Demonstrative Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penunjuk)
Demonstrative pronouns adalah pronouns (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan benda, hewan atau orang yang jelas keberadaannya. Jelas maksudnya adalah benda yang ditunjuk jelas adanya, bentuk dan ciri-cirinya diketahui.
Kata yang termasuk demonstrative pronouns yaitu this, that, these dan those.
Kata this dan that untuk menunjuk benda singular (tunggal) sedangkan these dan those untuk menunjuk benda plural (jamak).
Kata this menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya dekat.
- This is a gift from my brother.
- This is an apple.
- This is an expensive store.
- This is crazy!
- This is heavier than that.
- This is Lucky speaking. Is that Marissa?
- This is my best friend.
- This is my car.
- This is ridiculous.
- This is the best chocolate chip cookie I’ve ever had.
- This is the kind of tie I prefer
- This is the one I left in the car.
- This is very smelly.
- This is very yummy!
- This is your shirt.
- This smells heavenly.
- This tastes delicious.
- This tastes good.
- This tastes scrumptious.
- This was my mother’s ring.
- Both watches are good, but this is better than that.
- I don’t like this.
- I really like this.
- There is no end to this.
- You’ll have to get your own pen. This is mine.
- Chefin, would you mail this?
- Do you like this?
- Have you seen this?
- Is this yours?
Kata that menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya jauh.
- That is a good idea.
- That is a very tall building.
- That is beautiful.
- That is incorrect.
- That is my best friend.
- That is my house on the corner.
- That is my scarf.
- That is not mine.
- That is one way to do it.
- That is our house.
- That is ridiculous.
- That is the Red Fort.
- That looks like a very good movie.
- That looks like the car I used to drive.
- That should take some time to complete.
- That sounds like Adhiet.
- That sounds like my mother calling.
- That was such an interesting experience.
- That will run for an hour.
- Bring me that!
- Dita wrote that.
- I am not sure that is how you do it.
- I heard that.
- I purchased that yesterday.
- Jessica selected that.
- Look at that!
- Please hand that to me so I can change the channel.
- That costs way too much money.
- The boxes were stacked against that.
- This is heavier than that.
- You can smell that from here.
- Could you hand me that?
- Did you do that?
- Did you see that?
- Do you like that?
- Is that Alim?
- Is that right?
- Is that yours?
Kata these menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya dekat.
- These are amazing cookies!
- These are bad times.
- These are bigger than those.
- These are hilarious cartoons.
- These are mere excuses.
- These are my friends.
- These are nice shoes, but they look uncomfortable.
- These are nice-looking.
- These are nicer than those.
- These are our children.
- These are ridiculous.
- These are the kind of flowers I like
- These are the most comfortable.
- These are the perfect earrings.
- These are very expensive shoes.
- These look good.
- These look perfect.
- These smell rotten.
- I’ll buy these.
- I’ll take these.
- Please read over these, and get back to me.
- Take these to the clerk.
- Are these less than five dolars?
- Could you help me move these?
- Do you like these?
- How much are these?
Kata those menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya jauh.
- Those are amazing cookies!
- Those are boys.
- Those are my friends.
- Those are my papers
- Those are my shoes.
- Those are ridiculous.
- Those are several of my classmates.
- Those are the tallest skyscrapers in the city.
- Those belong over there.
- Those belong to Mutia.
- Those considering a career in architecture must study engineering.
- Those look like riper than the apples on my tree.
- Those were the days!
- Arie purchased those for the kids.
- Bring me those.
- Do not paint those!
- I own those.
- I would like those, please.
- Marcella can play with those.
- Mouldie brought those.
- My views are in accordance with those of the Chairman.
- Please give me one of those.
- Surabaya mangoes are better than those of Bandung.
- The streets of Jakarta are busier than those of Bandung.
- These are bigger than those.
- These are nicer than those.
- Are those your shoes?
- Can you see those?
- Shall I take those?
- Where did you find those? They are mine.
- Which of those would you like?
Demonstrative pronouns dan demonstrative adjectives
Kata this, that, these dan those selain digunakan untuk demonstrative pronouns juga digunakan di dalam demonstrative adjectives (kata sifat penunjuk). Perbedaan antara keduanya adalah pada fungsi dan strukturnya.
Jika demonstrative pronouns digunakan sebagai pronouns (pengganti nouns) maka demonstrative adjectives digunakan sebagai adjectives (memodifikasi nouns) dan diletakkan sebelum nouns.
Contoh demonstrative adjectives:
- That chair is too big, I’ll sit in this one.
- That cake tastes awesome.
- That book is good.
- This house is big and that garden is large.
- Don’t buy those oranges, buy these ones.
- These books are mine and those books are yours.
Indefinite Pronouns (Kata Ganti Tak Tentu)
Bila demonstrative pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan benda, hewan atau orang yang jelas keberadaannya maka indefinite pronouns adalah kebalikannya.
Indefinite pronouns adalah pronouns yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan benda, hewan atau orang yang tidak jelas atau tidak tertentu, bisa siapapun atau bisa apapun.
Somebody must have seen the driver leave.
(Indefinite pronouns = somebody. Kata somebody menunjuk kepada seseorang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia, bisa siapa saja)
Everyone looked at me.
(Indefinite pronouns = everyone. Kata everyone menunjuk kepada semua orang yang kita tidak tahu siapa saja, yang terpenting adalah semua orang)
Berikut ini adalah daftar kata yang termasuk indefinite pronouns:
||benda atau orang yang berbeda, tambahan, menambah 1 lagi
||masing-masing, dilihat secara terpisah
||salah satu dari dua
||tidak satupun dari dua
||seseorang atau sesuatu
||benda atau orang yang berbeda
||seseorang yang tidak jelas
||sesuatu yang tidak jelas
||dua benda atau orang
||sekelompok kecil benda atau orang
||lebih sedikit dari biasanya
||sekelompok besar benda atau orang
||lebih dari dua namun tidak banyak, beberapa
|singular dan plural
||umumnya atau mayoritas
||salah satu jenis yang sudah disebutkan
- All are welcome to attend the concert.
- All are welcome to come to the birthday party tonight.
- All are welcome to our house for Thanksgiving.
- All have arrived.
- All is forgiven.
- All is lost.
- All in the lobby must remain seated.
- All of the cake is gone.
- All of the cupcakes are gone.
- All of the newspaper was soaked.
- All of the people clapped their hands.
- You can fool all the people some of the time; you can fool some of the people all the time; but you can’t fool all the people all the time. (Abraham Lincoln, speech at the Republican state convention in Bloomington, Indiana, on May 29, 1856)
- Indrawan passed his card to another.
- Windy gave the book to another.
- He has one job in the day and another at night.
- I don’t like this room. Let’s ask for another.
- That ice-cream was good. Can I have another?
- The applications are examined by one committee, then passed on to another.
- That piece of cake was tasty. I think I’ll have another.
- That box of cookies was delicious! I’d like to buy another.
- Any of these words may be used in this sentence.
- Any will do.
- Are any coming?
- I don’t have any, but Betanti has some.
- I don’t have any.
- Is any left?
- Joko doesn’t have any.
- I don’t know any of the answers.
- Anybody can see this.
- Anybody who came along would know something awful has happened here.
- Does anybody agree with me?
- Does anybody have a clue where the dog went?
- Does anybody have a clue?
- Does anybody have the time?
- Does anybody know a good place where I can go to get my nails done?
- Hello? Is anybody there?
- I didn’t see Pandu at the gym. In fact, I didn’t see anybody. The place was empty.
- I don’t have anybody to talk to.
- I don’t care who it is. It can be anybody.
- If anybody has any questions, they’re very welcome to come and ask me.
- If the phone call is for me, I’m not here. I’m not talking to anybody this weekend.
- I knocked on the door, but there was not anybody there.
- I was there for over an hour before anybody came.
- Is anybody there?
- You may invite anybody you want to your birthday party.
- Although it could have happened to anyone, it happened to me.
- Anyone can plainly see that she was asking for trouble.
- Anyone can play that game.
- Anyone can play the game as long as they follow the rules.
- Anyone can see what’s going on here.
- Anyone in their right mind would know better than to do that.
- Anyone knows that you need a licence.
- Anyone that has ever lived in the city will never take for granted the peace of the country.
- Anyone would have agreed the woman in the black dress was gorgeous.
- Can anyone tell me why it is raining again?
- Can anyone answer this question?
- During my trip to the mall, I did not see anyone I knew.
- Have you told anyone about the treasure map?
- I can’t find anyone to come with me.
- I haven’t given anyone their presents yet.
- I needed to see if anyone was interested in dating my cousin.
- I will not dance on anyone’s grave. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
- I won’t tell your secret to anyone.
- If anyone cared about her, they certainly had an odd way of showing it.
- Is anyone available to babysit for me on Wednesday?
- Sometimes I wonder why anyone shops at this store.
- Your secret is safe with me. I won’t tell anyone.
- Won’t anyone help me?
- Anything is possible as long as you put your mind to it.
- Anything is possible if you believe.
- Anything can happen if you just believe.
- At that restaurant, you can’t buy anything for less than IDR 50,000.
- He would give anything to get into Harvard.
- I don’t have anything to eat.
- I don’t know anything about it.
- I don’t want to talk to Bluher. I don’t have anything to say to him.
- I don’t know anything about music. In my line, you don’t have to. (Elvis Presley, 1935-1977)
- Is there anything to eat?
- Isn’t there anything to eat?
- My parents always told me that anything is possible.
- Please tell the salesman at the door that we don’t want to buy anything.
- Sherly couldn’t hear anything at the concert.
- They can choose anything from the menu.
- The doctor needs to know if you have eaten anything in the last two hours.
- There wasn’t anything we could do.
- You still haven’t told me anything.
- When I looked around the house, I did not see anything out of the ordinary.
- Both are acceptable to me.
- Both are guilty.
- Both of them are coming home tonight.
- Both of us match the donation.
- Both of the girls ran through the park.
- Yoga likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good.
- Each baker presented a beautiful cake to the king.
- Each brought a dessert to share.
- Each brought a dish to pass.
- Each has his own thoughts.
- Each of the members has one vote.
- Each of the players has a doctor.
- At the Thanksgiving dinner, each brought a plated dish to make the meal complete.
- There are five groups of participants, and each has its own requirements.
- Either choice has its advantages.
- Either of the choices has its disadvantages.
- Either will do.
- A little government and a little luck are necessary in life, but only a fool trusts either of them. (P. J. O’Rourke, Parliament of Whores. Grove Press, 1991)
- Do you want tea or coffee? / I don’t mind. Either is good for me.
- You may have either.
- Enough is enough.
- Everybody enjoyed the concert. They stood up and clapped.
- Everybody had a cup of coffee.
- Everybody is busy finishing the quiz.
- Everybody is saying that Nadal will win the match, but I’m not so sure.
- Everybody left town for the weekend.
- Everybody likes a kidder, but nobody lends him money. (Arthur Miller, 1915-2005)
- Everybody loves Prismita.
- Everybody loves to eat chocolate.
- We can start the meeting because everybody has arrived.
- Everyone at the wedding could see how happy he made her.
- Everyone brought canned goods to the charity drive.
- Everyone clapped when the movie ended.
- Everyone did as he pleased.
- Everyone enjoyed the food and the company.
- Everyone enjoyed the movie.
- Everyone had a great time at the Christmas party.
- Everyone is sleeping in my bed.
- Everyone knows that.
- Everyone says she is beautiful inside and out.
- Everyone wandered aimlessly down the street wondering what would become of the space ships that occupied the otherwise clear blue sky.
- After the festivities, everyone was invited back to the house for the after-party.
- Has everyone eaten as much as they want?
- I really just needed some time away from everyone.
- Is everyone happy with his gift?
- Is everyone happy with his or her gift?
- Is everyone here?
- Isn’t everyone here?
- Normally during the holidays, everyone leaves campus.
- Farin is a really popular manager. Everyone likes and respects her.
- Everything happens for a reason.
- Everything is fine between Caroline and Mariana.
- Everything is funny as long as it is happening to somebody else. (Will Rogers, 1879-1935)
- Everything is going as planned
- Everything is taken care of.
- Everything is permitted.
- Everything was fine.
- Everything was ready for the party.
- Maya is a huge fan of Elvis Presley. She knows everything about him.
- I gave everything to Ranggi.
- I bought everything at the mall.
- I was told not to worry and that everything would be taken care of.
- It was a very clear day. We could see everything.
- They have no house or possessions. They lost everything in the earthquake.
- Few came to the wedding after the bride had a melt down and lashed out at her family and friends.
- Few have ever disobeyed him and lived.
- Few of the projects were good enough to go to the science fair.
- Few visited that park.
- Few were chosen.
- A few of the justices were voicing their opposition.
- Of those who say nothing, few are silent. (Thomas Neill)
- Very few came to visit the crabby old woman on the corner, leaving many to wonder if anyone cared about her at all.
- Fewer are smoking these days.
- Fewer are going to church these days.
- Less is more (Mies van der Rohe)
- Less is known about this period of history.
- Little is known about his early life.
- Little is known about this period of history.
- Many are planning to attend the party.
- Many are wishing they did.
- Many called for information.
- Many have expressed their views.
- Many have come already.
- Many missed the bus.
- Many were chosen.
- After the story of the plane crash hit the news, many called for information on loved ones aboard the flight.
- For many are called, but few are chosen. (Bible, Matthew 22.14)
- This solution is one of many.
- More are coming.
- More is better.
- More were ignored.
- There is more over there.
- Most of the books are out of date.
- Most of the work is finished.
- Most have refused.
- Most is lost.
- Most was rotten.
- Most would agree.
- Much has happened since we met.
- Much was discussed at the meeting.
- I keep telling Sofie and Anggia but neither believes me.
- In the end, neither was selected.
- Of these two sandwiches, neither looks like something I would eat.
- Nobody came.
- Nobody in my family eats meat.
- Nobody thinks that you are mean.
- Adhit told nobody the secrets that went on at her house.
- Asriningtias told nobody her secret.
- I phoned many times but nobody answered.
- I invited five friends but none have come.
- I have nobody to talk to.
- Maryam sent twenty job applications but nobody replied.
- None are mine.
- None came forward to claim the prize.
- None is mine.
- None of those people is related to me.
- None of the meat has spoiled.
- None of the apples have spoiled.
- They fixed the water so why is none coming out of the tap?
- No one admitted to knocking over the base.
- No one came forward to admit the crime, so the whole class was punished.
- No one is sleeping in my bed.
- No one likes to eat vegetables.
- No one wants to hear about my sciatica. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
- No one wants to hear about my health problems.
- No one was home at the neighbor’s.
- Can no one tell me the answer to this math problem?
- I opened the door but there was no one at home.
- We knew that no one had eaten the salami.
- Nothing happened.
- Nothing is true.
- Hariza said nothing for a moment.
- There is nothing to eat.
- I have nothing to declare except my genius. (Oscar Wilde)
- I know nothing about it.
- I’ve had flu for the past two weeks and nothing seems to make it any better.
- If you don’t know the answer it’s best to say nothing.
- My home town is the same as it was twenty years ago; nothing has changed!
- There was nothing we could do.
- One could see the mountains from miles away.
- One could see the tornado forming from miles away.
- One has got through.
- One of the girls gave up her seat.
- One of the great things about that cabin is that everything is included.
- All the students arrived but now one is missing.
- Can one smoke here?
- I met two girls. One has given me her phone number.
- One was tall and the other was short.
- We have to solve this problem, more than any other, today.
- Others can worry about that.
- I’ll attach two photos to this email and I’ll send others tomorrow.
- I’m sure that others have tried before us.
- I don’t like these postcards. Let’s ask for others.
- Some of the presidents arrived on Sunday. Others arrived the following day.
- He had his hat in one hand and a bunch of flowers in the other.
- She has two kittens, one is black and the other is all white.
- Several of the documents were filled with errors.
- Several performances are scheduled for next week.
- Several signed the card.
- Several turned out for the concert.
- Several were chosen.
- They all complained and several left the meeting.
- Some have the power to coax others to do what they want while others lack the power to do anything but follow.
- Some just do not know when to quit while they are ahead.
- Some of the biscuits have been eaten.
- Some will do anything to gain the attention of others.
- Some have arrived.
- Some are better than others.
- After I painted my walls a deep shade of purple and installed jet black carpet, my room may be considered too gloomy for some.
- Elizabeth wanted some, but I do not have any.
- Here is some.
- Please take some to Ms. Dita.
- The room is too gloomy for some.
- We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)
- Would you like to try some of these cookies?
- Somebody ate my sandwich!
- Somebody called the store.
- Somebody has forgotten her purse.
- Somebody rang the doorbell.
- Somebody shouted.
- Somebody should fix that.
- Somebody stole my wallet yesterday. They took it from my desk.
- Clearly somebody murdered him. It was not suicide.
- Could somebody help me, please?
- Couldn’t somebody help me, please?
- I will tell somebody that dinner is ready. They have been waiting a long time.
- Someone called to tell me the horrible news.
- Someone drank all the soda.
- Someone gave me this book.
- Someone gave me a gift.
- Someone has taken my new chemistry book.
- Someone is sleeping in my bed.
- Someone really needs to come and mow my lawn.
- Someone should sue the pants off of that guy!
- Someone walked past the window and shouted.
- Someone whispered in my ear, but when I turned around there was not anybody there.
- Someone will clean up the kitchen.
- Someone yelled my name.
- Desiana walked in and handed the piece of paper to someone.
- Imam, someone is here to see you.
- Maryam gave her ticket to someone.
- Nela gave that book to someone and never got it back.
- Saniya gave the form to someone.
- Are you looking for someone?
- Aren’t you looking for someone?
- Can you get someone to do it?
- Everyone knows it is impolite to point at someone.
- I’m hoping someone can help me with this math homework.
- I need someone to talk to. I am very lonely.
- It had to be someone with a car.
- I want to introduce you to someone.
- Something is making my computer act up.
- Something makes me want to dance.
- Check in that bag. I bought you something.
- He saw something in the garden.
- The fridge is empty. We need to buy something for dinner tonight.
- Would you like something to drink?
- A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read. (Mark Twain, 1835-1910)
- Have you lost something?
- Haven’t you lost something?
- Listen! I just heard something! What could it be?
- You should take something for that cough.
- Such is life.
- He was a foreigner and he felt that he was treated as such.
Singular atau plural
Pada umumnya, sebuah pronouns itu sudah jelas bentuknya apakah merupakan singular atau plural. Contoh, kata girls itu sudah jelas plural sehingga membutuhkan plural pronouns seperti they, them atau their. Sebaliknya, kata girl itu singular sehingga membutuhkan singular pronouns seperti she atau her.
Namun singular atau plural tidaklah begitu jelas untuk indefinite pronouns seperti untuk kata all, any, both, each, every, few, many, neither, nobody, dan none.
Salah satu aturan yang berguna untuk kita ingat adalah indefinite pronouns yang berakhiran -one, -thing dan -body merupakan singular meskipun kata indefinite pronouns tersebut terlihat plural seperti pada kata anyone/anybody, everyone/everybody atau everything. Contoh:
- Everyone took his book to class with him – benar
- Everyone took their book to class with him – salah
- Everybody is here – benar
- Everybody are here – salah
- Both of them are coming home tonight – benar
- Both of them is coming home tonight – salah
- Several performances are scheduled for next week – benar
- Several performances is scheduled for next week – salah
Someone atau somebody
Berdasarkan penggunaannya, someone/somebody adalah kata yang dapat digunakan untuk merujuk kepada seseorang yang tidak diketahui siapa dia dan hampir tidak ada perbedaan diantara keduanya. Walaupun begitu ada sedikit perbedaan penggunaan dari keduanya, yaitu someone lebih formal atau resmi daripada somebody.
Begitu juga dengan anyone/anybody, anyone digunakan untuk kalimat yang bersifat lebih formal. Sama juga dengan everyone/everybody, everyone lebih formal.
Selain itu, someone lebih sering digunakan dalam percakapan sehari-hari dibandingkan dengan somebody.
Berikut ini adalah contoh penggunaan someone dalam kalimat yang bersifat formal.
The bank requires that the deed be signed by someone authorized by the courts.
Kata “else” digunakan setelah indefinite pronouns untuk merujuk kepada benda atau orang tambahan di samping yang telah di sebutkan. Contoh:
- Everyone else is downstairs.
- So that’s eggs, peas and chips. Do you want anything else?
- All the family came, but no one else.
- If Sarah can’t come we’ll ask somebody else.
Beberapa pihak berpendapat bahwa “none” hanya bisa digunakan untuk singular saja dikarenakan “none” merupakan merupakan kependekan dari “no one”.
Berdasarkan argumen tersebut mereka mengatakan bahwa kalimat “I invited three friends but none has come” benar sedangkan kalimat “I invited three friends but none have come” salah.
Namun sebenarnya hanya sedikit sekali yang berpendapat seperti di atas, lebih banyak dan lebih umum pihak yang berpendapat bahwa “none” bisa digunakan sebagai singular maupun plural.
Jika di dalam sebuah kalimat sudah menggunakan indefinite pronouns dengan awalan “no-” maka kita tidak bisa menggunakan kata negatif lain di dalam kalimat yang sama.
- There wasn’t nothing – salah
- There was nothing you could do – benar
- Nobody left, nobody went away – benar
Dengan menambahkan –
's atau –
' pada indefinite pronouns maka kita bisa mendapatkan kalimat posessive. Contoh:
- Is this anybody’s coat?
- They were staying in somebody’s house.
- One should mind one’s own business.
- We should not take others’ possessions.
- She was given a room in someone’s studio.
- That was nobody’s business but mine.
Dua buah indefinite pronouns bisa digabung dan menjadi reciprocal pronouns, yaitu “each” dan “other” menjadi “each other” serta “one” dan “another” menjadi “one another”. Contoh:
- We should respect each other.
- Chandra and Rofie help each other study for tests.
- Hariza and Eka bumped into each other in the hall.
- People should love one another.
- The police, firefighters, and paramedics help one another respond to emergencies.
- Students always bump into one another in our crowded hallways.
Indefinite pronouns dan indefinite adjectives
Indefinite pronouns dan indefinite adjectives memiliki kata-kata yang sama. Perbedaan antara keduanya adalah pada fungsi dan strukturnya.
Jika indefinite pronouns digunakan sebagai pronouns (pengganti nouns) maka indefinite adjectives digunakan sebagai adjectives (memodifikasi nouns) dan harus diletakkan sebelum nouns. Contoh:
- All in the lobby must remain seated – indefinite pronouns
- All personnel in the lobby must remain seated – indefinite adjectives
- Both of the flowers are lovely – indefinite pronouns
- Both flowers are lovely – indefinite adjectives
- Each of us has his own recollections of the trip – indefinite pronouns
- He selected each picture with great care – indefinite adjectives
- Either will be acceptable to my aunt – indefinite pronouns
- Either set of dishes will be acceptable to my aunt – indefinite adjectives
- Several of us are planning a trip to Bogor – indefinite pronouns
- The trip will take several days – indefinite adjectives
- There are several in the safe room – indefinite pronouns
- There are several people in the safe room – indefinite adjectives
- I have seen some in the cupboard – indefinite pronouns
- I have seen some cartridges in the cupboard – indefinite adjectives
- Please take some to Mrs Erika – indefinite pronouns
- Please take some lemons to Mrs Erika – indefinite adjectives
- There are 25 students in this class and several arrived late today – indefinite pronouns
- Several students arrived late today – indefinite adjectives