’t like this.
  • I really like this.
  • Is this yours?
  • Have you seen this?
  • Chefin, would you mail this?
  • Does the wallpaper the decorator selected go with this?

That menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya jauh.

  • That is ridiculous.
  • That is beautiful.
  • That is a good idea.
  • That is incorrect.
  • That is my house on the corner.
  • That is one way to do it.
  • That is our house.
  • This is Yogi speaking.
  • That costs way too much money.
  • That sounds like Adhiet.
  • That will run for an hour.
  • That should take some time to complete.
  • You can smell [that] from here.
  • Look at that!
  • Bring me that!
  • I heard that.
  • Dita wrote that.
  • Jessica selected that.
  • The boxes were stacked against that.
  • Is that right?
  • Is that Jim?
  • Did you see that?
  • Did you do that?
  • This is heavier than that.
  • This is Faiz speaking. Is that Caroline?

These dan Those sebagai pengganti plural nouns

These menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya dekat.

  • These are hilarious cartoons.
  • These are bad times.
  • These are ridiculous.
  • These are our children.
  • These are the perfect earrings.
  • These look good.
  • These look perfect.
  • These smell rotten.
  • I’ll buy these.
  • I’ll take these.
  • Do you like these?
  • Can Bridget locate these by the deadline?
  • Please read over these, and get back to me.

Those menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya jauh.

  • Those are ridiculous.
  • Those were the days!
  • Those are my shoes.
  • Those belong over there.
  • Those belong to Mutia.
  • Those considering a career in architecture must study engineering.
  • Mouldie brought those.
  • Do not paint those!
  • I own those.
  • Arie purchased those for the kids.
  • Marcella can play with those.
  • Can you see those?
  • Shall I take those?
  • Which of those would you like?
  • These are nicer than those.
  • These are bigger than those.