Transitive, Intransitive dan Linking Verbs (Kata Kerja Transitif, Intransitif dan Kata Kerja Penghubung)

Berdasarkan ada atau tidaknya object di dalam sebuah kalimat, verbs bisa dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu transitive dan intransitive verbs (kata kerja transitif dan intransitif).

Transitive verbs

Transitive verbs adalah verbs (kata kerja) yang melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object.

Catatan:

  • Direct object adalah object yang berupa nouns (kata benda) yang mendapatkan tindakan dari verbs. Direct object yang mengikuti transitive verbs biasanya menjelaskan atau menjawab mengenai pertanyaan apa (what) atau siapa (whom). Rumus: Subject + Transitive verb + direct object.

Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat dengan transitive verb (transitive verb diberi format bold dan direct object diberi format underline):

She played the piano
(transitive verb: played, direct object: the piano)

Pada contoh di atas, transitive verb “played” melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object “the piano“. Direct object “the piano” menjelaskan mengenai apa yang dilakukan oleh transitive verb “played“. Contoh lainnya:

  1. I admire your courage.
  2. That really annoys me.
  3. Richard annoys his boss so much that he’ll never get a promotion.
  4. He bought a book.
  5. Ahmad bought a new bicycle.
  6. I baked some cookies.
  7. Soraya borrowed the methodology book from her classmate because she forgot her copy.
  8. Emyliana brings Mrs. Cindy lunch every day.
  9. Please bring coffee.
  10. He closed the door.
  11. Rosiana conveyed the message.
  12. We cut the budget.
  13. He carried the bag.
  14. He caught the bus after the party.
  15. They climbed the mountain.
  16. She cut the cake.
  17. I caught a cold.
  18. The girls carry water to their village.
  19. They designated a hitter.
  20. The speaker discussed different marketing strategies in the video.
  21. My father doesn’t drink beer.
  22. Rabbits destroy my garden every day.
  23. We enjoyed the performance.
  24. I ate the cherries.
  25. Ricky eats cakes.
  26. She’s eating chocolate.
  27. Picky eats dozens of cakes.
  28. No amount of time can erase the memory of a good cat, and no amount of masking tape can ever totally remove his fur from your couch. (Leo Buscaglia, 1925-1998)
  29. She filled the cup.
  30. Donal gave the gift to his sister.
  31. He kicked the ball.
  32. The kids like pickles.
  33. She gave a cookie to the child.
  34. You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow – Jeff Valdez
  35. Puti kicked Lucky under the table.
  36. Bond killed the snake and ate it.
  37. My cat kills rabbits.
  38. The princess kissed a frog.
  39. I know the muffin man -Lord Farquaad, Shrek, 2001.
  40. Some of the children are learning English.
  41. She left the keys on the table.
  42. I like pie.
  43. We lost a daughter but gained a meathead -Archie Bunker in All in the Family, 1971.
  44. She loves rainbows.
  45. Do you love me?
  46. Danu loves pies.
  47. She loves animals.
  48. She makes hats.
  49. I moved the chair.
  50. We had been playing football.
  51. I punched Mickey Mantle in the mouth -Cosmo Kramer, Seinfeld
  52. We painted the old rocking chair.
  53. Could you phone the neighbors?
  54. He read a book.
  55. I rode the bicycle.
  56. The committee members will raise money for the new project.
  57. The company reduced the number of employees.
  58. Mary saw the eagle two days after it escaped.
  59. Have they sold their house yet?
  60. When I said that, my sister smacked me.
  61. The clock struck one.
  62. As the clock struck midnight, all the toys opened their eyes.
  63. A burglar stole my necklace.
  64. I stitched a quilt.
  65. Indra will send the price quote as soon as he can.
  66. Saputra sent a postcard from Australia.
  67. He told a joke.
  68. Haryo thanked Pandu.
  69. Imam threw the ball.
  70. Can fracking trigger earthquakes?
  71. The man tore the paper.
  72. Abdil wanted a new bicycle.
  73. I want candy.
  74. Kaisar wants a smile from Melissa, his beautiful but serious lab partner.
  75. We watched a movie last night.
  76. He wrote a poem.
  77. Nadia wrote a love poem on a restaurant napkin.

Ditransitive verbs

Transitive verbs bisa dibagi menjadi dua berdasarkan jumlah object yang dimiliki, yaitu monotransitive dan ditransitive verbs. Monotransitive verbs adalah verbs yang hanya dilengkapi dengan direct object sedangkan ditransitive verbs adalah verbs yang dilengkapi dengan direct object dan indirect object.

Catatan:

  • Indirect object adalah object yang mendapatkan atau memperoleh direct object yang letaknya sebelum direct object. Rumus: Subject + Transitive verb + indirect object + direct object.

Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat dengan ditransitive verb yang dilengkapi dengan direct dan indirect object (transitive verb diberi format bold, direct object diberi format underline dan indirect object diberi format italic):

Adis brought Imlati a glass of water.
(transitive verb: brought, direct object: a glass of water, indirect object: Imlati)

Pada contoh di atas, transitive verb “brought” melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object “a glass of water“. Direct object “a glass of water” menjelaskan mengenai apa yang dilakukan oleh transitive verb “brought“. Indirect object “Imlati“adalah object yang mendapatkan direct object “a glass of water“.

Contoh lainnya:

  1. My husband bought me some flowers.
  2. Anthony bought his new girlfriend some roses on her birthday.
  3. The police caught themselves a criminal.
  4. Find her a chair.
  5. Adyati gave Orig the pencil.
  6. Who gave her lawyers the information?
  7. Korentz gave his sister a laptop.
  8. The local council have granted us permission to open a shop.
  9. The bank won’t lend them any money.
  10. I lent him some money.
  11. Make me an offer.
  12. She offered him her car.
  13. Please pass me the rice.
  14. Can you read me the letter?
  15. He’s saving Diah a piece.
  16. He sent her a letter.
  17. They will serve the guests lunch at 12:20 pm.
  18. She showed the doctor her rash.
  19. Kid refused to show the teacher her homework.
  20. Who teaches him Japanese?

Transitive verb di dalam transitive verb

Pada beberapa kasus, transitive verb bisa muncul di dalam sebuah transitive verb. Contoh:

I loathe people who keep dogs. They are cowards who haven’t got the guts to bite people themselves.
I loathe people who keep dogs. They are cowards who haven’t got the guts to bite people themselves.

Pada kalimat pertama di atas terdapat verb dan direct object yaitu: “loathe” dan “people who keep dogs“. Di dalam direct object tersebut terdapat verb dan direct object lain yaitu: “keep” dan “dogs“.

You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow -Jeff Valdez
You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow -Jeff Valdez

Pada kalimat pertama di atas terdapat verb dan direct object yaitu: “get” dan “eight cats to pull a sled through snow. Di dalam direct object tersebut terdapat verb dan direct object lain yaitu: “to pull” dan “a sled“.

Intransitive verbs

Intransitive verbs adalah verbs (kata kerja) yang tidak memiliki atau membutuhkan direct object.

Contoh kalimat dengan intransitive verb (intransitive verb diberi format bold):

  1. The dog barked.
  2. The watchdogs bark.
  3. Were the dogs barking?
  4. The Wind blows.
  5. Our car broke down.
  6. The news hasn’t changed.
  7. The baby coughed.
  8. I cried.
  9. She cried.
  10. He died.
  11. The old woman died.
  12. They disappeared.
  13. He fainted.
  14. The book fell.
  15. The rain fell.
  16. The horse galloped.
  17. Nothing happened.
  18. My throat hurts.
  19. They jumped.
  20. He laughs.
  21. I laughed.
  22. He laughed.
  23. Ranggi laughed.
  24. The bystanders laughed.
  25. Sorry, but I have to leave.
  26. They napped.
  27. My dog ran.
  28. The dog ran.
  29. He ran.
  30. It rained.
  31. They run.
  32. The horse runs.
  33. She sang.
  34. The sun set.
  35. The sun shines.
  36. The building shook.
  37. The Child sleeps.
  38. She slept.
  39. Krisna smiled.
  40. The cat sneezed.
  41. I sneezed.
  42. He snores.
  43. It snows.
  44. The bus stopped.
  45. The stars twinkled.
  46. Every single person voted.
  47. Dira winked.

Kata atau frasa setelah intransitive verb

Walaupun intransitive verbs tidak bisa diikuti oleh object namun bisa diikuti oleh kata atau frasa (gabungan dua kata atau lebih) yang menjelaskan mengenai bagaimana sesuatu hal terjadi (how), dimana (where) atau kapan (when) yang berbentuk prepositional phrases (frasa preposisi) atau adverb (kata keterangan). Contoh:

  1. The train arrives at 4 pm.
  2. They arrived after the party.
  3. The students arrived at the residency in Bandung.
  4. We arrived home late at night.
  5. Huffing and puffing, we arrived at the classroom door with only seven seconds to spare.
  6. If Denia continues to be late for work, the boss will fire her.
  7. She coughed bitterly.
  8. Many of the students are not well. They coughed throughout the lesson.
  9. Someone was coughing loudly.
  10. She was crying all day long.
  11. Her car died suddenly last night.
  12. He died after a long illness.
  13. Flipped on its back, the beetle that Maryam soaked with insecticide dies under the refrigerator.
  14. He disappeared after the party.
  15. My dog dreams about chasing rabbits.
  16. Aso emigrated from Australia in 1998.
  17. Water evaporates when it’s hot.
  18. He fainted after lunch.
  19. Taufik fell on the ferry.
  20. When he finished the race, he vomited.
  21. You’ve grown since I last saw you!
  22. Attendance increased at the weekly study sessions as finals drew near.
  23. The children laughed heartily.
  24. They laughed uncontrollably.
  25. She laughed at the joke.
  26. They live in Jakarta.
  27. Indah lives on the west side of the city.
  28. To escape the midday sun, the cats lie in the shade under our cars.
  29. They ran down the road.
  30. It rained across the state.
  31. It was raining at that time.
  32. He was running too fast.
  33. The steamer sails this morning.
  34. In the evenings, Kania sits on the front porch to admire her immaculate lawn.
  35. The canary sings sweetly.
  36. They slept in the street.
  37. Around fresh ground pepper, Mutia sneezes with violence.
  38. That perfume smells nice.
  39. The sick child sneezed in my face.
  40. We talked for hours.
  41. Bluher voted for the incumbent in the local election.
  42. Bluher voted in the local election.
  43. I walked to the library.
  44. The president waved to the crowds.
  45. We went to the fair.
  46. Raymond went to the campus cafe for a steaming bowl of squid eyeball stew.
  47. I work for a large firm in Surabaya.

Ambitransitive verbs

Beberapa verbs seperti arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit dan die tidak mungkin diikuti oleh direct object sehingga selalu bersifat intransitive verbs. Sedangkan beberapa verbs lainnya bisa berfungsi sebagai transitive maupun intransitive verbs tergantung dari kalimatnya. Verbs yang bisa menjadi transitive maupun intransitive verbs disebut sebagai ambitransitive verbs. Contoh ambitransitive verbs:

Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
The boy broke the cup. My oven broke yesterday.
Marriage hasn’t changed her. The area’s changed greatly in the last decade.
They cheered the band. They cheered.
Close your eyes, I’ve got a surprise for you. Most shops here close at 8.30 pm.
We will continue the meeting after the break. The meeting continued after the break.
She dances the rhumba. She dances.
He demonstrated a karate chop to the class. The crowd demonstrated outside the theatre.
Have you done your coursework? Raymond’s doing well in his new job.
If there is no leftover spaghetti, Vidya usually eats whole-grain cereal. Because of blood sugar problems, Vidya always eats before leaving for school.
Heat evaporates water. Water evaporates when it’s hot.
You’ve grown a beard since I last saw you! You’ve grown since I last saw you.
She usually leaves the books on the table. The train sometimes leaves early on Saturday.
He left the gift on the table. After he cleaned up, he left.
Our cat lived till he was 7. He was living a life of luxury abroad.
Ms. Sherly manages the accounting department. Picky has had difficulty managing since his wife’s death.
Could you move your car please? The trees were moving in the breeze.
Open the window; it’s too hot in here! The library opens at 9 am.
Some man opened the window. The store opens early today.
He opened me a soda. The door opened.
My husband paid the mechanic. We already paid.
I paid the waiter for the broken glasses. The man behind you already paid.
My daughter painted her fingernails blue. The workers painted yesterday.
The apes played hide and seek in the woods. The apes played in the woods.
They are playing soccer. They’ve been playing all afternoon.
Four of the students play the guitar. The students will play outside today.
The workers protested their innocence in the street. The workers protested in the street.
He is reading a book. He reads at noon.
I read my newspaper. I always read in the garden.
Ahmad is reading a book. Ahmad is reading.
Pandu returned the book to the library. The students returned to school after the party.
Luthfi used to run a restaurant. The path ran over the hill.
In the summer, Abdil will run his first marathon. During cross-country practice, Abdil runs over hills, through fields, across the river, and along the highway.
She sang the national anthem at the airport. Urged by the others, she sang.
She sang a song. She sang.
The German U-boat sank the British ship. The boat sank.
Taufik set the documents down on the table. The sun set low over the Atlantic Ocean.
Chandra set a chair next to the bed. The sun was setting and a red glow filled the sky.
He’s been singing the national anthem all afternoon. He’s been singing all afternoon.
Heni was found guilty of starting the fire. The match starts at 4 pm.
Taufik tried to stop her from leaving. When the rain stopped, we went for a walk.
Krisna tripped Haryo. Krisna tripped.
We visited aunt Soraya. We visited.
Erika walks the dog for miles. Erika walks for miles.
Have you washed your hands? I washed, dressed, and went out.
Write your name here. Luthfi couldn’t read or write.

Bentuk pasif

Kalimat dengan transitive verbs bisa diubah menjadi bentuk pasif sedangkan kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak bisa.

Untuk mengubah sebuah kalimat dari bentuk aktif menjadi pasif maka kalimat tersebut harus membutuhkan sebuah object. Karena kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak memiliki object maka kalimat tersebut tidak bisa diubah menjadi bentuk pasif.

Contoh bentuk aktif dan pasif dari transitive verbs:

Aktif Pasif
The earthquake killed hundreds of people. Hundreds of people were killed by the earthquake.
Rian shot the bear. The bear was shot by Rian.
Thieves stole his car. His car was stolen.
Thomas Edison invented the light bulb. The light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison.
They sold some flowers. Some flowers were sold.
My cat caught a bird. A bird was caught by my cat.
Krisna thanked Wira. Wira was thanked by Krisna.
The bullet penetrated a tree. A tree was penetrated by the bullet.
Firman painted that portrait. That portrait was painted by Firman.
The doctor had saved the child. The child had been saved by the doctor.

Perbedaan transitive dan intransitive verbs

Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
  • Transitive verbs adalah verbs yang melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object.
  • Kalimat dengan transitive verbs bisa memiliki bentuk pasif
  • Intransitive verbs adalah verbs yang tidak memiliki atau membutuhkan direct object.
  • Kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak bisa memiliki bentuk passive

Linking verbs (Kata kerja penghubung)

Linking verbs (kata kerja penghubung) adalah verbs yang bisa digolongkan ke dalam intransitive verbs karena linking verbs tidak memiliki object.

Lingking verbs atau yang disebut juga copula atau copular verbs berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject dengan predicate (predikat) yang berupa adjectives (kata sifat) atau nouns (kata benda) yang menjelaskan mengenai subject tersebut.

Kata atau frasa (gabungan dua kata atau lebih) yang terletak setelah linking verbs disebut sebagai subject complement (pelengkap subjek).

Ada banyak kata yang termasuk ke dalam linking verbs, namun beberapa yang umum yaitu:

  • Verb be dan have (am, is, is being, are, are being, was, was being, were, will be, has, has been, have been, will have been, might have been, had been)
  • Verbs yang berkaitan dengan indra (look, feel, smell, sound, taste)
  • Verb become (become, becomes, became, has become, have become, had become, will become, will have become)
  • Verb seem (seemed, seeming, seems, has seemed, have seemed, had seemed, will seem)
  • Lainnya (act, appear, come, constitute, equal, form, get, go, grow, keep, make, measure, prove, represent, stay, turn, remain)

Contoh kalimat dengan linking verbs:

My sister is a doctor.
(Subject: My sister, linking verbs: is, noun: a doctor)

Pada contoh di atas, verb “is” tidak melakukan tindakan terhadap object sehingga verb “is” tidak bisa digolongkan ke dalam transitive verbs. Verb “is” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject “My sister” dan noun “a doctor” sehingga bisa disebut sebagai linking verbs.

Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas tidak mendapatkan tindakan dari verb sehingga tidak bisa digolongkan sebagai direct object. Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menerangkan mengenai subject “My sister” sehingga disebut sebagai subject complement.

Contoh lainnya:

  1. I am a teacher.
  2. I am the postman!
  3. I am feeling thirsty.
  4. I am glad it is Saturday.
  5. Farah is a doctor.
  6. Juni is a teacher.
  7. Cindy is a shopaholic.
  8. She is a nurse.
  9. Nastiti is a nurse.
  10. Mr. Shandi is our teacher.
  11. His father is a farmer.
  12. Yogie is my boyfriend.
  13. My dog is an Akita.
  14. My sister is happy.
  15. Myra is happy.
  16. Iesa is nice.
  17. My sister is at home.
  18. The car is green.
  19. My cat is very furry.
  20. Adib is excited about his promotion.
  21. Cynthia is excited about her new bike.
  22. This project is a disaster.
  23. I think the sun is rising.
  24. The moon is in outer space.
  25. Andrea is the manager of the office.
  26. He is the best soccer player in the world.
  27. The sky is blue.
  28. The ball is red.
  29. The soup is salty.
  30. Martin is fond of spicy food.
  31. My birds are hungry.
  32. We are the champions!
  33. The fireworks are amazing!
  34. Clocks are helpful.
  35. The new neighbors are both engineers.
  36. The children are smart.
  37. They are teachers.
  38. Your friends are here.
  39. The pens are black.
  40. We are dismayed about the foreclosure.
  41. The milk has gone sour.
  42. Your brother might be disappointed if you don’t go.
  43. Mega might have been more forthcoming with the news.
  44. His uncle was the headmaster.
  45. Our neighbour was a strange man.
  46. The cat was friendly.
  47. The cat was playful.
  48. The play was good.
  49. She was great in her new performance.
  50. Qiqi was at the theater.
  51. The weather was accommodating and the party continued.
  52. Tuty was a runner.
  53. The roads were slippery after the snowstorm.
  54. My best friend were late to the party.
  55. After the oil spill, the roads were slippery.
  56. All the kittens were playful.
  57. Satri will be 30 in October.
  58. Riding in a car will be safer with a seat belt.
  59. The child will be tall seven years from now.
  60. Sometimes, kids act foolish.
  61. My little brother acts crazy sometimes.
  62. Satri acted nervous when the teacher found the note.
  63. Her explanation did not appear plausible.
  64. Your brother appears ill today.
  65. She appears upset about the announcement.
  66. They appeared satisfied with the news.
  67. A flaw in the design appeared to be the cause of the collapse.
  68. My father became a locksmith.
  69. He became a taxi driver.
  70. He became uncomfortable when he saw the safe was open.
  71. They became curious of the man standing across the road.
  72. The dog became thin after his surgery.
  73. Dreams come true when we believe in them.
  74. I feel happy today.
  75. I feel ill.
  76. I feel unwell.
  77. I feel refreshed after that nap.
  78. I feel worthy when the boss compliments me.
  79. Andika feels sick.
  80. Fanny feels feverish.
  81. Rakhmi always feels sleepy after pigging out on pizza from Antonio’s.
  82. I felt ashamed yesterday.
  83. We felt sad that the holiday was over.
  84. Adit felt thankful after eating the whole pizza.
  85. The crowd fell silent when the concert began.
  86. The audience fell silent when the conductor walked on stage.
  87. Most children get cranky when they are sleepy.
  88. The theater gets dark when the show is about to begin.
  89. The police department is getting tough on crime.
  90. Some couples are lucky enough to grow old together.
  91. Endah grew tired during the concert.
  92. He grew tired of running.
  93. You look exhausted after studying all night.
  94. She looks fine.
  95. Yoga looks very happy.
  96. Saras looks very tired.
  97. She looks tired today.
  98. The students looked tired.
  99. Everyone looked happy.
  100. The vegetables in the bin looked disgusting and spoiled.
  101. The result of the test remains unknown.
  102. She remains puzzled, even though it has been three years since he left.
  103. Hillary remained single for the rest of her life.
  104. The spectators remained seated after the injury on the field.
  105. All the children seem satisfied with the bouncy castle.
  106. Wahyu seems drunk.
  107. The cat seems fine.
  108. She seems a nice girl.
  109. She seems mad.
  110. A ten-item quiz seems impossibly long after a night of no studying.
  111. He seems confused.
  112. The Dalai Lama seems like a nice guy.
  113. Adji seemed sad after the game.
  114. The eggs smell rotten.
  115. The soup smells delicious.
  116. That pumpkin pie smells good.
  117. That food smells delicious.
  118. The cake smells good.
  119. The rose smells nice.
  120. Your plans for the wedding sound nice.
  121. His voice sounds flat.
  122. That film sounds scary.
  123. The movie sounds interesting.
  124. That sounds fantastic.
  125. The music sounds good.
  126. The crowd stayed calm in spite of the imminent threat.
  127. The cinnamon rolls taste great.
  128. Her soup tastes like burnt socks.
  129. This soup tastes awful.
  130. The pie tastes heavenly.
  131. This spaghetti tastes good.
  132. This cake tastes amazing.
  133. Milk tastes delicious.
  134. The coffee tasted sweet.
  135. The pizza tasted good.
  136. The milk will turn sour if you leave it.
  137. If left too long, that milk may turn sour.
  138. The embers turn ashy as they cool.
  139. After drinking the old milk, Wira turned green.

Tidak semua verbs yang ada di dalam daftar linking verbs yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya selalu bersifat linking verbs. Ada beberapa verbs yang bisa berubah menjadi transitive, intransitive ataupun linking verbs tergantung dari kalimat yang digunakan. Contoh:

  • Transitive: I grow coconuts (verb “grow” adalah transitive verb karena verb “grow” melakukan sesuatu terhadap direct object “coconuts”)
  • Intransitive: Roses grow slowly (verb “grow” adalah intransitive verbs karena verb “grow” tidak melakukan tindakan apapun dan kalimat tidak dilengkapi dengan direct object).
  • Linking: The sky grew dark (verb “grew” adalah linking verb karena verb “grew” tidak melakukan tindakan apapun terhadap object, verb “grew” pada kalimat ini hanya berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject “The sky” dan predicate “dark”)

Pada contoh di atas, verb “grow” bisa menjadi transitive, intransitive ataupun linking verbs. Contoh lainnya:

Transitive verbs Linking verbs
The students will feel the fabric. The fabric will feel soft.
The gardener grew some flowers. The woman grew silent.
Remain here while I go ask Dian about time management. Dian’s theory about time management remains untested.
He smells the coffee. Wira smells awful.
Ratih smells the cake. The cake smells delicious!
She tasted the delicious spaghetti sauce. The spaghetti sauce tasted delicious.
They tasted the food. The food tastes delicious.
Would you taste that soup for me? The soup tastes spicier than usual.
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Active dan Passive Verbs (Kata Kerja Aktif dan Pasif)

Kalimat aktif adalah jika subject yang melakukan tindakan sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah jika bukan subject yang melakukan tindakan. Kata kerja (verbs) yang ada di dalam kalimat aktif disebut sebagai active verbs (kata kerja aktif) sedangkan yang berada di dalam kalimat pasif disebut sebagai passive verbs (kata kerja pasif).

Contoh kata kerja aktif:

The man baked a pancake.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (the man) yang melakukan tindakan membuat kue (pancake). Kata kerja aktif: baked.

  1. Luthfie baked a big cake.
  2. Brazil beat Italy in the final.
  3. Someone has cleaned the windows.
  4. Imam climbed the ladder.
  5. He can not decide what to do.
  6. Haryo was eating an apple.
  7. Abdil hit the tree with his stick.
  8. The man jumped off the step.
  9. I actually love pancake!
  10. Ranggi opened the present.
  11. The actors had performed the play by Shakespeare.
  12. The boy picked up the coin.
  13. The boys pushed the tree over.
  14. The staff is required to watch a safety video every month.
  15. A stone smashed the window.
  16. Somebody stole my laptop.
  17. The professor teaches the students.
  18. Krisna told Aso a lie.
  19. The murderer used a knife.
  20. Taufik was watching the birds.
  21. She was walking to the park.
  22. The girl was washing the dog.

Contoh kata kerja pasif:

A pancake was baked by the man.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (a pancake) bukanlah yang melakukan tindakan. Kata kerja pasif: was baked.

  1. A babysitter has to be arranged for this evening.
  2. Ranggi’s travel plans have to be arranged by September.
  3. The cookies were baked Saturday.
  4. France was beaten in the final.
  5. She was born into a wealthy family.
  6. A bridge is going to be built within the next three years.
  7. New houses are going to be built in our neighborhood.
  8. Are they cleaned regularly?
  9. The windows have been cleaned
  10. Will they not be dismissed?
  11. The car had been driven into a wall by the thief.
  12. A trap was devised to catch the murderer.
  13. They will never be employed by us.
  14. The candles were extinguished as we rushed to the scream.
  15. The car was fixed.
  16. Haven’t they been forgotten?
  17. Lucky was given a warning.
  18. A scream was heard coming from across the house.
  19. All the employees had hired before the store opened.
  20. The new manager had been hired before Raymond left the company.
  21. The victims were hospitalized immediately.
  22. We were invited to Orig and Dini’s wedding.
  23. Ricky was invited to speak at the conference.
  24. The football was kicked by Picky.
  25. The milk had been knocked over by a cat.
  26. The car will have been loaded by the time he gets home.
  27. Rizki is loved by Eka.
  28. The egg was laid by the bird.
  29. The knife was left on the table by Erika.
  30. The crime was illuminated shortly by flashes of lightning.
  31. The crates will have been loaded by then.
  32. Wine is made from grapes.
  33. She had been murdered.
  34. Is he not notified immediately?
  35. You are not paid to watch TV.
  36. When your order is shipped, we will send you a confirmation email.
  37. Everyone was startled by the power outage.
  38. That start-up has been sold for $3 million.
  39. The rights to his book have been sold for $750,000.
  40. Has your wallet been stolen?
  41. The room was strewn with books and magazines.
  42. The contract will be signed next week.
  43. The documents will all be signed by tomorrow.
  44. The document is being sent right now.
  45. A knife was used to commit the murder.
  46. The phone was being used by Mr Saputra.
  47. A safety video will be watched by the staff every month.
  48. The windows had been washed.
  49. Their cars were being washed while they were in the mall shopping.
  50. The dog was being washed by the girl.
  51. The dog was being washed when I got home.

Dalam kalimat pasif, orang atau pihak yang melakukan aksi atau tindakan disebut sebagai agent. Jika kita ingin menunjukkan orang atau pihak yang melakukan tindakan dalam sebuah kalimat pasif maka kita bisa menggunakan kata by. Contoh:

  1. He was attacked by a dangerous dog.
  2. Lieutenant B was caught by the brilliant detective A.
  3. The Pancake was eaten by Carya.
  4. The card was made by Donal.
  5. The picture was painted by Korentz.
  6. The area is mainly populated by families with small children.
  7. The money was stolen by her husband.
  8. The students are taught by the professor.

Kalimat pasif bisa di dapatkan dengan menambahkan verb be dan past participle. Contoh:

  1. Our computers were being attacked by hackers.
  2. They are being bullied.
  3. His mother had been brought up in England.
  4. The windows have been cleaned.
  5. The work will be finished soon.
  6. They might have been invited to the party
  7. Have you been interviewed for many jobs?
  8. Arrangements will be made to move them to other locations.
  9. Dinner was being served.
  10. All the merchandise will have been shipped by next week.
  11. English is spoken all over the world.
  12. He is taken to school by his mum.
  13. We were told not to touch anything.

Terkadang verb get juga bisa digunakan untuk mendapatkan kalimat pasif. Contoh:

  1. Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.
  2. Indra got hurt in a crash.
  3. Brazil got beaten by France.

Cara mengubah kalimat aktif yang memiliki indirect object menjadi kalimat pasif adalah dengan menjadikan indirect object tersebut menjadi subject pada kalimat pasif. Contoh:

Aktif: I gave him a book for his birthday (verb: gave, indirect object: him)
Pasif: He was given a book for his birthday (verb: was given)

Pada contoh di atas, indirect object (him) pada kalimat pertama menjadi subject (He) pada kalimat kedua. Contoh lainnya:

Aktif: Someone sent her a cheque for a hundred euros (verb: sent, indirect object: her)
Pasif: She was sent a cheque for a hundred euros (verb: was sent)

Kalimat pasif lebih susah dimengerti buat pembaca dibandingkan dengan kalimat aktif karena memiliki lebih banyak kata. Untuk mengurangi kata yang terlalu banyak dalam sebuah tulisan kita bisa mengubah beberapa kalimat pasif menjadi kalimat aktif. Contoh:

  • Pasif: At dinner, five shrimp were eaten by Alim.
  • Aktif: Alim ate five shrimp at dinner.
  • Pasif: All the pies were eaten by Iman.
  • Aktif: Iman ate all the pies.
  • Pasif: The last cookie was eaten by whom?
  • Aktif: Who ate the last cookie?
  • Pasif: Cheese was eaten by Rati.
  • Aktif: Rati ate the cheese.
  • Pasif: The students questions are always answered by the teacher.
  • Aktif: The teacher always answers the students questions.
  • Pasif: May you be blessed with happiness!
  • Aktif: May God bless you with happiness!
  • Pasif: A diamond necklace was bought by her.
  • Aktif: She bought a diamond necklace.
  • Pasif: A house is being built by them.
  • Aktif: They are building a house.
  • Pasif: A house was built by him
  • Aktif: He built a house
  • Pasif: A house has been built by him
  • Aktif: He has built a house
  • Pasif: A house will be built by him
  • Aktif: He will build a house
  • Pasif: It might be bought.
  • Aktif: Somebody might buy it.
  • Pasif: A new bridge was built by the government.
  • Aktif: The government built a new bridge.
  • Pasif: For the bake sale, three dozen cookies will be baked by Ratih.
  • Aktif: Ratih will bake three dozen cupcakes for the bake sale.
  • Pasif: Dinner is cooked by someone every day.
  • Aktif: Somebody cooks dinner every day.
  • Pasif: The room will be cleaned by Wira every Saturday.
  • Aktif: Wira will clean the room every Saturday.
  • Pasif: The house will be cleaned by me every Monday.
  • Aktif: I will clean– the house every Monday.
  • Pasif: The project will have been completed before the deadline.
  • Aktif: They will have completed the project before the deadline.
  • Pasif: The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
  • Aktif: They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
  • Pasif: The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater.
  • Aktif: The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams.
  • Pasif: The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch.
  • Aktif: The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch.
  • Pasif: The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow.
  • Aktif: The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow.
  • Pasif: The flat tire was changed by Dyota.
  • Aktif: Dyota changed the flat tire.
  • Pasif: Once a week, the house is cleaned by Adji.
  • Aktif: Once a week, Adji cleans the house.
  • Pasif: The ballots were counted by the volunteers.
  • Aktif: The volunteers counted the ballots.
  • Pasif: Recently, the work has been being done by Bhuana.
  • Aktif: Recently, Bhuana has been doing the work.
  • Pasif: I don’t want to be disturbed.
  • Aktif: I dont want anyone to disturb me.
  • Pasif: The town was destroyed by fire.
  • Aktif: Fire destroyed the town.
  • Pasif: The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire.
  • Aktif: The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb.
  • Pasif: Water is drunk by everybody.
  • Aktif: Everybody drinks water.
  • Pasif: The fishing rig was designed by Indrawan.
  • Aktif: Indrawan designed the fishing rig.
  • Pasif: Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Glen.
  • Aktif: Glen generously donated money to the homeless shelter.
  • Pasif: Reading is enjoyed by Nurul.
  • Aktif: Nurul enjoys reading.
  • Pasif: That piece is really enjoyed by the choir.
  • Aktif: The choir really enjoys that piece.
  • Pasif: I saw it being eaten by the cat.
  • Aktif: I saw the cat eating it.
  • Pasif: Grapes are being eaten by the child.
  • Aktif: The child is eating bananas.
  • Pasif: The cat was fed by me.
  • Aktif: I fed the cat.
  • Pasif: The jar is filled with sand.
  • Aktif: Sand filled the jar.
  • Pasif: The work will be finished by 7:00 PM.
  • Aktif: Someone will finish the work by 7:00 PM.
  • Pasif: I knew the work would be finished by 7:00 PM.
  • Aktif: I knew John would finish the work by 7:00 PM.
  • Pasif: The job has been finished by me.
  • Aktif: I have finished the job.
  • Pasif: My work having been finished, I went home.
  • Aktif: Having finished my work, I went home.
  • Pasif: My phone wasn’t fixed yesterday.
  • Aktif: They didn’t fix my phone yesterday.
  • Pasif: He ought to be forgiven.
  • Aktif: They ought to forgive him.
  • Pasif: She wasn’t sure how long she’d been being followed.
  • Aktif: She wasn’t sure how long they’d been following her.
  • Pasif: The application for a new job was faxed by her.
  • Aktif: She faxed her application for a new job.
  • Pasif: Instructions will be given to you by the manager.
  • Aktif: The manager will give you instructions.
  • Pasif: The ball is hit by Maya.
  • Aktif: Maya hits the ball.
  • Pasif: He will be hanged at dawn.
  • Aktif: They will hang him at dawn.
  • Pasif: Bunga’s being helped by Ado.
  • Aktif: Ado’s helping Bunga.
  • Pasif: The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
  • Aktif: The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
  • Pasif: You could have been badly hurt.
  • Aktif: It could have badly hurt you.
  • Pasif: I wondered why I hadn’t been invited.
  • Aktif: I wondered why they hadn’t invited me.
  • Pasif: The lion was killed by the hunter.
  • Aktif: The hunter killed the lion.
  • Pasif: Anindya’s schedule was kept meticulously.
  • Aktif: Anindya kept her schedule meticulously.
  • Pasif: If you told me, your secret would be kept.
  • Aktif: If you told me, I would keep your secret.
  • Pasif: I have a feeling that a secret may be being kept.
  • Aktif: I have a feeling that you may be keeping a secret.
  • Pasif: His training regimen had been kept up for a month.
  • Aktif: He had kept up his training regimen for a month.
  • Pasif: Your bicycle would have been kept here if you had left it with me.
  • Aktif: I would have kept your bicycle here if you had left it with me.
  • Pasif: The bird, having been kept in a cage for so long, might not survive in the wild.
  • Aktif: Having kept the bird in a cage for so long, Maya wasn’t sure it could survive in the wild.
  • Pasif: A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Diah tonight.
  • Aktif: Diah is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
  • Pasif: I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Dira tonight.
  • Aktif: I thought Dira was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
  • Pasif: All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner.
  • Aktif: The wedding planner is making all the reservations.
  • Pasif: The pies would always be made by my mother.
  • Aktif: My mother would always make the pies.
  • Pasif: The cows will be moved after tea by the farm-hands.
  • Aktif: The farm-hands will move the cows after tea.
  • Pasif: The tin of tuna fish was opened by Dewi.
  • Aktif: Dewi opened the tin of tuna fish.
  • Pasif: The servant was punished by the master.
  • Aktif: The master punished the servant.
  • Pasif: How is his name pronounced?
  • Aktif: How does one pronounce his name?
  • Pasif: I insisted on being paid.
  • Aktif: I insisted on them paying me.
  • Pasif: The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew.
  • Aktif: The crew paved the entire stretch of highway.
  • Pasif: The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Aditya for two years before he moved to Paris.
  • Aktif: Chef Aditya had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
  • Pasif: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo Da Vinci.
  • Aktif: Leonaro Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.
  • Pasif: The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Aktif: The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Pasif: The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Aktif: The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Pasif: The entire house was painted by Adhit.
  • Aktif: Adhit painted the entire house.
  • Pasif: The five apples were paid by me.
  • Aktif: I paid for five apples.
  • Pasif: The bills used to be paid by Yoga.
  • Aktif: Yoga used to pay the bills.
  • Pasif: The video was posted on Facebook by Dika.
  • Aktif: Dika posted the video on Facebook.
  • Pasif: He can be questioned for two hours.
  • Aktif: They can question him for two hours.
  • Pasif: He won’t be being questioned when you get there.
  • Aktif: They won’t be questioning him when you get there.
  • Pasif: The novel was read by Mom in one day.
  • Aktif: Mom read the novel in one day.
  • Pasif: The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell.
  • Aktif: The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell.
  • Pasif: The papers say he may be released.
  • Aktif: The papers say they may release him.
  • Pasif: My sales ad was not responded to by anyone.
  • Aktif: No one responded to my sales ad.
  • Pasif: Sugar cane is raised by some people in Indonesia.
  • Aktif: Some people raise sugar cane in Indonesia.
  • Pasif: The obstacle course was run by me in record time.
  • Aktif: I ran the obstacle course in record time.
  • Pasif: The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes.
  • Aktif: Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah.
  • Pasif: Your car will have been repaired by 4pm.
  • Aktif: They will have repaired your car by 4pm.
  • Pasif: The car was repaired by Budi.
  • Aktif: Budi repaired the car.
  • Pasif: Many cars had been repaired by Rian before he received his mechanic’s license.
  • Aktif: Rian had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
  • Pasif: The printer cartridge was replaced by the engineer.
  • Aktif: The engineer replaced the printer cartridge.
  • Pasif: Dinner has been served.
  • Aktif: Kid has served dinner.
  • Pasif: The treaty is being signed by the three kings.
  • Aktif: The three kings are signing the treaty.
  • Pasif: Spanish is spoken by more than 200 million people worldwide.
  • Aktif: More than 200 million people speak Spanish.
  • Pasif: The report was sent yesterday.
  • Aktif: I sent the report yesterday.
  • Pasif: My purse had been stolen by somebody.
  • Aktif: Somebody had stolen– my purse
  • Pasif: Is Thriller going to be sung at the party?
  • Aktif: Is he going to sing Thriller at the party?
  • Pasif: English is taught by him.
  • Aktif: He teaches English.
  • Pasif: I should have been told.
  • Aktif: You should have told me.
  • Pasif: The matter will be taken forward by Kaisar.
  • Aktif: Kaisar will take the matter forward.
  • Pasif: It seems to have been taken.
  • Aktif: They seem to have taken it.
  • Pasif: Everything used to be taken care of by Wahyu.
  • Aktif: Wahyu used to take care of everything.
  • Pasif: She’ll have been being treated for exactly two months tomorrow.
  • Aktif: They’ll have been treating her for exactly two months tomorrow.
  • Pasif: The flowers were trampled by the dog.
  • Aktif: The dog trampled the flowers.
  • Pasif: A movie is going to be watched by us tonight.
  • Aktif: We are going to watch a movie tonight.
  • Pasif: That house has been being watched for weeks.
  • Aktif: The police have been watching that house for weeks.
  • Pasif: A letter is being written by her.
  • Aktif: She is writing a letter.
  • Pasif: Right now, the letter is being written by Della.
  • Aktif: Right now, Della is writing the letter.
  • Pasif: A book was being written by him.
  • Aktif: He was writing a book.
  • Pasif: A letter was written to Bluher by Pandu.
  • Aktif: Pandu wrote a letter to Bluher.
  • Pasif: By whom was this letter written?
  • Aktif: Who wrote this letter?
  • Pasif: A scathing review was written by the critic.
  • Aktif: The critic wrote a scathing review.
  • Pasif: A green shirt was worn by him.
  • Aktif: He wore a green shirt.
  • Pasif: Seat belts must be worn.
  • Aktif: Passengers must wear seat belts.
  • Pasif: At 9:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
  • Aktif: At 9:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
  • Pasif: At 9:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by Danu.
  • Aktif: At 9:00 PM tonight, Danu will be washing the dishes.
  • Pasif: The comet was viewed by the science class.
  • Aktif: The science class viewed the comet.
  • Pasif: The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year.
  • Aktif: Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year.
  • Pasif: That castle has been visited by many tourists.
  • Aktif: Many tourists have visited that castle.
  • Pasif: Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew.
  • Aktif: The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night.

Dalam beberapa kasus, untuk mengubah kalimat pasif menjadi aktif kita harus menambahkan subject. Contoh:

  • Pasif: The engine was fixed.
  • Aktif: He fixed the engine.

Pada contoh di atas, subject (He) harus ditambahkan ke dalam kalimat untuk mengubah kalimat pasif menjadi aktif. Contoh lainnya:

  • Pasif: Fish that are not popular in the restaurants are discarded.
  • Aktif: They discard the fish that are not popular in the restaurants.
  • Pasif: He was being interrogated when I called.
  • Aktif: They were interrogating him when I called.
  • Pasif: The ficus will be kept.
  • Aktif: Deo will keep the ficus.
  • Pasif: My house is being kept tidy.
  • Aktif: Bluher is keeping my house tidy.
  • Pasif: The puppy was happy to have been kept.
  • Aktif: Maya was happy to have kept the puppy.
  • Pasif: A seat was being kept for you.
  • Aktif: The theater was keeping a seat for you.
  • Pasif: All your old letters have been kept.
  • Aktif: I have kept all your old letters.
  • Pasif: The book wants to be kept.
  • Aktif: She wants to keep the book.
  • Pasif: The butter is kept in the fridge.
  • Aktif: I keep the butter in the fridge.
  • Pasif: The map had been misplaced.
  • Aktif: Aso misplaced the map.
  • Pasif: The crowbar was used to open the window.
  • Aktif: The burglar used a crowbar to open the window.
  • Pasif: The dishes are washed.
  • Aktif: Abe washed the dishes.

Dua cara menggunakan verbs ini (aktif dan pasif) disebut sebagai voices. Dalam penggunaan sehari-hari, kalimat aktif lebih sering digunakan. Sedangkan kalimat pasif hanya digunakan untuk beberapa situasi tertentu atau untuk memberi penekanan bahwa tindakan yang dilakukan lebih penting daripada orang yang melakukannya. Berikut ini adalah beberapa situasi kalimat pasif digunakan:

  1. Untuk melaporkan sebuah peristiwa kejahatan yang pelakunya belum diketahui, polisi biasanya menulis “the bank was robbed”.
  2. Pembawa acara berita melaporkan peristiwa kejahatan dalam bentuk pasif untuk menghilangkan penekanan pada pelaku tindakan seperti: “Police are being notified that three prisoners have escaped”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya “The dispatcher is notifying police that three prisoners have escaped”.
  3. Untuk mengaburkan orang yang bertanggung jawab, politisi biasanya menulis “Mistakes were made” atau “Shots were fired”.
  4. Untuk dokumen-dokumen formal seperti laporan penelitian. Contoh: “The results were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association” atau “A fair grading system was found to be important to all students”.
  5. Penulis novel misteri biasanya menulis dalam pasif voice seperti: “the jewels were taken” untuk lebih memfokuskan pada peristiwa yang terjadi.
  6. Pelaku bisnis menggunakan pasif voice supaya sebuah kalimat tidak terlihat begitu memaksa dengan menulis “Your service will be shut off”. Bandingkan dengan aktif voice yang terlihat lebih memaksa “We are going to shut off your service”.
  7. Untuk lebih menekankan pada penerima tindakan dibandingkan pelaku tindakan. Contoh: “President Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya: “Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy”.
  8. Untuk digunakan dalam pengumuman: “Passengers are reminded to fasten their seatbelts”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya: “The Captain reminds passengers to fasten their seatbelts”.

Reflexive dan Intensive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Refleksif dan Penegasan)

Reflexive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Refleksif)

Reflexive pronouns digunakan untuk merujuk kepada subject sebuah kalimat yang melakukan sesuatu kepada subject itu sendiri.

Kata yang termasuk reflexive pronouns yaitu:

  • Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
  • Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Contoh:

I saw myself in the mirror.
myself merujuk kepada I, Aku melihat diriku sendiri

Widya still does not trust herself.
herself merujuk kepada Widya, Widya tidak percaya sama dirinya sendiri

  1. I hurt myself.
  2. I really hurt myself this morning when I fell down the stairs.
  3. Teguh hurt himself while he was fixing his car.
  4. He hurt himself on the rusty nail and had to get a shot.
  5. He hurt himself playing hockey.
  6. Dian hurt herself.
  7. My dog hurt itself.
  8. Don’t touch that electric wire. You will hurt yourself.
  9. I enjoyed myself at the concert.
  10. She enjoyed herself at the party.
  11. We enjoyed ourselves during the picnic.
  12. I made myself a sandwich.
  13. You can make yourselves at home.
  14. My brother made himself some dinner.
  15. She made herself a pullover.
  16. She made herself a cup of tea and sat down in front of the television.
  17. We ate so much turkey and pumpkin pie that we made ourselves sick.
  18. We do not always make ourselves practice what we preach.
  19. I bought myself a new pair of sunglasses for our trip to the beach.
  20. Wira bought himself a shirt.
  21. Ratie bought herself a new pair of shoes.
  22. She bought herself a new purse for her new job.
  23. The queen bought herself a dog.
  24. You should buy yourself a new computer.
  25. At 12.30, Ratih and I went to the cafeteria to buy ourselves some lunch.
  26. We bought ourselves pretzels at the fair.
  27. My sister and I bought ourselves popcorn at the movie.
  28. You can help yourselves to drinks.
  29. Can you help yourselves?
  30. Krisna blames himself.
  31. He blames himself for the accident.
  32. Why do you blame yourself?
  33. We blame ourselves.
  34. We blame ourselves for the results of the election.
  35. They blame themselves for the accident, because they didn’t pay attention to road signs.
  36. Parents often blame themselves for the way their children behave.
  37. I saw myself reflected in her eyes.
  38. I saw myself as a famous actor.
  39. When I saw myself in the mirror, I realized that I had paint on my cheek.
  40. When I saw myself in the mirror, I was horrified, there was red paint on my nose!
  41. The puppy saw itself in the mirror.
  42. It saw itself in the mirror.
  43. What happens when a fighting fish sees itself in the mirror?
  44. She looks at herself in the mirror.
  45. She looked at herself in the mirror for hours.
  46. She looked at herself in the bathroom mirror.
  47. The girl looked at herself in the mirror.
  48. They cannot look after themselves.
  49. Iman sent himself a copy.
  50. Dyota sent herself a copy.
  51. He cut himself on the broken glass.
  52. Anna accidentally cut herself.
  53. You cut yourself while cutting tomatoes.
  54. He accidentally cut himself while he was chopping the vegetables.
  55. I gave myself 12 weeks to get in shape.
  56. I gave myself plenty of time to get to work.
  57. The cat gave itself a bath.
  58. The girls gave themselves enough time to finish the project.
  59. I will give myself five days to finish that job.
  60. Della and her husband own their own company, so they can give themselves a holiday any time they like.
  61. We treated ourselves to a night on the town.
  62. We treated ourselves to pizza.
  63. They cannot help themselves.
  64. You helped yourselves to more ice cream.
  65. You may help yourself to any of the snacks on the table.
  66. You fellows can help yourselves to the drinks.
  67. We helped ourselves to the free drinks at the launch party.
  68. Would you like to help yourself to another drink?
  69. We asked ourselves if the new system would actually work.
  70. We often ask ourselves why we left London.
  71. Have you asked yourselves why you are here?
  72. My grandmother is no longer able to feed herself, so I help her.
  73. Can you feed yourselves?
  74. The soccer team decided to call themselves the Viking.
  75. The band call themselves “Electric”.
  76. I taught myself how to speak English, I never had a teacher.
  77. I taught myself to play the guitar.
  78. We taught ourselves French.
  79. I used a video to teach myself how to knit.
  80. Did you take a class in engineering, or did you teach yourself?
  81. Can I ask you a question, Adji? Did you go to classes to learn German, or did you teach yourself?
  82. The dog scratched itself.
  83. The dog had fleas and was scratching itself the whole day!
  84. The dog is scratching itself, it must have fleas!
  85. They think of themselves as upstanding members of the community.
  86. Adit promised himself to work harder next semester.
  87. Misbah promised herself a reward for her hard work.
  88. My cat always licks itself.
  89. One of the dogs spent hours licking itself.
  90. The terrorist shot himself.
  91. He shot himself.
  92. I was in a hurry, so I washed the car myself.
  93. Look! There’s a little bird washing itself in the river.
  94. I like myself.
  95. I cannot bring myself to do it.
  96. I burnt myself on the stove this morning.
  97. I often quote myself. It adds spice to my conversation.
  98. I introduced myself to my new neighbor.
  99. I consider myself fortunate to have escaped before the house collapsed.
  100. I had to content myself with a few Euros.
  101. If you don’t know what is wrong with yourself, then ask a doctor.
  102. You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
  103. You should let yourself into the house.
  104. When you save money in the bank, it’s like you are paying yourself.
  105. Kaisar e-mailed himself a copy of the report.
  106. He has landed himself in great trouble.
  107. If he wasn’t always pushing himself at the gym, he wouldn’t be so buff.
  108. He tried to be himself and not be like Michael Jackson all the time
  109. He found himself lying by the side of the road.
  110. He busied himself in the kitchen.
  111. She applied herself to the job of mending the lights.
  112. Because she wanted to be like her sister, Tri forced herself to practice each day.
  113. She cooked herself a quiche.
  114. She baked herself a birthday cake.
  115. She thumped herself.
  116. The old woman poisoned herself.
  117. Maya poured herself a glass of milk.
  118. The parrot admired itself in the mirror for several hours each day.
  119. The kitten groomed itself.
  120. The cat chocked itself.
  121. A house divided against itself cannot stand.
  122. The television uses a timer to turn itself off after one hour.
  123. Without strong steel architecture, the building would collapse in on itself.
  124. We often deceive ourselves.
  125. The students are able to monitor themselves.
  126. The boys hid themselves.
  127. The boys hid themselves behind the door.
  128. They believed in themselves.
  129. They have got themselves into a mess.
  130. Some people are so full of themselves.
  131. They injured themselves during the rugby match.
  132. The new robotic toys can put themselves away.
  133. They used to camera on the cell phone to take pictures of themselves.
  134. The members argued among themselves for an hour.
  135. The jurors could not agree among themselves.
  136. They spent some time familiarizing themselves with the new workplace.
  137. Some animals protect themselves through camouflage.
  138. The players prepared themselves by staying in shape.
  139. They managed themselves very well as members of the conference panel.
  140. The accountants perjured themselves when testifying before Congress.
  141. I wish the children would behave themselves.
  142. We forfeit three-fourths of ourselves in order to be like other people. (Arthur Schopenhauer, 1788-1860)
  143. If the world should blow itself up, the last audible voice would be that of an expert saying it can’t be done. (Peter Ustinov, 1921-2004)
  144. If history repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, how incapable must man be of learning from experience. (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950)
  145. Certain tomopterid worms defend themselves by squirting out a bioluminescent fluid. (Bruce Robison, “Light in the Ocean’s Midwaters,” Scientific American)

Berdasarkan letaknya, reflexive pronouns bisa diletakkan sebagai direct object, indirect object atau preposition object.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai direct object:

  1. I am teaching myself to play the piano.
  2. I pinched myself to see whether it was a dream.
  3. He saw himself in the mirror and was shocked.
  4. He shot himself in the head.
  5. Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai indirect object:

  1. I bought myself a slice of cake.
  2. He made himself coffee.
  3. Would you like to pour yourself a drink.
  4. We’ve brought ourselves something to eat.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai object of a preposition (to, for, by, dll):

  1. He gave the present to himself.
  2. Bhuana read quietly to himself.
  3. Anindya read to herself.
  4. He spoke to himself.
  5. I talk to myself when I am nervous or excited.
  6. Budi is a bit crazy. He always sits alone and talks to himself.
  7. That man is talking to himself.
  8. The man talked to himself as he walked down the street.
  9. Are you talking to yourself?
  10. She likes to look at the mirror and smile to herself.
  11. The young girl was singing happily to herself.
  12. I whistled to myself to calm down.
  13. Sometimes I think to myself that it is time to lose some weight.
  14. You should address the letter to yourself.
  15. You often talk to yourself and nobody knows what you talk about.
  16. She bought a present for herself.
  17. She had to cook for herself.
  18. They had to cook for themselves.
  19. We had to cook for ourselves since mom didn’t want to make dinner.
  20. He was feeling very sorry for himself.
  21. I bought a present for myself.
  22. When you go shopping for me, buy a present for yourself.
  23. She did it by herself.
  24. We thought to ourselves, this has been the best day we have ever spent together!

Reflexive Pronouns memiliki nilai yang penting di dalam kalimat sehingga jika di dalam kalimat yang ada reflexive pronouns-nya dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya maka kalimat tersebut akan memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda dengan sebelum dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya. Contoh:

I hurt myself (Aku melukai diriku sendiri)
I hurt (makna kalimat tidak jelas)

He made himself coffee (Dia membuat coffee yang sudah pasti untuk dirinya sendiri)
He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun tidak pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)

Kata preposition by + reflexive pronoun digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang melakukan sebuah kegiatan sendiri atau tanpa bantuan orang lain:

  1. She lives by herself.
  2. He lived by himself in an enormous house.
  3. Indrawan went to the party by himself.
  4. I went to the USA by myself.
  5. You go to the movies by yourself.
  6. You are too young to go out by yourselves.
  7. Why don’t you go by yourself?
  8. She likes to go on holiday by herself.
  9. He ate dinner by himself.
  10. You ate all of the ice cream by yourselves.
  11. She walked home by herself.
  12. You can walk to school by yourself.
  13. I prepared the whole meal by myself.
  14. The children got dressed by themselves.
  15. I did my homework by myself.
  16. She fixed her car by herself.
  17. It got its food out of the cupboard by itself.
  18. We ruined everything by ourselves.
  19. They painted the house by themselves.
  20. He made breakfast all by himself.
  21. The children made the entire meal by themselves.
  22. She created all the Christmas decorations by herself.

Reflexive pronouns tidak bisa digunakan setelah kata feel, meet, concentrate dan relax. Selain itu, reflexive pronouns biasanya tidak digunakan setelah verbs yang memiliki makna kegiatan yang sering atau biasa dilakukan untuk dirinya sendiri seperti wash, shave dan dress kecuali benar-benar diperlukan untuk memperjelas atau memberi penekanan siapa yang melakukan aksi. Contoh:

  • He cannot relax – correct
  • He cannot relax himself – incorrect
  • He washed in cold water – correct
  • He washed himself in cold water – incorrect
  • I washed clean in the bathtub – correct
  • I washed myself clean in the bathtub – incorrect
  • After I got up, I washed – correct
  • After I got up, I washed myself – incorrect
  • He always shaved before going out in the evening – correct
  • He always shaved himself before going out in the evening – incorrect
  • Iesa dressed and got ready for the party – correct
  • Iesa dressed himself and got ready for the party – incorrect
  • I dressed this morning – correct
  • I dressed myself this morning – incorrect
  • My daughter likes to dress without my help – correct
  • My daughter likes to dress herself without my help – incorrect
  • The little girl learned how to dress for school – correct
  • The little girl learned how to dress herself for school – incorrect
  • The children are able to dress – correct
  • The children are able to dress themselves – incorrect

Reflexive pronouns tidak diperlukan di dalam sebuah kalimat jika kalimat tersebut sudah memiliki makna reflexive:

  • I took my mother with me – correct
  • I took my mother with myself – incorrect

Reflexive pronouns tidak digunakan setelah place preposition, namun menggunakan personal pronouns. Contoh:

  • He put the backpack next to him – correct
  • He put the backpack next to himself – incorrect

Intensive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penegasan)

Intensive pronouns digunakan untuk memberi penekanan (emphatic) pada subject atau object bahwa kata tersebut merupakan kata yang penting atau kata itu sendiri yang melakukan sesuatu. Intensive pronouns disebut juga emphatic pronouns.

Kata yang termasuk intensive pronouns yaitu:

  • Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
  • Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Contoh:

My sister herself paid for my popcorn.
herself memberi penekanan pada subject My sister, yang menandakan bahwa saudarinya sendiri (My sister) yang membayar popcorn.

I made a sandwich for the President himself.
himself memberi penekanan pada object the President, yang menandakan bahwa Presiden sendiri yang dibuatkan sandwich.

  1. I myself heard his remarks.
  2. I myself went to the market and bought it.
  3. I myself did it without any help from anybody.
  4. I myself heard the remark.
  5. I myself am sick of the heat.
  6. I myself am tired of all this rain.
  7. I myself am tired of doing homework.
  8. I myself can look after the whole place.
  9. I myself forgot about these issues and most people are too polite to mention them.
  10. I myself made it atau I made it myself.
  11. You must believe me. I myself heard him shout at her.
  12. You yourself are to blame for this confusion.
  13. You yourself are responsible for this mess!
  14. You yourself will have to answer for your action.
  15. You yourself can change your life.
  16. Have you yourself seen it? atau Have you seen it yourself?
  17. You yourselves asked us to do it.
  18. You yourselves can win this game.
  19. I suggest that you yourselves figure out how to resolve this dispute.
  20. Wahyu himself will be piloting this aircraft across the Atlantic.
  21. Yoga himself was not aware of the plan.
  22. The mayor himself spoke to the crowd.
  23. The minister himself said this.
  24. The prime minister himself gave me the award.
  25. President Nixon himself resigned a year later due to his involvement in an illegal cover-up related to his re-election campaign.
  26. The President himself promised to stop the war.
  27. The president himself appeared at the rally.
  28. The president himself wrote me a letter.
  29. After rescheduling three meetings, the president herself conducted the meeting.
  30. He himself told me that I was to be promoted.
  31. He himself said so.
  32. He himself told me this.
  33. He himself painted the walls.
  34. He himself repaired the machine.
  35. Bunga herself told me that she was quitting her job.
  36. The actress herself wrote the play.
  37. The actress herself wrote those lines.
  38. The queen herself came forward to help.
  39. The queen herself gave the knight the award atau The queen gave the knight the award herself.
  40. She herself opened the door.
  41. She herself spoke to me atau She spoke to me herself.
  42. Even though everyone expected her to know it already, she herself was surprised by the news.
  43. The exam itself wasn’t difficult, but exam room was horrible.
  44. The town itself is not very large.
  45. The dog itself opened her fridge raider.
  46. The cat itself caught the mouse.
  47. Balikpapan itself is quite a small town.
  48. We ourselves cooked the cake.
  49. We ourselves made the meal.
  50. We ourselves made the delicious meal.
  51. We ourselves built the tree house.
  52. We ourselves witnessed the accident.
  53. They themselves set up the makeshift camp.
  54. They themselves admitted their mistake.
  55. The boys themselves led the entire team to victory.
  56. The Bhutanese themselves call their country Druk-Yul or the ‘Land of the Thunder Dragon’.
  57. The soldiers themselves do not want to attack the enemy fort.
  58. The troops themselves helped the people escape the burning building.
  59. The firefighters themselves helped the people escape the building.
  60. They recommend this book even though they themselves have never read it atau They recommend this book even though they have never read it themselves.
  61. I finished the job myself.
  62. I repaired the tire myself.
  63. I cut her hair myself.
  64. I baked the bread myself.
  65. I will do it myself.
  66. I’ll do it myself.
  67. I did it myself.
  68. I will go to school myself.
  69. I am not a very punctual person myself.
  70. I heard the lie myself.
  71. I can look after the whole place myself.
  72. I did not want to believe it and then I saw the UFO myself.
  73. Did someone paint your house?” “No, I painted it myself.”
  74. You will have to explain to them yourself.
  75. You don’t need help. You can do it yourself.
  76. You can choose a lawyer yourself or one will be selected for you.
  77. Fanny, you’ll have to do your homework yourself.
  78. Wow! Did you write this book yourself?
  79. Boys, can you make your beds yourselves?
  80. I was introduced to Barack Obama himself.
  81. Andika did it himself.
  82. Erwin fixed the car himself.
  83. The pitcher scored the winning run himself.
  84. The father decided to repair the car himself.
  85. My brother spoke to his boss himself about a raise.
  86. He baked the cake himself.
  87. He fixed the leaking roof himself.
  88. He was planning to ask his assistant to go, but in the end he went himself.
  89. He wanted to impress her, so he baked a cake himself.
  90. She made this dinner herself.
  91. The mayor presented the new program herself.
  92. Chendy does chores herself because she doesn’t trust others to do them right.
  93. She’s old enough to wash herself.
  94. The author signed the book for me herself!
  95. My sister made the bread herself.
  96. The queen bought the dog herself.
  97. She mended the car herself.
  98. She will do it herself.
  99. She wrote the short story herself.
  100. When Satri saw the battleship itself, he knew that he had chosen the right profession.
  101. Never mind. We’ll do it ourselves.
  102. We cooked the whole meal ourselves.
  103. We can move the table ourselves.
  104. We painted the house ourselves. Nobody helped us!
  105. We don’t have to go out, we can fix dinner ourselves.
  106. The boys baked these scones themselves.
  107. The students made the scenery themselves.
  108. They did the homework themselves.
  109. They ate all the food themselves.
  110. The children are able to tie their shoes themselves.
  111. You don’t need to help them. They can do it themselves.
  112. Nobody wanted to help them, so they cleaned the streets themselves.
  113. The actors saved the local theater money by making costumes themselves.
  114. The responsibility for renting out school facilities will be transferred direct to the schools themselves.
  115. The firefighters fought the fire themselves although they received some help from the affected residents.

Berdasarkan manfaatnya atau nilainya di dalam kalimat, intensive pronouns bukanlah kata yang harus ada sehingga walaupun intensive pronouns dihilangkan dari kalimat maka kalimat tersebut masih bisa dimengerti dan maknanya masih sama. Contoh:

  • My sister herself paid for my popcorn -> My sister paid for my popcorn.
  • I made a sandwich for the President himself -> I made a sandwich for the President.

Dengan menghilangkan intensive pronouns dari sebuah kalimat maka kita bisa mengetahui apakah di dalam kalimat tersebut mengandung intensive pronouns atau tidak. Jika intensive pronouns telah dihilangkan dan kalimat tersebut masih bisa dimengerti dan maknanya masih sama maka kalimat tersebut mengandung intensive pronouns.

Intensive pronouns biasanya diletakkan appositive (setelah subject atau object). Contoh:

My sister herself paid for my popcorn.
Intensive pronouns herself diletakkan setelah subject My sister.

I made a sandwich for the President himself.
Intensive pronouns himself diletakkan setelah object the President.

Biasanya intensive pronouns digunakan untuk memberi penekanan pada sesuatu yang penting atau orang terkenal. Contoh:

Sir Paul McCartney himself sang the final song.
himself memberi penekanan pada subject Sir Paul McCartney yang merupakan seorang penyanyi legendaris. Penyanyi legendaris itu sendiri yang menyanyikan lagu terakhir.

The queen gave the knight the award herself.
herself memberi penekanan pada subject The queen yang merupakan seorang ratu. Ratu itu sendiri yang memberikan hadiah.

Intensive pronouns tidak bisa digunakan sebagai subject. Contoh:

  • Andrea and myself went there – incorrect
  • Andrea and I went there – correct
  • Herself swam in the river – incorrect
  • She swam in the river – correct
  • I invited herself to tea – incorrect
  • I invited her to tea – correct

Dalam beberapa kasus, intensive pronouns bermakna also. Contoh:

Aisyah was pretty happy last night. I was pretty happy myself.

Umumnya intensive pronoun diletakkan setelah subject atau object yang dirujuk, namun bisa juga diletakkan sebelumnya walaupun kalimat seperti ini sangat jarang digunakan. Contoh:

Myself, I would never do a thing like that.

Intensive pronouns memiliki kata yang sama dengan reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves). Perbedaannya adalah pada fungsi, nilai dan letaknya. Berikut ini adalah beberapa perbedaan antara reflexive dan intensive pronouns:

Fungsinya:

  • Reflexive Pronouns merujuk kepada subject.
  • Intensive Pronouns memberi penekanan pada subject atau object.

Nilainya:

  • Reflexive Pronouns memiliki nilai yang penting di dalam kalimat sehingga jika di dalam kalimat yang ada reflexive pronouns-nya dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya maka kalimat tersebut akan memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda dengan sebelum dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya.
  • Intensive Pronouns boleh dihilangkan dari kalimat. Kalimat yang sudah dihilangkan intensive pronounsnya masih memiliki arti dan makna yang sama.

Subject dan Object:

  • Reflexive Pronouns digunakan di dalam kalimat jika subject dan object dalam kalimat tersebut memiliki makna yang sama.
  • Intensive Pronouns tidak digunakan di dalam klaimat jika subject dan object dalam kalimat tersebut memiliki makna yang sama.

Object:

  • Reflexive Pronouns digunakan sebagai object sebuah kalimat.
  • Intensive Pronouns tidak bisa digunakan sebagai object.

Reflexive pronouns sebagai indirect objects dan intensive pronouns memiliki struktur yang hampir sama sehingga membingungkan walaupun memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda. Contoh:

  • Reflexive: He made himself coffee (Dia membuat coffee yang sudah pasti untuk dirinya sendiri)
  • Intensive: He made coffee himself (Dia sendiri yang membuat coffee namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)

Cara untuk mengetahui apakah kedua kalimat di atas mengandung reflexive atau intensive pronouns adalah dengan menghilangkan reflexive atau intensive pronouns dari kalimat dan lihat arti dari kalimat setelahnya. Contoh:

  • He made himself coffee -> He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)
  • He made coffee himself -> He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)

Pada contoh di atas, kalimat pertama sudah pasti mengandung reflexive pronouns karena makna kalimat berubah antara sebelum dan sesudah reflexive pronuns dihapus. Sedangkan kalimat kedua sudah pasti mengandung intensive pronouns karena makna kalimat tidak berubah antara sebelum dan sesudah intensive pronuns dihapus.

Reciprocal Pronouns (Kata Ganti Timbal Balik)

Reciprocal pronouns (kata ganti timbal balik) digunakan saat dua pihak atau lebih melakukan hal yang sama satu sama lain.

Kata yang termasuk reciprocal pronouns yaitu: each other dan one another.

Contoh:

  1. Nurul and Chendy are waving to each other.
  2. Iesa and Adib admire each other.
  3. Febrie and Andrea loathe each other.
  4. Rian and Adji were laughing on each other in the school ground.
  5. Fanny and Yoga hate each other.
  6. Carya and Ratri love each other.
  7. Rizky and Eka gave each other gold rings on their wedding day.
  8. Orig and Adyati has given golden rings to each other on their wedding day.
  9. Jhon and Winarti gave each other diamond rings on their engagement ceremony.”
  10. Kaisar and Melissa kissed each other at the end of the ceremony.
  11. Dini and Laksmi were talking to each other in the hallway.
  12. Ceren and Dewi waved goodbye to each other as they left the playground.
  13. Adhit and Budi like to throw the ball to each other.
  14. Indira and Amanda like to give surprise gifts to each other.
  15. Both teams played hard against each other.
  16. Both groups fought hard against each other.
  17. Me and my friend has shared a gift to each other on new year.
  18. Our dog and cat love each other.
  19. They asked each other the same question and the same time.
  20. They always distrust each other.
  21. They can’t see each other.
  22. They gave each other gifts.
  23. They talk to each other like they’re babies.
  24. They celebrate the ring ceremony by kissing each other at the end.
  25. The boats were bumping against each other in the storm.
  26. The cars were bumping into each other on the icy road.
  27. The cars were touching each other in the traffic jam.
  28. The cats were happily grooming each other.
  29. We gave each other gifts.
  30. We give each other gifts during the holidays.
  31. Why don’t you believe each other?
  32. Why do you question each other?
  33. Our three dogs and your cat love one another.
  34. The defendants blamed one another for the crime they were charged with.
  35. The doctors rely on one another for peer consultations.
  36. The five prisoners were all blaming one another.
  37. The gangsters were fighting one another.
  38. The gang of boys was accusing one another.
  39. The horses were tripping one another as the race came to an end.
  40. The kids spent the afternoon kicking the ball to one another.
  41. The prisoners were fighting one another.
  42. The sisters were hugging one another.
  43. The students congratulated one another after giving practice speeches.
  44. The students helped one another perform the group experiment.
  45. The students in this classroom cooperate with one another.
  46. The teachers gathered to congratulate one another on the year’s conclusion.
  47. The ten angry men were all pointing fingers at one another.
  48. Customers are fighting to one another for a single product.
  49. Many kids are playing in the ground by kicking the ball to one another.
  50. Seniors have congratulated one another on their farewell party.
  51. Teachers were talking one another about the exam.

Berdasarkan aturan lama, each other digunakan untuk merujuk dua orang atau dua pihak, sedangkan jika pihak yang dirujuk lebih dari dua maka menggunakan one another. Namun peraturan ini menghilang jika menggunakan english modern.

Jika menggunakan peraturan english modern atau terkini maka tidak ada perbedaaan antara keduanya (each other dan one another).

Contoh:

We sent each other Birthday cards.
(We sent them a Birthday card, they sent us a Birthday card)

Firman and Yoggie helped one another.
(Firman helped Yoggie, Yoggie helped Firman.)

They didn’t look at one another.
(He didn’t look at her, she didn’t look at him.)

Dengan menambahkan –'s pada reciprocal pronouns maka kita bisa mendapatkan kalimat possessive. Contoh:

  1. Ratih and Widya can wear each other’s clothes.
  2. Kaisar and Indrawan can wear each other’s jacket.
  3. Do you two admire each other’s courage?
  4. Do you three admire one another’s courage?
  5. Sports persons can wear one another’s clothes.