Possessive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Kepemilikan)

Possessive pronouns adalah pronouns (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan atau kepemilikan.

Penggunaan possessive pronouns tergantung dari beberapa hal, diantaranya yaitu:

  • Possessive pronouns sebagai singular atau plural
  • Possessive pronouns sebagai pengganti orang laki-laki atau perempuan
  • Possessive pronouns sebagai pengganti orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga

Berikut ini adalah daftar kata possessive pronouns:

Orang Jumlah Kelamin Personal Pronouns
Orang Pertama Singular Laki-laki/Perempuan mine
Orang kedua Singular Laki-laki/Perempuan yours
Orang ketiga Singular Laki-laki his
Orang ketiga Singular Perempuan hers
Orang pertama Plural Laki-laki/Perempuan ours
Orang kedua Plural Laki-laki/Perempuan yours
Orang ketiga Plural Laki-laki/Perempuan theirs

Contoh:

  1. His car is faster than mine.
  2. I like your flowers. Do you like mine?
  3. Is that your scarf? It’s very similar to mine.
  4. If the books belong to me, they are my books. They are mine.
  5. Look at these pictures. Mine is the small one.
  6. Priska’s car is red. Mine is green.
  7. Ranggi has already eaten her lunch , but I’m saving mine until later.
  8. The cat is mine.
  9. This is my laptop. It’s mine.
  10. This is my bedroom. It’s mine.
  11. This sandwich is mine but you can have it.
  12. Tya has eaten her lunch already, but I’m saving mine until later.
  13. You can’t have any chocolate! It’s mine!
  14. You can’t have any chocolate! It’s all mine!
  15. Your computer is a Mac, but mine is a PC.
  16. Each couple’s books are colour-coded. Yours are green.
  17. I know this drink is yours but I need to drink something.
  18. I don’t like this family’s garage but I like yours.
  19. I looked everywhere for your passport. I found Zulfikar’s passport but I couldn’t find yours.
  20. If the house belongs to you, it is your house. It is yours.
  21. My computer is a Mac, but yours is a PC.
  22. My flowers are dying. Yours are lovely.
  23. My pencil is broken. Can I borrow yours?
  24. Our car is cheap, but yours is expensive.
  25. The cat is yours.
  26. Their father gets along well with yours.
  27. This book is mine, not yours.
  28. These glasses are mine, not yours.
  29. The kids are yours and mine.
  30. These grammar books are different. Yours has 278 pages, but mine has only 275.
  31. What’s mine is yours, my friend.
  32. All the essays were good but his was the best.
  33. If the watch belongs to him, it is his watch. It is his.
  34. My telephone is out of order, but his is working.
  35. My mobile needs to be fixed, but his is working.
  36. This is my sister’s car. It’s his.
  37. This is my brother’s bike. It’s his.
  38. The book next to the window is his.
  39. The car over there is his, but this one right here is mine.
  40. Asri finished her homework early, but Putu did not do hers until later.
  41. Dian likes to wear her hair short, while Dini prefers to wear hers long.
  42. I think the cheese cookies at the party were hers.
  43. I didn’t have my umbrella so Rina lent me hers.
  44. If the flowers belong to her, they are her flowers. They are hers.
  45. It was his fault not hers.
  46. Retno found his ticket but Dita couldn’t find hers.
  47. That laptop is hers.
  48. The pencil is hers.
  49. The table belongs to my mother. It is hers.
  50. They say female canaries can’t sing. Well, hers can.
  51. Here is your bike. Ours is over there, where we left it.
  52. If the car belongs to us, it is our car. It is ours.
  53. That food is ours and not theirs.
  54. The car on the corner is ours.
  55. This is our car. It’s ours.
  56. This is our house. It’s ours.
  57. We shall finally have what is rightfully ours.
  58. We cherish our friends not for their ability to amuse us, but for ours to amuse them. (Evelyn Waugh, 1903-1966)
  59. Your photos are good. Ours are terrible.
  60. Danang and Winda don’t like your car. Do you like theirs?
  61. Humans are the only animals that have children on purpose with the exception of guppies, who like to eat theirs. (P J O’Rourke)
  62. If the car belongs to them, it is their car. It is theirs.
  63. That’s not their house. Theirs has got a blue front door.
  64. These aren’t Arief and Bening’s children. Theirs have black hair.
  65. Theirs are in the garden.
  66. The laptop is theirs.
  67. The money was really theirs for the taking.
  68. The house is theirs and its paint is flaking.
  69. We gave them our telephone number, and they gave us theirs.

Selain untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan, possessive pronouns berguna untuk menghindari pengulangan informasi sehingga kalimat menjadi lebih sederhana dan jelas. Contoh:

  • This is my cat, not your cat (Ini adalah kucing punyaku, bukan kucing milikmu – kalimat terkesan diulang-ulang)
  • This cat is mine, not yours (Ini adalah kucing punyaku, bukan milikmu – Kalimat lebih sederhana)
  • Your car is a lot faster than my car
  • Your car is a lot faster than mine
  • I didn’t have my book so Widya lent me her book
  • I didn’t have my book, so Widya lent me hers
  • Is that Wira’s car? No, it’s my car
  • Is that Wira’s car? No, it’s mine
  • Whose coat is this? Is it your coat?
  • Whose coat is this? Is it yours?
  • Her coat is black, my coat is brown
  • Her coat is black, mine is brown

Dalam beberapa kasus, possessive adjectives dapat disebut juga sebagai possessive pronouns.

Posessive adjectives (kata keterangan kepemilikan) adalah adjectives yang berguna untuk memberi keterangan mengenai kepunyaan atau kepemilikan. Di dalam kalimat, posessive adjective diletakkan sebelum noun (kata benda) untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan siapa noun tersebut.

Kata yang termasuk possessive adjectives yaitu: my, your, his, her, its, our, their.

Pronouns adalah kata yang mengganti nouns. Karena possessive adjectives bisa juga mengganti nouns maka possessive adjectives juga bisa digolongkan sebagai pronouns dan karena possessive adjectives juga memiliki makna kepemilikan maka possessive adjectives bisa juga disebut sebagai possessive pronouns.

Contoh 1:

This is Oktasari’s hat.

This is her hat. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive adjectives her mengganti kata Oktasari yang merupakan sebuah noun. Oleh karena itu, possessive adjective her disebut juga pronouns. Karena  possessive adjective her juga memiliki makna kepemilikan maka possessive adjective her bisa juga disebut sebagai possessive pronouns).

This hat is hers. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive pronoun hers mengganti kata Oktasari’s hat).

Contoh 2:

Take Maya’s car to the concert.

Take her car to the concert. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive adjective her mengganti kata Maya yang merupakan sebuah noun. Oleh karena itu, possessive adjective her disebut juga possessive pronouns).

Take hers to the concert. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive pronoun hers mengganti kata Maya’s car)

Possessive pronouns dapat digunakan setelah kata of:

  • Dian is one of my friends (possessive adjective).
  • Dian is a friend of mine (possessive pronouns).
  • Dian is a friend of me (kalimat tidak benar).
  • I am one of Dian’s friends (possessive nouns).
  • I am a friend of Dian’s (possessive nouns).
  • I am a friend of Dian. (kalimat tidak benar)
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Personal Pronouns (Kata Ganti Perorangan)

Personal pronouns (kata ganti perorangan) adalah pronouns (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan kata benda, hewan atau orang.

Contoh:

Raymond bought a new camera three months ago. He absolutely loves it.

Pada kalimat kedua di atas ada dua buah personal pronouns, yaitu He dan it. Kata He mengganti kata Raymond dan kata it mengganti kata a new camera.

Penggunaan personal pronouns tergantung dari beberapa hal, diantaranya yaitu:

  • Personal pronouns sebagai subject atau object
  • Personal pronouns sebagai singular atau plural
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang laki-laki atau perempuan
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga

Daftar kata personal pronouns:

Orang Jumlah Subject Object
Orang Pertama Singular I me
Orang kedua Singular you you
Orang ketiga Singular he/she/it him/her/it
Orang pertama Plural we us
Orang kedua Plural you you
Orang ketiga Plural they them

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai subject:

  1. You are happy.
  2. You are late.
  3. You are my best student.
  4. Do you like ice-cream?
  5. I like ice-cream.
  6. I love learning Japanese!
  7. I love learning English!
  8. I like your dress.
  9. I really like spaghetti.
  10. I can’t come on Wednesday. I‘m working.
  11. I left college in 2009.
  12. He runs fast.
  13. He is my cousin
  14. He is clever.
  15. He is from Jogja.
  16. He is running up and down the stairs.
  17. He forgot his textbook.
  18. He went to bed early.
  19. She has a nice voice.
  20. She is on holiday
  21. She forgot his laptop.
  22. Novi did not come to school yesterday. She had to go to the doctor
  23. She is dreaming.
  24. She is riding his bike.
  25. She has got a sister.
  26. She loves playing basketball.
  27. She often reads until late at night.
  28. Come look at my cat! She has climbed to the top of that tree.
  29. It doesn’t work.
  30. It was on the the refrigerator.
  31. It was on the table.
  32. It is easy to understand.
  33. It is Blue.
  34. It’s getting late.
  35. It‘s so lovely to see you.
  36. We have to leave soon.
  37. We went home.
  38. We live in Australia.
  39. Should we go jogging before or after breakfast?
  40. Is it ok if we finish early today?
  41. We are watching TV.
  42. Do you need a table for four?
  43. Would you prefer ice-cream or peppermint tea?
  44. They all cleaned up together.
  45. They come from Bandung.
  46. They all lived happily ever after.
  47. They live in Japan.
  48. They won the league.
  49. They are on the wall.
  50. They are in the lobby.
  51. They don’t finish the lesson until five o’clock.

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai object:

  1. Yayuk helped me.
  2. Heni asked me to get some milk.
  3. Can you help me please?
  4. Can they hear me?
  5. Maryam spent the day with me.
  6. Arif loves you.
  7. I can see you.
  8. Did Haryo beat him?
  9. Ratri said she wants to marry him.
  10. She doesn’t like him.
  11. I told him to stay home and study instead of going out.
  12. What’s wrong with him?
  13. I want him to listen.
  14. The audience loved him.
  15. Abe went with her.
  16. Does Maryam know her?
  17. I bought a ticket for her.
  18. I saw her in town yesterday.
  19. Krisna knows her.
  20. Can the man fix it?
  21. Who broke it?
  22. Please pick up that piece of paper and take it with you.
  23. Bluher drove us.
  24. He will email us tomorrow.
  25. Don’t take it from us.
  26. Tya’s coming to visit us in September.
  27. The dog followed us.
  28. Did Orig and Kania beat you at doubles?
  29. Orig and Kania beat them.
  30. Ricky gave them the letter.
  31. I will take them.
  32. We saw them in campus yesterday, but they didn’t see us.
  33. Where are the reports? I thought I gave them to you.
  34. Ask them if they will be joining us.

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai object setelah prepositions (to, for, from, at, dll):

  1. She is waiting for me.
  2. Thanks again for everything you did for me.
  3. Stop laughing at me.
  4. I’ll get it for you.
  5. I will wait for you.
  6. Is anyone sitting next to you?
  7. Give it to him.
  8. Why are you looking at her?
  9. Don’t take it from us.
  10. I’ll speak to them.

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai subject dan object di dalam satu kalimat:

  1. I want you to read this book.
  2. You are the fastest runner on the team, and we’re depending on you.
  3. She didn’t like the way he spoke to her.
  4. We enjoyed hearing her sing.
  5. We would love for you to join us.
  6. They talked to me about acting in the play.

Cara membedakan personal pronouns you singular atau plural adalah berdasarkan dari kalimatnya. Contoh:

  • Orig, do you need any help? (you merujuk kepada satu orang, Orig)
  • Coach to team: “The match starts at 11.30. I need you to be here at 11.” (you merujuk kepada satu kelompok)

Terkadang, you all digunakan untuk merujuk semua orang di dalam kelompok:

What would you all like to drink?

Dalam bahasa informal, terkadang you digunakan untuk merujuk semua orang:

You get a pension if you’re a man over the age of 60 or a woman over 50.

Selain merujuk kepada benda, personal pronouns it dapat digunakan untuk merujuk kepada cuaca, temperatur, waktu, jarak, negara, kendaraan dan mesin. Contoh:

  1. It‘s raining. (cuaca)
  2. It‘s snowing. (cuaca)
  3. It will probably be hot next week. (cuaca)
  4. Is it five o’clock yet? (waktu)
  5. It‘s already five o’clock. (waktu)
  6. It‘s 30 kilometers from here to Bandung. (jarak)
  7. We spent Two weeks in India. It’s a beautiful country. (negara)
  8. Two hours after the ship sailed, it developed engine trouble. (kendaraan)

Personal pronouns it juga dapat digunakan untuk merujuk hewan. Selain it, he/him atau she/her bisa juga digunakan untuk merujuk kepada hewan, terutama hewan peliharaan. Beberapa kendaraan seperti kapal dan beberapa negara bisa diperlakukan seperti perempuan dan dirujuk menggunakan She/her. Contoh:

  1. This is our dog Tintin. He‘s an Alsatian.
  2. The Titanic was a great ship but she sank on her first voyage.
  3. My first car was a Senia and I treated her like my wife.
  4. Thailand has now opened her border with Cambodia.

Personal pronouns we dan us bisa merujuk kepada pembicara + pendengar, pembicara + orang lain tanpa pendengar, semua orang (pembicara + pendengar + orang lain). Contoh:

  • We could go and see a film right now. What do you think? (we = pembicara + pendengar)
  • Ricky asked us if we‘d drive to Jakarta and get you. (us/we = pembicara + orang lain tanpa pendengar).
  • Changing diet, rather than dieting, is a healthier alternative. There are changes we should all make. (we = pembicara + pendengar + orang lain)

They dan them digunakan untuk merujuk kepada sekelompok orang, benda dan binatang:

  • The boys are getting on my nerves. They‘re making so much noise. Can you tell them to be quiet? I’m trying to work.
  • Have you seen my keys? I never remember where I’ve left them.

They dan them juga dapat digunakan untuk merujuk kepada institusi atau pemerintah:

  • I heard they’re going to publish a new edition of ‘Peace and Economy’.
  • They’re opening the new motorway today.

Biasanya, He/him digunakan untuk merujuk kepada laki-laki dan she/her untuk merujuk kepada perempuan. Saat kita tidak yakin apakah seseorang itu laki-laki atau perempuan maka kita bisa menggunakan they/them. Contoh:

  • This is Amadeo. He’s my brother. I don’t think you have met him. (Kata him merujuk kepada my brother. Menggunakan him karena sudah jelas my brother adalah laki-laki)
  • This is Citra. She’s my sister. Have you met her before? (Kata her merujuk kepada my sister. Menggunakan her karena sudah jelas my sister adalah perempuan)
  • Talk to a teacher. Ask them to help you (them merujuk kepada a teacher (seorang guru), menggunakan them dan bukannya he atau she karena di dalam kalimat tidak disebutkan jenis kelamin guru (a teacher) yang dimaksud)
  • You could go to a friend. They might help you (They merujuk kepada a friend (seorang teman), menggunakan they dan bukannya he atau she karena di dalam kalimat tidak disebutkan jenis kelamin teman (a friend) yang dimaksud)

Personal pronouns seperti they atau them yang bisa digunakan untuk merujuk kepada laki-laki atau perempuan disebut sebagai generic pronouns.

Selain menggunakan they/them untuk merujuk kepada orang yang kelaminnya tidak jelas, pemakaian personal pronouns berikut ini bisa kita gunakan: he or she, he/she, s/he, (s)he, him or her, him/her. Contoh:

  • When you get into the building, go to the person on the desk in the reception area. He or she can tell you where to go.
  • Go to a hairdresser. Ask him/her to come up with a style that suits you, your hair, your lifestyle.
  • The bank manager could help with your problem. He/she will probably be able to give you a loan.

Personal pronouns berguna untuk menghindari sebuah noun diulang-ulang. Noun yang yang digantikan oleh personal pronouns disebut sebagai antecedent. Contoh:

President Obama delivered a speech on health care reform. He spoke for more than half an hour.

Antecedent dari kalimat di atas adalah President Obama yang diganti dengan personal pronouns He.

Beberapa personal pronouns yang berfungsi sebagai object (me, him, her, us dan them) bisa digunakan sebagai jawaban pendek dalam bahasa informal. Contoh:

Q: Who ate all the cookies?
A: Me. (formalnya: I did)

Beberapa kesalahan yang biasanya terjadi pada penggunaan personal pronouns adalah penggunaan I atau me. Contoh:

  • Yayuk and me are meeting in Jakarta in July – incorrect
  • Yayuk and I are meeting in Jakarta in July – correct

Personal pronouns yang tepat untuk digunakan pada kalimat di atas adalah I karena kata “Yayuk and I” diperlakukan sebagai sebuah subject. Contoh lainnya:

  • They gave the promotion to I – incorrect
  • They gave the promotion to me – correct

Personal pronouns yang tepat untuk digunakan pada kalimat di atas adalah me karena me memiliki posisi sebagai object. Contoh lainnya:

  • My friends and me went on holiday to a little town on the west coast – incorrect
  • My friends and I went on holiday to a little town on the west coast – correct
  • Hariza and me went shopping – incorrect
  • Hariza and I went shopping – correct
  • Dira spent the day with Haryo and I – incorrect
  • Dira spent the day with Haryo and me – correct

Interrogative Pronouns (Kata Ganti Tanya)

Interrogative pronouns adalah pronouns (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk bertanya.

Kata yang termasuk interrogative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, dan what. Kata who dan whom hanya bisa digunakan untuk merujuk kepada orang sedangkan kata lainnya digunakan untuk merujuk kepada orang atau benda.

Who digunakan untuk menanyakan orang. Contoh:

  1. Who are you?
  2. Who are the signers of the Declaration of Independence?
  3. Who called last night?
  4. Who came last night?
  5. Who do you think will win the playoff game?
  6. Who did you meet?
  7. Who is dancing?
  8. Who is going to take out the trash?
  9. Who is laughing at me?
  10. Who is that?
  11. Who is the best footballer in the world?
  12. Who is the villain here?
  13. Who is there?
  14. Who left you the message?
  15. Who opened the refrigerator?
  16. Who said that?
  17. Who threw the football?
  18. Who told you to do that?
  19. Who told you?
  20. Who wrote the letter?
  21. Who wants ice cream?
  22. Who was driving the car?
  23. Who was embarrassed the most?
  24. Who will design the new logo?
  25. Who won the race?
  26. A woman who I think is a genius.
  27. I’m wondering who will be at the party.
  28. I am not sure who can swim the fastest.
  29. We all know who pulled that prank.

Whom digunakan untuk menanyakan orang walaupun jarang digunakan. Contoh:

  1. Whom did you call?
  2. Whom did you speak to?
  3. Whom did you tell?
  4. Whom do I ask for at the desk?
  5. Whom do you live with?
  6. Whom do you prefer to vote for?
  7. Whom do you suggest we nominate for class president?
  8. Whom shall we ask?
  9. Whom should I vote for?
  10. Whom were you speaking with this morning?
  11. You should ask whom to call.
  12. Once you learn to speak Japanese, whom are you going to talk to?
  13. To whom are you speaking?
  14. To whom did you give the note?
  15. To whom did you give the message?
  16. To whom was that said?
  17. We wondered whom the book was about.

Whose digunakan untuk menanyakan kepunyaan orang atau benda. Contoh:

  1. Whose are these books?
  2. Whose did they take?
  3. Whose is this?
  4. There are only five cars. Whose is missing?
  5. I wonder whose dog knocked our garbage can over.

Catatan: Whose juga kata yang digunakan oleh possessive pronouns.

Which digunakan untuk menanyakan orang atau benda. Contoh:

  1. Which belongs to her?
  2. Which came first?
  3. Which did you buy?
  4. Which do you prefer?
  5. Which is the greater?
  6. Which is your coat?
  7. Which is the best answer among all the choices?
  8. Which of these ladies is your mother?
  9. Which of these two do you prefer?
  10. Which of these books have you read?
  11. Which will the doctor see first?
  12. Which would you prefer, coffee or tea?

What digunakan untuk menanyakan orang atau benda. Contoh:

  1. What are you talking about?
  2. What did you say?
  3. What did you buy?
  4. What do you want for dinner?
  5. What do you want for your birthday?
  6. What do you want?
  7. What does the man want?
  8. What happened next?
  9. What is that?
  10. What is the number on the door?
  11. What is your favorite color?
  12. What is your friend’s name?
  13. What is your sister’s name?
  14. What is your secret?
  15. What’s happened?
  16. What’s your phone number?
  17. Can you tell me what you are thinking?
  18. I wonder what we’re doing tomorrow.

Kalimat yang menggunakan interrogative pronouns selalu kalimat yang digunakan untuk bertanya sehingga kalimat-kalimat tersebut biasanya diakhiri dengan tanda tanya “?” walaupun tidak semua.

Ada perbedaan antara who dan whom, yaitu:

  • Who digunakan untuk merujuk kepada subject
  • Whom digunakan untuk merujuk kepada object.

Cara mengetahui kata yang lebih tepat digunakan dalam sebuah kalimat tanya antara who atau whom adalah dengan melihat pada kalimat jawabannya. Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban.

Jika sebuah kalimat jawaban lebih cocok menggunakan he/she maka kalimat tanya tersebut harus menggunakan who, sebaliknya gunakan whom. Contoh:

Who/whom ate my sandwich? – He/she/him/her ate my sandwich

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

  • He/she ate my sandwich – benar
  • Him/her ate my sandwich – salah

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah who.

Who ate my sandwich?

Contoh lainnya:

Who/whom should I talk to about labeling food in the refrigerator? – I should talk to he/she/him/her.

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

  • I should talk to he/she – salah
  • I should talk to him/her – benar

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah whom.

Whom should I talk to about labeling food in the refrigerator?

Contoh lainnya:

Who/whom drives her mother’s car to Jakarta? – Maya drives her mother’s car to Jakarta.

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

  • He/she drives her mother’s car to Jakarta – benar
  • Him/her drives her mother’s car to Jakarta – salah

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah who.

Who drives her mother’s car to Jakarta?

Contoh lainnya:

The car is driven to school by who/whom? atau By who/whom is the car driven to school? – The car is driven to school by Maya.

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

The car is driven to school by he/she – salah
The car is driven to school by him/her – benar

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah whom.

The car is driven to school by whom? atau By whom is the car driven to school?

Interrogative adjectives memiliki beberapa kata yang sama dengan interrogative pronouns yaitu whose, what dan which. Namun ada perbedaan dalam pemakaiannya yaitu yang satu digunakan sebagai adjective (kata sifat) sedangkan yang satunya lagi digunakan sebagai pronouns (kata ganti). Contoh:

Which feat is the greater?

Kata which di atas adalah interrogative adjectives karena memodifikasi kata feat.

Contoh lainnya:

Which is the greater?

Kata which di atas adalah interrogative pronouns karena berdiri sendiri.

Dalam beberapa kasus walaupun sangat jarang digunakan dalam kalimat, kata interrogative pronouns dapat ditambahkan imbuhan –ever atau –soever. Beberapa diantaranya yaitu: whatever, whatsoever, whichever, whoever, whosoever, whomever, whomsoever, whosever.

Interrogative pronouns dengan akhiran –ever biasanya digunakan untuk memberi tekanan atau menunjukkan keterjutan. Contoh:

  1. Whoever would want to eat such a gross thing?
  2. Whoever would want to do such a nasty thing?
  3. Whomever made that noise should come to my desk.
  4. Whatever did you say?
  5. Whatever did he say to make her cry like that?
  6. Whatever is he doing with that rod?
  7. Whatever’s that yellow thing on your plate?
  8. Whatever did you say that for?
  9. Whatever does she see in him – he’s horrible!
  10. Whatever made him buy that jacket?
  11. They’re all fantastic! Whichever will you choose?

Demonstrative dan Indefinite Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penunjuk dan Kata Ganti Tak Tentu)

Demonstrative Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penunjuk)

Demonstrative pronouns adalah pronouns (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan benda, hewan atau orang yang jelas keberadaannya. Jelas maksudnya adalah benda yang ditunjuk jelas adanya, bentuk dan ciri-cirinya diketahui.

Kata yang termasuk demonstrative pronouns yaitu this, that, these dan those.

Kata this dan that untuk menunjuk benda singular (tunggal) sedangkan these dan those untuk menunjuk benda plural (jamak).

Kata this menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya dekat.

  1. This is a gift from my brother.
  2. This is an apple.
  3. This is an expensive store.
  4. This is crazy!
  5. This is heavier than that.
  6. This is Lucky speaking. Is that Marissa?
  7. This is my best friend.
  8. This is my car.
  9. This is ridiculous.
  10. This is the best chocolate chip cookie I’ve ever had.
  11. This is the kind of tie I prefer
  12. This is the one I left in the car.
  13. This is very smelly.
  14. This is very yummy!
  15. This is your shirt.
  16. This smells heavenly.
  17. This tastes delicious.
  18. This tastes good.
  19. This tastes scrumptious.
  20. This was my mother’s ring.
  21. Both watches are good, but this is better than that.
  22. I don’t like this.
  23. I really like this.
  24. There is no end to this.
  25. You’ll have to get your own pen. This is mine.
  26. Chefin, would you mail this?
  27. Do you like this?
  28. Have you seen this?
  29. Is this yours?

Kata that menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya jauh.

  1. That is a good idea.
  2. That is a very tall building.
  3. That is beautiful.
  4. That is incorrect.
  5. That is my best friend.
  6. That is my house on the corner.
  7. That is my scarf.
  8. That is not mine.
  9. That is one way to do it.
  10. That is our house.
  11. That is ridiculous.
  12. That is the Red Fort.
  13. That looks like a very good movie.
  14. That looks like the car I used to drive.
  15. That should take some time to complete.
  16. That sounds like Adhiet.
  17. That sounds like my mother calling.
  18. That was such an interesting experience.
  19. That will run for an hour.
  20. Bring me that!
  21. Dita wrote that.
  22. I am not sure that is how you do it.
  23. I heard that.
  24. I purchased that yesterday.
  25. Jessica selected that.
  26. Look at that!
  27. Please hand that to me so I can change the channel.
  28. That costs way too much money.
  29. The boxes were stacked against that.
  30. This is heavier than that.
  31. You can smell that from here.
  32. Could you hand me that?
  33. Did you do that?
  34. Did you see that?
  35. Do you like that?
  36. Is that Alim?
  37. Is that right?
  38. Is that yours?

Kata these menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya dekat.

  1. These are amazing cookies!
  2. These are bad times.
  3. These are bigger than those.
  4. These are hilarious cartoons.
  5. These are mere excuses.
  6. These are my friends.
  7. These are nice shoes, but they look uncomfortable.
  8. These are nice-looking.
  9. These are nicer than those.
  10. These are our children.
  11. These are ridiculous.
  12. These are the kind of flowers I like
  13. These are the most comfortable.
  14. These are the perfect earrings.
  15. These are very expensive shoes.
  16. These look good.
  17. These look perfect.
  18. These smell rotten.
  19. I’ll buy these.
  20. I’ll take these.
  21. Please read over these, and get back to me.
  22. Take these to the clerk.
  23. Are these less than five dolars?
  24. Could you help me move these?
  25. Do you like these?
  26. How much are these?

Kata those menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya jauh.

  1. Those are amazing cookies!
  2. Those are boys.
  3. Those are my friends.
  4. Those are my papers
  5. Those are my shoes.
  6. Those are ridiculous.
  7. Those are several of my classmates.
  8. Those are the tallest skyscrapers in the city.
  9. Those belong over there.
  10. Those belong to Mutia.
  11. Those considering a career in architecture must study engineering.
  12. Those look like riper than the apples on my tree.
  13. Those were the days!
  14. Arie purchased those for the kids.
  15. Bring me those.
  16. Do not paint those!
  17. I own those.
  18. I would like those, please.
  19. Marcella can play with those.
  20. Mouldie brought those.
  21. My views are in accordance with those of the Chairman.
  22. Please give me one of those.
  23. Surabaya mangoes are better than those of Bandung.
  24. The streets of Jakarta are busier than those of Bandung.
  25. These are bigger than those.
  26. These are nicer than those.
  27. Are those your shoes?
  28. Can you see those?
  29. Shall I take those?
  30. Where did you find those? They are mine.
  31. Which of those would you like?

Demonstrative pronouns dan demonstrative adjectives

Kata this, that, these dan those selain digunakan untuk demonstrative pronouns juga digunakan di dalam demonstrative adjectives (kata sifat penunjuk). Perbedaan antara keduanya adalah pada fungsi dan strukturnya.

Jika demonstrative pronouns digunakan sebagai pronouns (pengganti nouns) maka demonstrative adjectives digunakan sebagai adjectives (memodifikasi nouns) dan diletakkan sebelum nouns.

Contoh demonstrative adjectives:

  • That chair is too big, I’ll sit in this one.
  • That cake tastes awesome.
  • That book is good.
  • This house is big and that garden is large.
  • Don’t buy those oranges, buy these ones.
  • These books are mine and those books are yours.

Indefinite Pronouns (Kata Ganti Tak Tentu)

Bila demonstrative pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan benda, hewan atau orang yang jelas keberadaannya maka indefinite pronouns adalah kebalikannya.

Indefinite pronouns adalah pronouns yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan benda, hewan atau orang yang tidak jelas atau tidak tertentu, bisa siapapun atau bisa apapun.

Contoh:

Somebody must have seen the driver leave.
(Indefinite pronouns = somebody. Kata somebody menunjuk kepada seseorang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia, bisa siapa saja)

Everyone looked at me.
(Indefinite pronouns = everyone. Kata everyone menunjuk kepada semua orang yang kita tidak tahu siapa saja, yang terpenting adalah semua orang)

Berikut ini adalah daftar kata yang termasuk indefinite pronouns:

singular/plural indefinite pronouns arti
singular another benda atau orang yang berbeda, tambahan, menambah 1 lagi
anybody/anyone siapapun
anything apapun
each masing-masing, dilihat secara terpisah
either salah satu dari dua
enough cukup
everybody/everyone semua orang
everything semua benda
less bagian terkecil
little sedikit
much banyak
neither tidak satupun dari dua
nobody/no one tidak seorangpun
nothing tidak satupun
one seseorang atau sesuatu
other benda atau orang yang berbeda
somebody/someone seseorang yang tidak jelas
something sesuatu yang tidak jelas
plural both dua benda atau orang
few sekelompok kecil benda atau orang
fewer lebih sedikit dari biasanya
many sekelompok besar benda atau orang
others orang lain
several lebih dari dua namun tidak banyak, beberapa
singular dan plural all semuanya
any berapapun
more lebih banyak
most umumnya atau mayoritas
none tidak satupun
some tidak tertentu
such salah satu jenis yang sudah disebutkan

Contoh:

  1. All are welcome to attend the concert.
  2. All are welcome to come to the birthday party tonight.
  3. All are welcome to our house for Thanksgiving.
  4. All have arrived.
  5. All is forgiven.
  6. All is lost.
  7. All in the lobby must remain seated.
  8. All of the cake is gone.
  9. All of the cupcakes are gone.
  10. All of the newspaper was soaked.
  11. All of the people clapped their hands.
  12. You can fool all the people some of the time; you can fool some of the people all the time; but you can’t fool all the people all the time. (Abraham Lincoln, speech at the Republican state convention in Bloomington, Indiana, on May 29, 1856)
  13. Indrawan passed his card to another.
  14. Windy gave the book to another.
  15. He has one job in the day and another at night.
  16. I don’t like this room. Let’s ask for another.
  17. That ice-cream was good. Can I have another?
  18. The applications are examined by one committee, then passed on to another.
  19. That piece of cake was tasty. I think I’ll have another.
  20. That box of cookies was delicious! I’d like to buy another.
  21. Any of these words may be used in this sentence.
  22. Any will do.
  23. Are any coming?
  24. I don’t have any, but Betanti has some.
  25. I don’t have any.
  26. Is any left?
  27. Joko doesn’t have any.
  28. I don’t know any of the answers.
  29. Anybody can see this.
  30. Anybody who came along would know something awful has happened here.
  31. Does anybody agree with me?
  32. Does anybody have a clue where the dog went?
  33. Does anybody have a clue?
  34. Does anybody have the time?
  35. Does anybody know a good place where I can go to get my nails done?
  36. Hello? Is anybody there?
  37. I didn’t see Pandu at the gym. In fact, I didn’t see anybody. The place was empty.
  38. I don’t have anybody to talk to.
  39. I don’t care who it is. It can be anybody.
  40. If anybody has any questions, they’re very welcome to come and ask me.
  41. If the phone call is for me, I’m not here. I’m not talking to anybody this weekend.
  42. I knocked on the door, but there was not anybody there.
  43. I was there for over an hour before anybody came.
  44. Is anybody there?
  45. You may invite anybody you want to your birthday party.
  46. Although it could have happened to anyone, it happened to me.
  47. Anyone can plainly see that she was asking for trouble.
  48. Anyone can play that game.
  49. Anyone can play the game as long as they follow the rules.
  50. Anyone can see what’s going on here.
  51. Anyone in their right mind would know better than to do that.
  52. Anyone knows that you need a licence.
  53. Anyone that has ever lived in the city will never take for granted the peace of the country.
  54. Anyone would have agreed the woman in the black dress was gorgeous.
  55. Can anyone tell me why it is raining again?
  56. Can anyone answer this question?
  57. During my trip to the mall, I did not see anyone I knew.
  58. Have you told anyone about the treasure map?
  59. I can’t find anyone to come with me.
  60. I haven’t given anyone their presents yet.
  61. I needed to see if anyone was interested in dating my cousin.
  62. I will not dance on anyone’s grave. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
  63. I won’t tell your secret to anyone.
  64. If anyone cared about her, they certainly had an odd way of showing it.
  65. Is anyone available to babysit for me on Wednesday?
  66. Sometimes I wonder why anyone shops at this store.
  67. Your secret is safe with me. I won’t tell anyone.
  68. Won’t anyone help me?
  69. Anything is possible as long as you put your mind to it.
  70. Anything is possible if you believe.
  71. Anything can happen if you just believe.
  72. At that restaurant, you can’t buy anything for less than IDR 50,000.
  73. He would give anything to get into Harvard.
  74. I don’t have anything to eat.
  75. I don’t know anything about it.
  76. I don’t want to talk to Bluher. I don’t have anything to say to him.
  77. I don’t know anything about music. In my line, you don’t have to. (Elvis Presley, 1935-1977)
  78. Is there anything to eat?
  79. Isn’t there anything to eat?
  80. My parents always told me that anything is possible.
  81. Please tell the salesman at the door that we don’t want to buy anything.
  82. Sherly couldn’t hear anything at the concert.
  83. They can choose anything from the menu.
  84. The doctor needs to know if you have eaten anything in the last two hours.
  85. There wasn’t anything we could do.
  86. You still haven’t told me anything.
  87. When I looked around the house, I did not see anything out of the ordinary.
  88. Both are acceptable to me.
  89. Both are guilty.
  90. Both of them are coming home tonight.
  91. Both of us match the donation.
  92. Both of the girls ran through the park.
  93. Yoga likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good.
  94. Each baker presented a beautiful cake to the king.
  95. Each brought a dessert to share.
  96. Each brought a dish to pass.
  97. Each has his own thoughts.
  98. Each of the members has one vote.
  99. Each of the players has a doctor.
  100. At the Thanksgiving dinner, each brought a plated dish to make the meal complete.
  101. There are five groups of participants, and each has its own requirements.
  102. Either choice has its advantages.
  103. Either of the choices has its disadvantages.
  104. Either will do.
  105. A little government and a little luck are necessary in life, but only a fool trusts either of them. (P. J. O’Rourke, Parliament of Whores. Grove Press, 1991)
  106. Do you want tea or coffee? / I don’t mind. Either is good for me.
  107. You may have either.
  108. Enough is enough.
  109. Everybody enjoyed the concert. They stood up and clapped.
  110. Everybody had a cup of coffee.
  111. Everybody is busy finishing the quiz.
  112. Everybody is saying that Nadal will win the match, but I’m not so sure.
  113. Everybody left town for the weekend.
  114. Everybody likes a kidder, but nobody lends him money. (Arthur Miller, 1915-2005)
  115. Everybody loves Prismita.
  116. Everybody loves to eat chocolate.
  117. We can start the meeting because everybody has arrived.
  118. Everyone at the wedding could see how happy he made her.
  119. Everyone brought canned goods to the charity drive.
  120. Everyone clapped when the movie ended.
  121. Everyone did as he pleased.
  122. Everyone enjoyed the food and the company.
  123. Everyone enjoyed the movie.
  124. Everyone had a great time at the Christmas party.
  125. Everyone is sleeping in my bed.
  126. Everyone knows that.
  127. Everyone says she is beautiful inside and out.
  128. Everyone wandered aimlessly down the street wondering what would become of the space ships that occupied the otherwise clear blue sky.
  129. After the festivities, everyone was invited back to the house for the after-party.
  130. Has everyone eaten as much as they want?
  131. I really just needed some time away from everyone.
  132. Is everyone happy with his gift?
  133. Is everyone happy with his or her gift?
  134. Is everyone here?
  135. Isn’t everyone here?
  136. Normally during the holidays, everyone leaves campus.
  137. Farin is a really popular manager. Everyone likes and respects her.
  138. Everything happens for a reason.
  139. Everything is fine between Caroline and Mariana.
  140. Everything is funny as long as it is happening to somebody else. (Will Rogers, 1879-1935)
  141. Everything is going as planned
  142. Everything is taken care of.
  143. Everything is permitted.
  144. Everything was fine.
  145. Everything was ready for the party.
  146. Maya is a huge fan of Elvis Presley. She knows everything about him.
  147. I gave everything to Ranggi.
  148. I bought everything at the mall.
  149. I was told not to worry and that everything would be taken care of.
  150. It was a very clear day. We could see everything.
  151. They have no house or possessions. They lost everything in the earthquake.
  152. Few came to the wedding after the bride had a melt down and lashed out at her family and friends.
  153. Few have ever disobeyed him and lived.
  154. Few of the projects were good enough to go to the science fair.
  155. Few visited that park.
  156. Few were chosen.
  157. A few of the justices were voicing their opposition.
  158. Of those who say nothing, few are silent. (Thomas Neill)
  159. Very few came to visit the crabby old woman on the corner, leaving many to wonder if anyone cared about her at all.
  160. Fewer are smoking these days.
  161. Fewer are going to church these days.
  162. Less is more (Mies van der Rohe)
  163. Less is known about this period of history.
  164. Little is known about his early life.
  165. Little is known about this period of history.
  166. Many are planning to attend the party.
  167. Many are wishing they did.
  168. Many called for information.
  169. Many have expressed their views.
  170. Many have come already.
  171. Many missed the bus.
  172. Many were chosen.
  173. After the story of the plane crash hit the news, many called for information on loved ones aboard the flight.
  174. For many are called, but few are chosen. (Bible, Matthew 22.14)
  175. This solution is one of many.
  176. More are coming.
  177. More is better.
  178. More were ignored.
  179. There is more over there.
  180. Most of the books are out of date.
  181. Most of the work is finished.
  182. Most have refused.
  183. Most is lost.
  184. Most was rotten.
  185. Most would agree.
  186. Much has happened since we met.
  187. Much was discussed at the meeting.
  188. I keep telling Sofie and Anggia but neither believes me.
  189. In the end, neither was selected.
  190. Of these two sandwiches, neither looks like something I would eat.
  191. Nobody came.
  192. Nobody in my family eats meat.
  193. Nobody thinks that you are mean.
  194. Adhit told nobody the secrets that went on at her house.
  195. Asriningtias told nobody her secret.
  196. I phoned many times but nobody answered.
  197. I invited five friends but none have come.
  198. I have nobody to talk to.
  199. Maryam sent twenty job applications but nobody replied.
  200. None are mine.
  201. None came forward to claim the prize.
  202. None is mine.
  203. None of those people is related to me.
  204. None of the meat has spoiled.
  205. None of the apples have spoiled.
  206. They fixed the water so why is none coming out of the tap?
  207. No one admitted to knocking over the base.
  208. No one came forward to admit the crime, so the whole class was punished.
  209. No one is sleeping in my bed.
  210. No one likes to eat vegetables.
  211. No one wants to hear about my sciatica. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
  212. No one wants to hear about my health problems.
  213. No one was home at the neighbor’s.
  214. Can no one tell me the answer to this math problem?
  215. I opened the door but there was no one at home.
  216. We knew that no one had eaten the salami.
  217. Nothing happened.
  218. Nothing is true.
  219. Hariza said nothing for a moment.
  220. There is nothing to eat.
  221. I have nothing to declare except my genius. (Oscar Wilde)
  222. I know nothing about it.
  223. I’ve had flu for the past two weeks and nothing seems to make it any better.
  224. If you don’t know the answer it’s best to say nothing.
  225. My home town is the same as it was twenty years ago; nothing has changed!
  226. There was nothing we could do.
  227. One could see the mountains from miles away.
  228. One could see the tornado forming from miles away.
  229. One has got through.
  230. One of the girls gave up her seat.
  231. One of the great things about that cabin is that everything is included.
  232. All the students arrived but now one is missing.
  233. Can one smoke here?
  234. I met two girls. One has given me her phone number.
  235. One was tall and the other was short.
  236. We have to solve this problem, more than any other, today.
  237. Others can worry about that.
  238. I’ll attach two photos to this email and I’ll send others tomorrow.
  239. I’m sure that others have tried before us.
  240. I don’t like these postcards. Let’s ask for others.
  241. Some of the presidents arrived on Sunday. Others arrived the following day.
  242. He had his hat in one hand and a bunch of flowers in the other.
  243. She has two kittens, one is black and the other is all white.
  244. Several of the documents were filled with errors.
  245. Several performances are scheduled for next week.
  246. Several signed the card.
  247. Several turned out for the concert.
  248. Several were chosen.
  249. They all complained and several left the meeting.
  250. Some have the power to coax others to do what they want while others lack the power to do anything but follow.
  251. Some just do not know when to quit while they are ahead.
  252. Some of the biscuits have been eaten.
  253. Some will do anything to gain the attention of others.
  254. Some have arrived.
  255. Some are better than others.
  256. After I painted my walls a deep shade of purple and installed jet black carpet, my room may be considered too gloomy for some.
  257. Elizabeth wanted some, but I do not have any.
  258. Here is some.
  259. Please take some to Ms. Dita.
  260. The room is too gloomy for some.
  261. We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)
  262. Would you like to try some of these cookies?
  263. Somebody ate my sandwich!
  264. Somebody called the store.
  265. Somebody has forgotten her purse.
  266. Somebody rang the doorbell.
  267. Somebody shouted.
  268. Somebody should fix that.
  269. Somebody stole my wallet yesterday. They took it from my desk.
  270. Clearly somebody murdered him. It was not suicide.
  271. Could somebody help me, please?
  272. Couldn’t somebody help me, please?
  273. I will tell somebody that dinner is ready. They have been waiting a long time.
  274. Someone called to tell me the horrible news.
  275. Someone drank all the soda.
  276. Someone gave me this book.
  277. Someone gave me a gift.
  278. Someone has taken my new chemistry book.
  279. Someone is sleeping in my bed.
  280. Someone really needs to come and mow my lawn.
  281. Someone should sue the pants off of that guy!
  282. Someone walked past the window and shouted.
  283. Someone whispered in my ear, but when I turned around there was not anybody there.
  284. Someone will clean up the kitchen.
  285. Someone yelled my name.
  286. Desiana walked in and handed the piece of paper to someone.
  287. Imam, someone is here to see you.
  288. Maryam gave her ticket to someone.
  289. Nela gave that book to someone and never got it back.
  290. Saniya gave the form to someone.
  291. Are you looking for someone?
  292. Aren’t you looking for someone?
  293. Can you get someone to do it?
  294. Everyone knows it is impolite to point at someone.
  295. I’m hoping someone can help me with this math homework.
  296. I need someone to talk to. I am very lonely.
  297. It had to be someone with a car.
  298. I want to introduce you to someone.
  299. Something is making my computer act up.
  300. Something makes me want to dance.
  301. Check in that bag. I bought you something.
  302. He saw something in the garden.
  303. The fridge is empty. We need to buy something for dinner tonight.
  304. Would you like something to drink?
  305. A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read. (Mark Twain, 1835-1910)
  306. Have you lost something?
  307. Haven’t you lost something?
  308. Listen! I just heard something! What could it be?
  309. You should take something for that cough.
  310. Such is life.
  311. He was a foreigner and he felt that he was treated as such.

Singular atau plural

Pada umumnya, sebuah pronouns itu sudah jelas bentuknya apakah merupakan singular atau plural. Contoh, kata girls itu sudah jelas plural sehingga membutuhkan plural pronouns seperti they, them atau their. Sebaliknya, kata girl itu singular sehingga membutuhkan singular pronouns seperti she atau her.

Namun singular atau plural tidaklah begitu jelas untuk indefinite pronouns seperti untuk kata all, any, both, each, every, few, many, neither, nobody, dan none.

Salah satu aturan yang berguna untuk kita ingat adalah indefinite pronouns yang berakhiran -one, -thing dan -body merupakan singular meskipun kata indefinite pronouns tersebut terlihat plural seperti pada kata anyone/anybody, everyone/everybody atau everything. Contoh:

  1. Everyone took his book to class with him – benar
  2. Everyone took their book to class with him – salah
  3. Everybody is here – benar
  4. Everybody are here – salah
  5. Both of them are coming home tonight – benar
  6. Both of them is coming home tonight – salah
  7. Several performances are scheduled for next week – benar
  8. Several performances is scheduled for next week – salah

Someone atau somebody

Berdasarkan penggunaannya, someone/somebody adalah kata yang dapat digunakan untuk merujuk kepada seseorang yang tidak diketahui siapa dia dan hampir tidak ada perbedaan diantara keduanya. Walaupun begitu ada sedikit perbedaan penggunaan dari keduanya, yaitu someone lebih formal atau resmi daripada somebody.

Begitu juga dengan anyone/anybody, anyone digunakan untuk kalimat yang bersifat lebih formal. Sama juga dengan everyone/everybody, everyone lebih formal.

Selain itu, someone lebih sering digunakan dalam percakapan sehari-hari dibandingkan dengan somebody.

Berikut ini adalah contoh penggunaan someone dalam kalimat yang bersifat formal.

The bank requires that the deed be signed by someone authorized by the courts.

Else

Kata “else” digunakan setelah indefinite pronouns untuk merujuk kepada benda atau orang tambahan di samping yang telah di sebutkan. Contoh:

  1. Everyone else is downstairs.
  2. So that’s eggs, peas and chips. Do you want anything else?
  3. All the family came, but no one else.
  4. If Sarah can’t come we’ll ask somebody else.

None

Beberapa pihak berpendapat bahwa “none” hanya bisa digunakan untuk singular saja dikarenakan “none” merupakan merupakan kependekan dari “no one”.

Berdasarkan argumen tersebut mereka mengatakan bahwa kalimat “I invited three friends but none has come” benar sedangkan kalimat “I invited three friends but none have come” salah.

Namun sebenarnya hanya sedikit sekali yang berpendapat seperti di atas, lebih banyak dan lebih umum pihak yang berpendapat bahwa “none” bisa digunakan sebagai singular maupun plural.

Kalimat negatif

Jika di dalam sebuah kalimat sudah menggunakan indefinite pronouns dengan awalan “no-” maka kita tidak bisa menggunakan kata negatif lain di dalam kalimat yang sama.

  1. There wasn’t nothing – salah
  2. There was nothing you could do – benar
  3. Nobody left, nobody went away – benar

Kalimat possessive

Dengan menambahkan –'s atau –' pada indefinite pronouns maka kita bisa mendapatkan kalimat posessive. Contoh:

  1. Is this anybody’s coat?
  2. They were staying in somebody’s house.
  3. One should mind one’s own business.
  4. We should not take others’ possessions.
  5. She was given a room in someone’s studio.
  6. That was nobody’s business but mine.

Reciprocal pronouns

Dua buah indefinite pronouns bisa digabung dan menjadi reciprocal pronouns, yaitu “each” dan “other” menjadi “each other” serta “one” dan “another” menjadi “one another”. Contoh:

  1. We should respect each other.
  2. Chandra and Rofie help each other study for tests.
  3. Hariza and Eka bumped into each other in the hall.
  4. People should love one another.
  5. The police, firefighters, and paramedics help one another respond to emergencies.
  6. Students always bump into one another in our crowded hallways.

Indefinite pronouns dan indefinite adjectives

Indefinite pronouns dan indefinite adjectives memiliki kata-kata yang sama. Perbedaan antara keduanya adalah pada fungsi dan strukturnya.

Jika indefinite pronouns digunakan sebagai pronouns (pengganti nouns) maka indefinite adjectives digunakan sebagai adjectives (memodifikasi nouns) dan harus diletakkan sebelum nouns. Contoh:

  1. All in the lobby must remain seated – indefinite pronouns
  2. All personnel in the lobby must remain seated – indefinite adjectives
  3. Both of the flowers are lovely – indefinite pronouns
  4. Both flowers are lovely – indefinite adjectives
  5. Each of us has his own recollections of the trip – indefinite pronouns
  6. He selected each picture with great care – indefinite adjectives
  7. Either will be acceptable to my aunt – indefinite pronouns
  8. Either set of dishes will be acceptable to my aunt – indefinite adjectives
  9. Several of us are planning a trip to Bogor – indefinite pronouns
  10. The trip will take several days – indefinite adjectives
  11. There are several in the safe room – indefinite pronouns
  12. There are several people in the safe room – indefinite adjectives
  13. I have seen some in the cupboard – indefinite pronouns
  14. I have seen some cartridges in the cupboard – indefinite adjectives
  15. Please take some to Mrs Erika – indefinite pronouns
  16. Please take some lemons to Mrs Erika – indefinite adjectives
  17. There are 25 students in this class and several arrived late today – indefinite pronouns
  18. Several students arrived late today – indefinite adjectives