Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns digunakan untuk merujuk kepada subject sebuah kalimat yang melakukan sesuatu kepada subject itu sendiri.

Kata yang termasuk reflexive pronouns yaitu:

  • Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
  • Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Contoh:

I saw myself in the mirror.
(myself merujuk kepada I, Aku melihat diriku sendiri)

Widya still does not trust herself.
(herself merujuk kepada Widya, Widya tidak percaya sama dirinya sendiri)

  1. I hurt myself.
  2. I really hurt myself this morning when I fell down the stairs.
  3. Teguh hurt himself while he was fixing his car.
  4. He hurt himself on the rusty nail and had to get a shot.
  5. He hurt himself playing hockey.
  6. Dian hurt herself.
  7. My dog hurt itself.
  8. Don’t touch that electric wire. You will hurt yourself.
  9. I enjoyed myself at the concert.
  10. She enjoyed herself at the party.
  11. We enjoyed ourselves during the picnic.
  12. I made myself a sandwich.
  13. You can make yourselves at home.
  14. My brother made himself some dinner.
  15. She made herself a pullover.
  16. She made herself a cup of tea and sat down in front of the television.
  17. We ate so much turkey and pumpkin pie that we made ourselves sick.
  18. We do not always make ourselves practice what we preach.
  19. I bought myself a new pair of sunglasses for our trip to the beach.
  20. Wira bought himself a shirt.
  21. Ratie bought herself a new pair of shoes.
  22. She bought herself a new purse for her new job.
  23. The queen bought herself a dog.
  24. You should buy yourself a new computer.
  25. At 12.30, Ratih and I went to the cafeteria to buy ourselves some lunch.
  26. We bought ourselves pretzels at the fair.
  27. My sister and I bought ourselves popcorn at the movie.
  28. You can help yourselves to drinks.
  29. Can you help yourselves?
  30. Krisna blames himself.
  31. He blames himself for the accident.
  32. Why do you blame yourself?
  33. We blame ourselves.
  34. We blame ourselves for the results of the election.
  35. They blame themselves for the accident, because they didn’t pay attention to road signs.
  36. Parents often blame themselves for the way their children behave.
  37. I saw myself reflected in her eyes.
  38. I saw myself as a famous actor.
  39. When I saw myself in the mirror, I realized that I had paint on my cheek.
  40. When I saw myself in the mirror, I was horrified, there was red paint on my nose!
  41. The puppy saw itself in the mirror.
  42. It saw itself in the mirror.
  43. What happens when a fighting fish sees itself in the mirror?
  44. She looks at herself in the mirror.
  45. She looked at herself in the mirror for hours.
  46. She looked at herself in the bathroom mirror.
  47. The girl looked at herself in the mirror.
  48. They cannot look after themselves.
  49. Iman sent himself a copy.
  50. Dyota sent herself a copy.
  51. He cut himself on the broken glass.
  52. Anna accidentally cut herself.
  53. You cut yourself while cutting tomatoes.
  54. He accidentally cut himself while he was chopping the vegetables.
  55. I gave myself 12 weeks to get in shape.
  56. I gave myself plenty of time to get to work.
  57. The cat gave itself a bath.
  58. The girls gave themselves enough time to finish the project.
  59. I will give myself five days to finish that job.
  60. Della and her husband own their own company, so they can give themselves a holiday any time they like.
  61. We treated ourselves to a night on the town.
  62. We treated ourselves to pizza.
  63. They cannot help themselves.
  64. You helped yourselves to more ice cream.
  65. You may help yourself to any of the snacks on the table.
  66. You fellows can help yourselves to the drinks.
  67. We helped ourselves to the free drinks at the launch party.
  68. Would you like to help yourself to another drink?
  69. We asked ourselves if the new system would actually work.
  70. We often ask ourselves why we left London.
  71. Have you asked yourselves why you are here?
  72. My grandmother is no longer able to feed herself, so I help her.
  73. Can you feed yourselves?
  74. The soccer team decided to call themselves the Viking.
  75. The band call themselves “Electric”.
  76. I taught myself how to speak English, I never had a teacher.
  77. I taught myself to play the guitar.
  78. We taught ourselves French.
  79. I used a video to teach myself how to knit.
  80. Did you take a class in engineering, or did you teach yourself?
  81. Can I ask you a question, Adji? Did you go to classes to learn German, or did you teach yourself?
  82. The dog scratched itself.
  83. The dog had fleas and was scratching itself the whole day!
  84. The dog is scratching itself, it must have fleas!
  85. They think of themselves as upstanding members of the community.
  86. Adit promised himself to work harder next semester.
  87. Misbah promised herself a reward for her hard work.
  88. My cat always licks itself.
  89. One of the dogs spent hours licking itself.
  90. The terrorist shot himself.
  91. He shot himself.
  92. I was in a hurry, so I washed the car myself.
  93. Look! There’s a little bird washing itself in the river.
  94. I like myself.
  95. I cannot bring myself to do it.
  96. I burnt myself on the stove this morning.
  97. I often quote myself. It adds spice to my conversation.
  98. I introduced myself to my new neighbor.
  99. I consider myself fortunate to have escaped before the house collapsed.
  100. I had to content myself with a few Euros.
  101. If you don’t know what is wrong with yourself, then ask a doctor.
  102. You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
  103. You should let yourself into the house.
  104. When you save money in the bank, it’s like you are paying yourself.
  105. Kaisar e-mailed himself a copy of the report.
  106. He has landed himself in great trouble.
  107. If he wasn’t always pushing himself at the gym, he wouldn’t be so buff.
  108. He tried to be himself and not be like Michael Jackson all the time
  109. He found himself lying by the side of the road.
  110. He busied himself in the kitchen.
  111. She applied herself to the job of mending the lights.
  112. Because she wanted to be like her sister, Tri forced herself to practice each day.
  113. She cooked herself a quiche.
  114. She baked herself a birthday cake.
  115. She thumped herself.
  116. The old woman poisoned herself.
  117. Maya poured herself a glass of milk.
  118. The parrot admired itself in the mirror for several hours each day.
  119. The kitten groomed itself.
  120. The cat chocked itself.
  121. A house divided against itself cannot stand.
  122. The television uses a timer to turn itself off after one hour.
  123. Without strong steel architecture, the building would collapse in on itself.
  124. We often deceive ourselves.
  125. The students are able to monitor themselves.
  126. The boys hid themselves.
  127. The boys hid themselves behind the door.
  128. They believed in themselves.
  129. They have got themselves into a mess.
  130. Some people are so full of themselves.
  131. They injured themselves during the rugby match.
  132. The new robotic toys can put themselves away.
  133. They used to camera on the cell phone to take pictures of themselves.
  134. The members argued among themselves for an hour.
  135. The jurors could not agree among themselves.
  136. They spent some time familiarizing themselves with the new workplace.
  137. Some animals protect themselves through camouflage.
  138. The players prepared themselves by staying in shape.
  139. They managed themselves very well as members of the conference panel.
  140. The accountants perjured themselves when testifying before Congress.
  141. I wish the children would behave themselves.
  142. We forfeit three-fourths of ourselves in order to be like other people. (Arthur Schopenhauer, 1788-1860)
  143. If the world should blow itself up, the last audible voice would be that of an expert saying it can’t be done. (Peter Ustinov, 1921-2004)
  144. If history repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, how incapable must man be of learning from experience. (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950)
  145. Certain tomopterid worms defend themselves by squirting out a bioluminescent fluid. (Bruce Robison, “Light in the Ocean’s Midwaters,” Scientific American)

Berdasarkan letaknya, reflexive pronouns bisa diletakkan sebagai direct object, indirect object atau preposition object.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai direct object:

  1. I am teaching myself to play the piano.
  2. I pinched myself to see whether it was a dream.
  3. He saw himself in the mirror and was shocked.
  4. He shot himself in the head.
  5. Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai indirect object:

  1. I bought myself a slice of cake.
  2. He made himself coffee.
  3. Would you like to pour yourself a drink.
  4. We’ve brought ourselves something to eat.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai object of a preposition (to, for, by, dll):

  1. He gave the present to himself.
  2. Bhuana read quietly to himself.
  3. Anindya read to herself.
  4. He spoke to himself.
  5. I talk to myself when I am nervous or excited.
  6. Budi is a bit crazy. He always sits alone and talks to himself.
  7. That man is talking to himself.
  8. The man talked to himself as he walked down the street.
  9. Are you talking to yourself?
  10. She likes to look at the mirror and smile to herself.
  11. The young girl was singing happily to herself.
  12. I whistled to myself to calm down.
  13. Sometimes I think to myself that it is time to lose some weight.
  14. You should address the letter to yourself.
  15. You often talk to yourself and nobody knows what you talk about.
  16. She bought a present for herself.
  17. She had to cook for herself.
  18. They had to cook for themselves.
  19. We had to cook for ourselves since mom didn’t want to make dinner.
  20. He was feeling very sorry for himself.
  21. I bought a present for myself.
  22. When you go shopping for me, buy a present for yourself.
  23. She did it by herself.
  24. We thought to ourselves, this has been the best day we have ever spent together!

Reflexive Pronouns memiliki nilai yang penting di dalam kalimat sehingga jika di dalam kalimat yang ada reflexive pronouns-nya dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya maka kalimat tersebut akan memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda dengan sebelum dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya. Contoh:

  • I hurt myself (Aku melukai diriku sendiri)
  • I hurt (makna kalimat tidak jelas)
  • He made himself coffee (Dia membuat coffee yang sudah pasti untuk dirinya sendiri)
  • He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun tidak pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)

Kata preposition by + reflexive pronoun digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang melakukan sebuah kegiatan sendiri atau tanpa bantuan orang lain:

  1. She lives by herself.
  2. He lived by himself in an enormous house.
  3. Indrawan went to the party by himself.
  4. I went to the USA by myself.
  5. You go to the movies by yourself.
  6. You are too young to go out by yourselves.
  7. Why don’t you go by yourself?
  8. She likes to go on holiday by herself.
  9. He ate dinner by himself.
  10. You ate all of the ice cream by yourselves.
  11. She walked home by herself.
  12. You can walk to school by yourself.
  13. I prepared the whole meal by myself.
  14. The children got dressed by themselves.
  15. I did my homework by myself.
  16. She fixed her car by herself.
  17. It got its food out of the cupboard by itself.
  18. We ruined everything by ourselves.
  19. They painted the house by themselves.
  20. He made breakfast all by himself.
  21. The children made the entire meal by themselves.
  22. She created all the Christmas decorations by herself.

Reflexive pronouns tidak bisa digunakan setelah kata feel, meet, concentrate dan relax. Selain itu, reflexive pronouns biasanya tidak digunakan setelah verb yang memiliki makna kegiatan yang sering atau biasa dilakukan untuk dirinya sendiri seperti wash, shave dan dress kecuali benar-benar diperlukan untuk memperjelas atau memberi penekanan siapa yang melakukan aksi. Contoh:

  1. He cannot relax – correct
  2. He cannot relax himself – incorrect
  3. He washed in cold water – correct
  4. He washed himself in cold water – incorrect
  5. I washed clean in the bathtub – correct
  6. I washed myself clean in the bathtub – incorrect
  7. After I got up, I washed – correct
  8. After I got up, I washed myself – incorrect
  9. He always shaved before going out in the evening – correct
  10. He always shaved himself before going out in the evening – incorrect
  11. Iesa dressed and got ready for the party – correct
  12. Iesa dressed himself and got ready for the party – incorrect
  13. I dressed this morning – correct
  14. I dressed myself this morning – incorrect
  15. My daughter likes to dress without my help – correct
  16. My daughter likes to dress herself without my help – incorrect
  17. The little girl learned how to dress for school – correct
  18. The little girl learned how to dress herself for school – incorrect
  19. The children are able to dress – correct
  20. The children are able to dress themselves – incorrect

Reflexive pronouns tidak diperlukan di dalam sebuah kalimat jika kalimat tersebut sudah memiliki makna reflexive:

  • I took my mother with me – correct
  • I took my mother with myself – incorrect

Reflexive pronouns tidak digunakan setelah place preposition, namun menggunakan personal pronouns. Contoh:

  • He put the backpack next to him – correct
  • He put the backpack next to himself – incorrect

Baca juga Intensive Pronouns

Reciprocal Pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns digunakan saat dua pihak atau lebih melakukan hal yang sama satu sama lain.

Kata yang termasuk reciprocal pronouns yaitu: each other dan one another.

Contoh:

  1. Nurul and Chendy are waving to each other.
  2. Iesa and Adib admire each other.
  3. Febrie and Andrea loathe each other.
  4. Rian and Adji were laughing on each other in the school ground.
  5. Fanny and Yoga hate each other.
  6. Carya and Ratri love each other.
  7. Rizky and Eka gave each other gold rings on their wedding day.
  8. Orig and Adyati has given golden rings to each other on their wedding day.
  9. Jhon and Winarti gave each other diamond rings on their engagement ceremony.”
  10. Kaisar and Melissa kissed each other at the end of the ceremony.
  11. Dini and Laksmi were talking to each other in the hallway.
  12. Ceren and Dewi waved goodbye to each other as they left the playground.
  13. Adhit and Budi like to throw the ball to each other.
  14. Indira and Amanda like to give surprise gifts to each other.
  15. Both teams played hard against each other.
  16. Both groups fought hard against each other.
  17. Me and my friend has shared a gift to each other on new year.
  18. Our dog and cat love each other.
  19. They asked each other the same question and the same time.
  20. They always distrust each other.
  21. They can’t see each other.
  22. They gave each other gifts.
  23. They talk to each other like they’re babies.
  24. They celebrate the ring ceremony by kissing each other at the end.
  25. The boats were bumping against each other in the storm.
  26. The cars were bumping into each other on the icy road.
  27. The cars were touching each other in the traffic jam.
  28. The cats were happily grooming each other.
  29. We gave each other gifts.
  30. We give each other gifts during the holidays.
  31. Why don’t you believe each other?
  32. Why do you question each other?
  33. Our three dogs and your cat love one another.
  34. The defendants blamed one another for the crime they were charged with.
  35. The doctors rely on one another for peer consultations.
  36. The five prisoners were all blaming one another.
  37. The gangsters were fighting one another.
  38. The gang of boys was accusing one another.
  39. The horses were tripping one another as the race came to an end.
  40. The kids spent the afternoon kicking the ball to one another.
  41. The prisoners were fighting one another.
  42. The sisters were hugging one another.
  43. The students congratulated one another after giving practice speeches.
  44. The students helped one another perform the group experiment.
  45. The students in this classroom cooperate with one another.
  46. The teachers gathered to congratulate one another on the year’s conclusion.
  47. The ten angry men were all pointing fingers at one another.
  48. Customers are fighting to one another for a single product.
  49. Many kids are playing in the ground by kicking the ball to one another.
  50. Seniors have congratulated one another on their farewell party.
  51. Teachers were talking one another about the exam.

Berdasarkan aturan lama, each other digunakan untuk merujuk dua orang atau dua pihak, sedangkan jika pihak yang dirujuk lebih dari dua maka menggunakan one another. Namun peraturan ini menghilang jika menggunakan english modern.

Jika menggunakan peraturan english modern atau terkini maka tidak ada perbedaaan antara keduanya (each other dan one another).

Contoh:

We sent each other Birthday cards.
(We sent them a Birthday card, they sent us a Birthday card)

Firman and Yoggie helped one another.
(Firman helped Yoggie, Yoggie helped Firman.)

They didn’t look at one another.
(He didn’t look at her, she didn’t look at him.)

Berikut ini adalah contoh bentuk possessive dari reciprocal pronouns:

  1. Ratih and Widya can wear each other’s clothes.
  2. Kaisar and Indrawan can wear each other’s jacket.
  3. Do you two admire each other’s courage?
  4. Do you three admire one another’s courage?
  5. Sports persons can wear one another’s clothes.

Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns berguna untuk menghubungkan kalimat utama dan anak kalimat. Kalimat utama adalah kalimat yang bisa berdiri sendiri sedangkan anak kalimat fungsinya hanya menjelaskan atau menerangkan noun yang ada di dalam kalimat utama. Anak kalimat yang diawali dengan relative pronouns ini disebut sebagai adjective clause atau relative clause.

Contoh:

Dr Endang, who lectured at UGM for more than 12 years, should have known the difference.

Kalimat di atas merupakan gabungan dari dua buah kalimat yaitu kalimat utama dan anak kalimat dengan relative pronouns who sebagai penghubung:

  • Kalimat utama: Dr Endang should have known the difference.
  • Anak kalimat: Dr Endang lectured at UGM for more than 12 years.
  • Relative pronouns: who
  • Nouns: Dr Endang

Anak kalimat di atas berguna untuk menerangkan mengenai [Dr Endang] yang ada pada kalimat utama.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [Dr Endang] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

Kata yang termasuk relative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which dan that.

Relative pronouns berdasarkan kata yang digantikan:

  • Who dan whom digunakan untuk orang.
  • Whose digunakan untuk kepemilikan.
  • Which digunakan untuk benda.
  • That digunakan untuk benda dan orang (tidak resmi).

Walaupun that bisa digunakan untuk orang namun sebagian pembaca tidak senang bila that digunakan untuk orang. Oleh karena itu hindari menggunakan that untuk orang terutama dalam penulisan resmi seperti surat-menyurat. Kamu bisa menggunakan that untuk orang dalam kalimat percakapan atau situasi tidak resmi.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh kalimat dengan relative pronouns (relative pronouns ditebalkan dan adjective clause diberi garis bawah):

  1. Dena, who is very kind, is my friend.
  2. He is the bank teller who helped us open an account.
  3. Her brother who works at the barbershop is a friend of mine.
  4. Her brother, who works at the barbershop, is a friend of mine.
  5. I am looking for someone who could give me a ride to Jakarta.
  6. I think anyone who speaks in public is nervous beforehand.
  7. I went to Malang with the girl who lives next door.
  8. I went to Surabaya with Irna, who lives next door.
  9. Liana, who is still at the airport, will arrive before 5 o’clock.
  10. Mr Arif, who is a doctor, lives on the corner.
  11. Mr Hendy, who is 56, has just retired.
  12. Ms Yayuk, who is very kind, is my aunt.
  13. My aunt, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
  14. My mother, who called me this morning, says she is coming to visit me this week.
  15. People who are clever can always find a way.
  16. She’s the old lady who lent me her phone.
  17. That’s Fazlur, the boy who has just arrived at the airport.
  18. The girl who wore a white dress attracted everybody’s attention at the party.
  19. The man who doesn’t read good books has no advantage over the man who can’t read them. (Mark Twain)
  20. The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO.
  21. The man who you saw in the house is my brother.
  22. The old lady who you have just spoken to is my teacher.
  23. The parents who we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  24. The person who called me last night is my cousin.
  25. The person who phoned me last night is my aunt.
  26. The woman who called me yesterday was my aunt.
  27. The woman who I saw yesterday was Aini.
  28. The woman who is talking to Windy is my mother.
  29. The woman who lives next door is a doctor.
  30. The world is a much sunnier place for people who have a positive attitude.
  31. This is the girl who comes from Bekasi.
  32. Tias, who has worked in Jakarta ever since leaving Bandung, will be starting a teaching course in February.
  33. Wulan, who I haven’t seen for ages, rang me this morning.
  34. I had an uncle in Surabaya whom I inherited a bit of money from.
  35. My cousin, whom I helped to install his computer, always forgets his password.
  36. She wrote to the person whom she had met last year.
  37. The man to whom you have just spoken is my teacher.
  38. The parents whom we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  39. This is Adhiet’s brother, with whom I went to school.
  40. This is Zeneth, whom you met at our house last month.
  41. Chefin, whose sister I used to shared a house with, has gone to work in Makassar.
  42. I have a friend whose dog is annoying.
  43. I talked to the woman whose car had broken down in front of the supermarket.
  44. My uncle, whose child you just met, is a doctor.
  45. Students whose parents are wealthy pay extra.
  46. The car, whose driver is a young man, is from Surabaya.
  47. The student whose phone just rang should stand up.
  48. The woman, whose father is a doctor, forgot her umbrella.
  49. There was me and there was Sarah, whose party it was, and then there were three other people.
  50. This is Nico, whose brother went to school with me.
  51. Another activity which I have chosen is photography.
  52. I cannot forget the song which they played yesterday.
  53. I saw the cat which ate the sandwich.
  54. It was the same picture which I saw at the library.
  55. My bike, which I bought yesterday, was stolen.
  56. Pizza, which many of us enjoy, can be messy.
  57. She won’t have much time to prepare for the meeting, which is this morning.
  58. The book which is on the table belongs to Chefin.
  59. The cafe, which sells the best coffee in town, has recently been closed.
  60. The car which hit me was red.
  61. The car which I drive is new.
  62. The carpets which you bought last month have gone moldy.
  63. The fruit which was put in the fruit bowl needs to be put in the picnic basket.
  64. The police are looking for the car of which the driver was masked.
  65. The supermarket which we visited last month is closed now.
  66. The theater, in which the play debuted, housed 500 people.
  67. This is the bank which accepted my identification.
  68. We didn’t bring the receipt, which was a big mistake.
  69. We drove past my old school, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year.
  70. We had a lovely meal at the place which Chefin recommended.
  71. A person that you don’t trust won’t trust you either.
  72. Another activity that I have chosen is photography.
  73. He blamed himself for everything that had happened.
  74. He is the kind of person that will never let you down.
  75. I am looking for someone that could give me a ride to Jakarta.
  76. I cannot remember the hotel that we stayed at.
  77. I had an uncle in Jakarta that I inherited a bit of money from.
  78. I think anyone that speaks in public is nervous beforehand.
  79. Pizza is all that she wants.
  80. She went to the school that my mother went to.
  81. The 7.30 is the train that you need to get.
  82. The bike that I bought yesterday was stolen.
  83. The cafe that sells the best coffee in town has recently been closed.
  84. The car that hit me was blue.
  85. The car that I drive is new.
  86. The house that Fariz built is large.
  87. The library did not have the book that I wanted.
  88. The parents that we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  89. The person that phoned me last night is my mother.
  90. The police usually ask for every detail that helps identify the missing person.
  91. This is the cake that Caroline baked.
  92. This is the house that had a great decoration.

Berdasarkan subject dan object:

  • Who digunakan untuk mengganti subject dan object (tidak resmi).
  • Whom digunakan untuk mengganti object (resmi).
  • Whose, which dan that bisa digunakan untuk mengganti subject maupun object.

Contoh:

Mrs Sofie, who is very kind, is my teacher.

  • Kalimat utama: Mrs Sofie is my teacher.
  • Anak kalimat: Mrs Sofie is very kind.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [Mrs Sofie] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

The person that phoned me last night is my mother.

  • Kalimat utama: The person is my mother.
  • Anak kalimat: The person phoned me last night.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [The person] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns that.

The man who you saw in the house is my brother.

  • Kalimat utama: The man is my brother.
  • Anak kalimat: You saw the man in the house.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [the man] memiliki posisi sebagai object dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

The carpets which you bought last year have gone moldy.

  • Kalimat utama: The carpets have gone moldy.
  • Anak kalimat: You bought the carpets last year.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [the carpets] memiliki posisi sebagai object dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns which.

Who dan whom memiliki arti yang sama namun berbeda dalam penggunaan.

Walaupun who bisa digunakan sebagai pengganti object namun who yang digunakan sebagai pengganti object tidak bisa digunakan untuk bahasa resmi. Sebaliknya, whom hanya bisa digunakan untuk bahasa resmi. Sangat jarang sekali ada yang memakai whom untuk bahasa tidak resmi seperti bahasa percakapan.

Contoh:

  1. The person whom I phoned last night is my mother.
  2. The person who I phoned last night are my mother.
  3. The person that I phoned last night is my mother.

Pada ketiga contoh di atas, relative pronouns whom, who dan that menggantikan object [The person].

Contoh 1 hanya digunakan untuk kondisi resmi, sedangkan contoh 2 dan 3 hanya digunakan untuk kondisi tidak resmi.

Berdasarkan arti atau makna dari anak kalimat maka anak kalimat bisa dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu [menjelaskan identitas] atau [memberi informasi tambahan].

1. Menjelaskan identitas

Contoh:

The lady who made your white dress is waiting inside.

Pada contoh di atas:

  • Kalimat utama: The lady is waiting inside.
  • Anak kalimat: who made your white dress.

Bila dilihat berdasarkan arti atau maknanya maka anak kalimat di atas menerangkan mengenai siapa [The lady] atau [The lady] yang mana yang dimaksud karena [The lady] yang dimaksud pada kalimat utama bisa siapa saja.

2. Memberi informasi tambahan

Contoh:

Mrs Anggia, who owns a boutique, is waiting inside.

Pada contoh di atas:

  • Kalimat utama: Mrs Anggia is waiting inside.
  • Anak kalimat: who owns a boutique.

Bila dilihat berdasarkan arti atau maknanya maka anak kalimat di atas hanya [memberi informasi tambahan] mengenai [Mrs Anggia]. Informasi tambahan tersebut tidaklah penting dan bisa dihilangkan tanpa mengganggu makna kalimat utama.

Perbedaan jenis anak kalimat antara [menjelaskan identitas] dan [memberi informasi tambahan] adalah pada penting atau tidak pentingnya anak kalimat. Anak kalimat yang penting disebut sebagai restrictive clause sedangkan anak kalimat yang tidak penting disebut sebagai non-restrictive clause.

Bila anak kalimat tidak dianggap penting maka anak kalimat akan masuk ke dalam kategori [memberi informasi tambahan] dan sebaliknya bila anak kalimat dianggap penting maka anak kalimat akan masuk ke dalam kategori [menjelaskan identitas].

Selain perbedaan di atas, berdasarkan penulisannya, anak kalimat yang [memberi informasi tambahan] harus ditulis di antara symbol koma [,]. Sebaliknya anak kalimat yang [menjelaskan identitas] tidak ditulis di dalam symbol koma.

Contoh:

  1. My sister who lives in Semarang bought a house.
  2. My sister, who lives in Semarang, bought a house.

Kedua contoh di atas bisa digunakan namun memiliki arti dan makna yang berbeda.

Pada contoh 1, anak kalimat memiliki arti atau makna [menjelaskan identitas] [My sister]. Sedangkan Pada contoh 2, anak kalimat memiliki arti atau makna hanya [memberi informasi tambahan] mengenai [My sister].

Anak kalimat pada contoh 1 sifatnya sangat penting untuk menjelaskan siapa itu [My sister]. Sedangkan anak kalimat pada contoh 2 sifatnya tidak penting hanya untuk [memberi informasi tambahan] sehingga anak kalimat pada contoh 2 bisa dihapus.

Asumsinya pada contoh 1 adalah dia memiliki banyak saudara perempuan kemudian oleh anak kalimat dijelaskan mengenai saudara perempuan yang mana yang dimaksud.

Sedangkan asumsi pada contoh 2 adalah dia hanya memiliki satu saudara perempuan dan oleh anak kalimat diberi informasi tambahan bahwa saudara perempuannya itu sekarang tinggal di Semarang. Berdasarkan asumsi tersebut maka kita bisa mengambil kesimpulan bahwa anak kalimat pada contoh 2 tidak menjelaskan saudara perempuan yang mana, anak kalimat hanya memberi informasi tambahan.

Khusus untuk anak kalimat dengan awal relative pronouns that hanya bisa digunakan untuk [menjelaskan identitas].

1. His car, which was very old, broke down after just one kilometres.
2. His car, that was very old, broke down after just one kilometres.

Contoh 1 di atas adalah contoh yang benar secara grammar sedangkan contoh 2 adalah contoh yang salah dan tidak bisa digunakan.

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan.

Penggunaan possessive pronouns tergantung dari beberapa hal, diantaranya yaitu:

  • Possessive pronouns sebagai singular atau plural
  • Possessive pronouns sebagai pengganti orang laki-laki atau perempuan
  • Possessive pronouns sebagai pengganti orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga

Berikut ini adalah daftar kata personal pronouns:

Orang Jumlah Kelamin Personal Pronouns
Orang Pertama Singular Laki-laki/Perempuan mine
Orang kedua Singular Laki-laki/Perempuan yours
Orang ketiga Singular Laki-laki his
Orang ketiga Singular Perempuan hers
Orang pertama Plural Laki-laki/Perempuan ours
Orang kedua Plural Laki-laki/Perempuan yours
Orang ketiga Plural Laki-laki/Perempuan theirs

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh penggunaan possessive pronouns:

  1. The cat is mine.
  2. His car is faster than mine.
  3. This is my laptop. It’s mine.
  4. Priska’s car is red. Mine is green.
  5. This sandwich is mine but you can have it.
  6. Look at these pictures. Mine is the small one.
  7. I like your flowers. Do you like mine?
  8. If the books belong to me, they are my books. They are mine.
  9. The cat is yours.
  10. Their father gets along well with yours.
  11. I know this drink is yours but I need to drink something.
  12. I don’t like this family’s garage but I like yours.
  13. I looked everywhere for your passport. I found Zulfikar’s passport but I couldn’t find yours.
  14. If the house belongs to you, it is your house. It is yours.
  15. Each couple’s books are colour-coded. Yours are green.
  16. My flowers are dying. Yours are lovely.
  17. This book is mine, not yours.
  18. What’s mine is yours, my friend.
  19. The kids are yours and mine.
  20. All the essays were good but his was the best.
  21. This is my sister’s car. It’s his.
  22. The book next to the window is his.
  23. The car over there is his, but this one right here is [mine.
  24. If the watch belongs to him, it is his watch. It is [his.
  25. That laptop is hers.
  26. The pencil is hers.
  27. They say female canaries can’t sing. Well, hers can.
  28. Retno found his ticket but Dita couldn’t find hers.
  29. I think the cheese cookies at the party were hers.
  30. Asri finished [her homework early, but Putu did not do hers until later.
  31. The table belongs to my mother. It is hers.
  32. If the flowers belong to her, they are her flowers. They are hers.
  33. Dian likes to wear her hair short, while Dini prefers to wear hers long.
  34. I didn’t have my umbrella so Rina lent me hers.
  35. This is our car. It’s ours.
  36. The car on the corner is ours.
  37. Your photos are good. Ours are terrible.
  38. We shall finally have what is rightfully ours.
  39. If the car belongs to us, it is [our car. It is ours.
  40. Here is your bike. Ours is over there, where we left it.
  41. We cherish our friends not for their ability to amuse us, but for ours to amuse them. (Evelyn Waugh, 1903-1966)
  42. The laptop is theirs.
  43. Theirs are in the garden.
  44. That food is ours and not theirs.
  45. The money was really theirs for the taking.
  46. The house is theirs and its paint is flaking.
  47. These aren’t Arief and Bening’s children. Theirs have black hair.
  48. Danang and Winda don’t like your car. Do you like theirs?
  49. If the car belongs to them, it is their car. It is theirs.
  50. Humans are the only animals that have children on purpose with the exception of guppies, who like to eat theirs. (P J O’Rourke)

Possessive adjectives disebut juga sebagai possessive pronouns

Posessive adjectives adalah adjectives yang berguna untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan. Di dalam kalimat, posessive adjective diletakkan sebelum noun untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan siapa noun tersebut.

Kata yang termasuk possessive adjectives yaitu: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose.

Pronouns adalah kata yang mengganti noun. Karena possessive adjectives juga mengganti nouns maka possessive adjectives juga bisa digolongkan sebagai pronouns dan bisa juga disebut sebagai possessive pronouns.

Contoh 1:

This is Oktasari’s hat.

This is her hat. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive adjective her mengganti kata Oktasari yang merupakan sebuah noun. Oleh karena itu possessive adjectives disebut juga sebagai possessive pronouns).

This hat is hers. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive pronoun hers mengganti kata Oktasari’s hat).

Contoh 2:

Take Maya’s car to the concert.

Take her car to the concert. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive adjective her mengganti kata Maya yang merupakan sebuah noun. Oleh karena itu possessive adjectives disebut juga sebagai possessive pronouns).

Take hers to the concert. (Pada contoh terlihat possessive pronoun hers mengganti kata Maya’s car)