Possessive Adjectives (Kata Sifat Kepemilikan)

Possessive adjectives adalah adjectives (kata sifat) yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan.

Catatan:

  • Possessive adjective disebut juga possessive determiner.
  • Possessive adjective diletakkan sebelum noun (kata benda).

Kata yang termasuk possessive adjectives yaitu: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose.

Contoh:

  1. I am looking for my hat.
  2. I like my new car.
  3. I’ll get my bag.
  4. My book is on the table.
  5. My car is very old.
  6. My computer is clean.
  7. My favourite colour is red.
  8. My mother is here.
  9. My mum has also got a hat.
  10. My pen is on the table.
  11. My shirt is green.
  12. That is my pen.
  13. That’s my pizza!
  14. This is my book.
  15. You are my student.
  16. I am your teacher.
  17. I like your hair.
  18. I think you forgot your book.
  19. I think you forgot your purse.
  20. Is this your luggage?
  21. What is your name?
  22. You are in your classroom.
  23. You can leave your hat on.
  24. Your house is big.
  25. Your PC needs cleaning.
  26. Your three children are lovely.
  27. He accidentally cut his finger.
  28. His name is Wira.
  29. His pillow is soft.
  30. It is his guitar.
  31. Rian gave me his phone number.
  32. Firman left his bag at home.
  33. That is his baseball cap.
  34. What have you done with his shoe?
  35. He ate her food by mistake.
  36. Her boyfriend is very friendly.
  37. Her dog is small.
  38. Her first name is Dian.
  39. Her name is Anna.
  40. I am looking after her dog
  41. She plays to her strengths.
  42. It is eating its food.
  43. It will show its teeth.
  44. Its bone is new.
  45. Its color is beautiful.
  46. The cat is eating its food.
  47. The dog buried its bone.
  48. The dog licked its wounded paw.
  49. This is its new home
  50. Our bird is noisy.
  51. Our classroom isn’t very big.
  52. Our dog is black.
  53. Our holiday was cancelled.
  54. We are eating our lunch.
  55. We have our reasons.
  56. We have sold our house.
  57. The girls missed their bus.
  58. The girls missed their class.
  59. The students thanked their Japanese teacher.
  60. Their car is in their garage.
  61. Their car is slow.
  62. Their homework is on the table.
  63. Their house is on Spring Street.
  64. Their PCs are covered in dirt.
  65. They are eating their popsicles.
  66. They washed their hands.
  67. Whose bag is this?
  68. Whose writing is this?

Perbedaan Its dan It’s

Its It’s
  • Its = possessive adjective
  • Its bone is new.
  • It’s = singkatan dari it is.
  • It’s hot today = It is hot today.

Perbedaan Your dan You’re

Your You’re
  • Your = possessive adjective
  • Your book is new.
  • You’re = singkatan dari you are.
  • You’re intelligent = You are intelligent.

Perbedaan possessive adjective dan possessive pronoun

Walaupun sama-sama menunjukkan kepunyaan namun possessive adjective dan possessive pronoun memiliki perbedaan mendasar, diantaranya yaitu possessive adjective adalah adjective (kata sifat) sedangkan possessive pronoun adalah pronoun (kata ganti).

Perbedaan possessive adjective dan possessive pronoun berdasarkan kata yang digunakan:

Possessive adjective Possessive pronoun
my mine
your yours
his his
her hers
its
our ours
their theirs
whose whose

Berdasarkan letaknya atau penggunaannya di dalam kalimat, possessive adjective diletakkan sebelum noun (kata benda) sedangkan possessive pronoun digunakan sebagai pengganti noun (kata benda) yang bisa berdiri sendiri.

Contoh:

  • possessive adjective: Her hair is red.
  • possessive pronoun: That laptop is hers.

 

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Verbs (Kata Kerja)

Ada beberapa jenis pengelompokan verbs (kata kerja), diantaranya yaitu:

1. Active dan Passive Verbs (Kata Kerja Aktif dan Pasif)

Kalimat aktif adalah jika subject yang melakukan tindakan sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah jika bukan subject yang melakukan tindakan. Kata kerja (verbs) yang ada di dalam kalimat aktif disebut sebagai active verbs (kata kerja aktif) sedangkan yang berada di dalam kalimat pasif disebut sebagai passive verbs (kata kerja pasif).

Contoh kata kerja aktif:

The man baked a pancake.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (the man) yang melakukan tindakan membuat kue (pancake). Kata kerja aktif: baked.

Contoh kata kerja pasif:

A pancake was baked by the man.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (a pancake) bukanlah yang melakukan tindakan. Kata kerja pasif: was baked.

Dalam penggunaan sehari-hari, kalimat aktif lebih sering digunakan. Sedangkan kalimat pasif hanya digunakan untuk beberapa situasi tertentu atau untuk memberi penekanan bahwa tindakan yang dilakukan lebih penting daripada orang yang melakukannya.

2. Transitive, Intransitive dan Linking Verbs (Kata Kerja Transitif, Intransitif dan Kata Kerja Penghubung)

Berdasarkan ada atau tidaknya object di dalam sebuah kalimat, verbs bisa dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu transitive dan intransitive verbs (kata kerja transitif dan intransitif).

Transitive verbs adalah kata kerja yang melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object.

Catatan: Direct object adalah object yang berupa noun (kata benda) yang mendapatkan tindakan dari verb (kata kerja). Direct object yang mengikuti transitive verbs biasanya menjelaskan atau menjawab mengenai pertanyaan apa (what) atau siapa (whom). Rumus: Subject + Transitive verb + direct object.

Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat dengan transitive verb (transitive verb diberi format bold dan direct object diberi format underline):

She played the piano
(transitive verb: played, direct object: the piano)

Pada contoh di atas, transitive verb “played” melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object “the piano“. Direct object “the piano” menjelaskan mengenai apa yang dilakukan oleh transitive verb “played”.

Intransitive verbs adalah kata kerja yang tidak memiliki atau membutuhkan direct object.

Contoh kalimat dengan intransitive verb (intransitive verb diberi format bold):

  1. I cried.
  2. Ranggi laughed.
  3. He ran.

Linking verbs (kata kerja penghubung) adalah verbs yang bisa digolongkan ke dalam intransitive verbs karena linking verbs tidak memiliki object.

Lingking verbs atau yang disebut juga copula atau copular verbs berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject dengan predicate (predikat) yang berupa adjectives (kata sifat) atau nouns (kata benda) yang menjelaskan mengenai subject tersebut.

Kata atau frasa (gabungan dua kata atau lebih) yang terletak setelah linking verbs disebut sebagai subject complement (pelengkap subjek).

Ada banyak kata yang termasuk ke dalam linking verbs, namun beberapa yang umum yaitu:

  • Verb be dan have (am, is, is being, are, are being, was, was being, were, will be, has, has been, have been, will have been, might have been, had been)
  • Verbs yang berkaitan dengan indra (look, feel, smell, sound, taste)
  • Verb become (become, becomes, became, has become, have become, had become, will become, will have become)
  • Verb seem (seemed, seeming, seems, has seemed, have seemed, had seemed, will seem)
  • Lainnya (act, appear, come, constitute, equal, form, get, go, grow, keep, make, measure, prove, represent, stay, turn, remain)

Contoh kalimat dengan linking verbs:

My sister is a doctor.
(Subject: My sister, linking verb: is, noun: a doctor)

Pada contoh di atas, verb “is” tidak melakukan tindakan terhadap object sehingga verb “is” tidak bisa digolongkan ke dalam transitive verb. Verb “is” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject “My sister” dan noun “a doctor” sehingga bisa disebut sebagai linking verb.

Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas tidak mendapatkan tindakan dari verb sehingga tidak bisa digolongkan sebagai direct object. Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menerangkan mengenai subject “My sister” sehingga disebut sebagai subject complement.

3. Regular dan Irregular Verbs (Kata Kerja Beraturan dan Tidak Beraturan)

Berdasarkan perubahan bentuknya, verbs bisa dibedakan menjadi regular dan irregular verbs (kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan).

Regular verbs adalah kata kerja yang perubahan bentuknya mengikuti aturan atau pola.

Contoh beberapa regular verb dan perubahan bentuknya:

verb 3rd person singular,present tense past past participle present participle
cry cries cried cried crying
live lives lived lived living
love loves loved loved loving
play plays played played playing
work works worked worked working

Irregular verbs adalah kata kerja yang perubahan bentuknya tidak mengikuti aturan atau pola yang pasti.

Berikut ini adalah contoh beberapa irregular verb:

verb 3rd person singular,present tense past past participle present participle
burst bursts burst burst bursting
cut cuts cut cut cutting
put puts put put putting
read reads read read reading
spread spreads spread spread spreading

Walaupun pada beberapa irregular verb tidak terjadi perubahan bentuk ejaan atau huruf pada bentuk past dan past participle namun ada perubahan pengucapan atau bunyi (Contoh: pada verb read terjadi perubahan bunyi yang cukup jelas perbedaannya pada bentuk past dan past participle).

4. Auxiliary Verbs (Kata Kerja Bantu)

Auxiliary verbs adalah kata kerja yang digunakan untuk melengkapi kata kerja biasa.

Contoh auxiliary verbs dalam kalimat:

  • I am leaving (“leaving” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “am” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “leaving”).
  • Do you smoke? (“smoke” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “Do” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “smoke”).
  • She has arrived (“arrived” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “has” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “arrived”).

Catatan:

  • Posisi auxiliary verbs selalu diletakkan sebelum kata kerja biasa.
  • Auxiliary verbs disebut juga sebagai helping verbs.
  • Kata kerja biasa terkadang disebut juga sebagai main verbs (kata kerja utama) atau lexical verbs (kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan kamus) atau full verbs (kata kerja penuh) atau kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri.

Ada tiga auxiliary verbs yang umum digunakan, yaitu: be, do dan have.

5. Modal Verbs (Kata Kerja Modal)

Modal verbs (kata kerja modal) merupakan bagian dari auxiliary verbs, memiliki fungsi yang sama dengan auxiliary verbs yaitu sebagai pelengkap kata kerja biasa.

Perbedaannya dengan auxiliary verbs adalah pada kata kerja yang digunakan. Jika kata kerja yang digunakan pada auxiliary verbs adalah be, do dan have maka kata kerja yang digunakan pada modal verbs yaitu can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will dan would.

Beberapa verbs lainnya seperti ought to, used to, need, dan dare dikenal sebagai semi-modal karena terkadang verbs tersebut dapat berfungsi seperti kata kerja modal dan terkadang sebagai kata kerja biasa.

Contoh kata kerja modal dalam kalimat:

  • She can speak English (“speak” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa dan “can” digunakan sebagai modal verb untuk melengkapi “speak”).
  • Tidza should be in Jakarta by now (“be” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa dan “should” digunakan sebagai modal verb untuk melengkapi “be”).

 

Modal Verbs (Kata Kerja Modal)

Modal verbs (kata kerja modal) merupakan bagian dari auxiliary verbs (kata kerja bantu), memiliki fungsi yang sama dengan auxiliary verbs yaitu sebagai pelengkap kata kerja biasa.

Perbedaannya dengan auxiliary verbs adalah pada kata kerja yang digunakan. Jika kata kerja yang digunakan pada auxiliary verbs adalah be, do dan have maka kata kerja yang digunakan pada modal verbs yaitu can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will dan would.

Beberapa verbs lainnya seperti ought to, used to, need, dan dare dikenal sebagai semi-modal karena terkadang verbs tersebut dapat berfungsi seperti kata kerja modal dan terkadang sebagai kata kerja biasa.

Contoh kata kerja modal:

  • She can speak English (“speak” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa dan “can” digunakan sebagai modal verb untuk melengkapi “speak”).
  • Tidza should be in Jakarta by now (“be” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa dan “should” digunakan sebagai modal verb untuk melengkapi “be”).

Catatan: Kata modal pada modal verbs berasal dari modality yang memiliki pengertian ekspresi untuk menyatakan sesuatu seperti kemungkinan, dugaan, kemampuan, keperluan, permintaan dan lain sebagainya.

Can

1. Can digunakan untuk menyatakan kemampuan melakukan sesuatu:

  1. Picky can play tennis really well. He’s champion of his club. (“play” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa dan “can” digunakan sebagai modal verb untuk melengkapi “play”).
  2. Rezki can’t speak French.
  3. Ricky can write poetry very well.
  4. Tuty can speak three languages.
  5. Mega can’t play the piano. She has never studied it.
  6. Myra can’t make it to our meeting after all. She’s stuck in traffic.
  7. Birds can fly.
  8. Can you play the piano?
  9. Can you speak French? – Only a few words, but my Chinese is pretty good.
  10. Elephants can’t fly.
  11. Even with a burst of adrenaline, people can’t pick up something that heavy.
  12. He can run really fast.
  13. He can speak Chinese but he can’t write it very well.
  14. He can speak Spanish.
  15. He can swim across the river
  16. He can swim like a fish.
  17. He cannot speak French.
  18. He can’t come today.
  19. He can’t drive. He’s too tired.
  20. He can’t see you right now. He’s in surgery.
  21. Help. I can’t breathe.
  22. He’s amazing, he can speak four languages, including Chinese.
  23. I can help you tomorrow.
  24. I can lift that easily.
  25. I can play the guitar.
  26. I can ride a horse.
  27. I can run a mile in 7 minutes.
  28. I can see clearly now the rain is gone.
  29. I can see you tomorrow.
  30. I can speak a little Russian.
  31. I can speak Chinese.
  32. I can speak three languages.
  33. I can swim.
  34. I can’t come to the party.
  35. I can’t drive.
  36. I can’t lift this box – it’s too heavy! Would you help me?
  37. I can’t open this window! I think it’s stuck.
  38. I can’t speak French.
  39. I can’t swim, but my sister can.
  40. I don’t have any time. I can’t help her now.
  41. I have some free time. I can help her now.
  42. I’m afraid I can’t play tennis tomorrow. I’ve got a dentist appointment.
  43. I’m sorry. I can’t help you. I don’t know how to do it.
  44. She can hear much better with her new hearing aids.
  45. She can speak five languages.
  46. She can speak several languages.
  47. She can’t hear. There’s too much noise.
  48. She’s ten years old, but she can’t read yet. Her parents are getting her extra lessons.
  49. The doctor can see you now.
  50. The machine can be turned on by flipping this switch.
  51. They can control their own budgets.
  52. They can run but they can’t hide.
  53. They can’t dance very well.
  54. Unfortunately, I really can’t sing at all. No-one in my family is musical either.
  55. We can’t come now.
  56. We can’t fix it.
  57. We can’t hear very well at the back.
  58. With a burst of adrenaline, people can pick up cars.
  59. You can make a lot of money if you are lucky.

2. Can digunakan untuk mempertanyakan kemampuan melakukan sesuatu:

  1. Can you speak Spanish?
  2. Can you work a forklift?

3. Can digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang sangat mungkin benar:

  1. American automobile makers can make better cars if they think there’s a profit in it.
  2. Any child can grow up to be president.
  3. Anyone can become rich and famous if they know the right people.
  4. Children can be difficult sometimes.
  5. Children can be very naughty.
  6. He can’t be at work now, can he? It’s nearly midnight.
  7. Her life can’t be easy. She has three children and very little money.
  8. I know you can win the competition.
  9. It can be very cold in winter.
  10. It can get cold there at night so take a jacket.
  11. It can’t be dark outside! It’s only 5.30 pm!
  12. It can’t cost more than a dollar or two.
  13. It only takes two hours to fly from Jakarta to Surabaya? That can’t be correct!
  14. It’s still light. It can’t be bedtime.
  15. Learning a language can be a real challenge.
  16. Learning English can be difficult.
  17. Prices can be high in Jakarta.
  18. Smoking can cause cancer.
  19. That can’t be right.
  20. That can’t be true.
  21. That woman can’t be a doctor! She looks far too young.
  22. There can be strong rivalry between siblings
  23. They can’t have landed on the moon, I’m sure it’s a hoax.
  24. This bill can’t be right! $5 for two cups of coffee!
  25. This can’t be Budi’s coat. He’s tall and this is tiny.
  26. We can stay with my brother when we are in London.
  27. Well, I think your car can be repaired, but it’s not going to be cheap.
  28. Where is Leila? She can’t be at home.
  29. Who’s that at the door? It can’t be Ceren – she’ll still be at work now.
  30. Windsurfing can be difficult.
  31. You can catch that train at 11:40.
  32. You can easily lose your way in the dark.
  33. You cannot be serious.
  34. You can’t be 35! I thought you were about 18 years old.
  35. You can’t be tired. You’ve only just got out of bed!
  36. You’ve already eaten enough for two people! You can’t still be hungry!.

4. Can digunakan untuk meminta/memberi/menolak izin (lebih sopan menggunakan could dan may):

  1. Dewi, you can play outside if you like (memberi izin).
  2. Can I ask a question, please? (meminta izin).
  3. Can I ask you a question? (meminta izin).
  4. Can I borrow your pen? (meminta izin).
  5. Can I call you later tonight? (meminta izin).
  6. Can I go home now? (meminta izin).
  7. Can I open the window? (meminta izin).
  8. Can I sit in that chair please? (meminta izin).
  9. Can I smoke here? (meminta izin).
  10. Can I talk to my friends in the library waiting room? (meminta izin).
  11. Can I use your phone please? (meminta izin).
  12. Can we go home now? (meminta izin).
  13. Can we swim in the lake? (meminta izin).
  14. Can we take photos? (meminta izin).
  15. Can you open the door? (meminta izin).
  16. You can borrow my car (memberi izin).
  17. You can borrow my pen if you like (memberi izin).
  18. You can borrow the car today, but you can’t have it tomorrow (memberi izin).
  19. You can drive as fast as you want on the German motorways (memberi izin).
  20. You can go home now if you like (memberi izin).
  21. You can go now (memberi izin).
  22. You can go whenever you like (memberi izin).
  23. You can have a sweet if you like (memberi izin).
  24. You can put your books here (memberi izin).
  25. You can smoke here (memberi izin).
  26. You can use my umbrella, I don’t need it right now (memberi izin).
  27. You cannot drive a car without a license (menolak izin).
  28. You can’t come in now (menolak izin).
  29. You can’t go to the park. It will still be wet from the rain last night (menolak izin).
  30. You can’t park your car here (menolak izin).
  31. You can’t smoke in the restaurant (menolak izin).
  32. You can’t watch any more TV (menolak izin).

5. Can digunakan untuk menyatakan izin untuk melakukan sesuatu:

  1. I can drive Rani’s car when she is out of town.
  2. I can drive Rani’s car while she is out of town next week.
  3. I can’t drive Rani’s car when she is out of town.
  4. I can’t drive Rani’s car while she is out of town next week.
  5. She cannot stay out after 10 PM.
  6. Students can travel free.
  7. We can go out whenever we want.
  8. We can leave at any time.
  9. We cannot park the car next to this fire hydrant.
  10. We can’t leave the room until the assignment is completed.

6. Can digunakan untuk meminta bantuan/sesuatu atau meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu (kurang sopan bila dibandingkan dengan could):

  1. Can I have a glass of water? (meminta sesuatu)
  2. Can I have another piece of cake please? (meminta sesuatu)
  3. can you come this afternoon? (meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu)
  4. Can you give me a lift to school? (meminta bantuan)
  5. Can you hand me the stapler? (meminta bantuan).
  6. Can you help me move this table? (meminta bantuan)
  7. Can you help me? (meminta bantuan)
  8. Can you lend me a pen? (meminta bantuan).
  9. Can you lend me five dollars? (meminta bantuan).
  10. Can you open the window, please (meminta bantuan)
  11. Can you take a message please? (meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu)
  12. Can you teach me how to fix my computer? You’re so good at it (meminta bantuan).
  13. Can’t I have a glass of water? (meminta sesuatu)
  14. Can’t you give me a lift to school? (meminta bantuan)

7. Can digunakan untuk menawarkan bantuan (kurang sopan bila dibandingkan dengan could):

  1. Can I carry that bag for you?
  2. Can I carry your bags for you?
  3. Can I do that for you?
  4. Can I get your bags?
  5. Can I help you?
  6. I can do that for you if you like.
  7. I can give you a hand.
  8. I can give you a lift to the station.
  9. I can help you with that next week.
  10. You don’t need to walk home. I can take you there if you like.

8. Can’t have digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang sangat tidak mungkin terjadi pada masa lampau:

  1. Nurul can’t have much money or she would buy a new car. Her old one is falling apart.
  2. Where was Dira last night? She can’t have stayed at home.

9. Can bisa digunakan dalam quesion tag:

  • You can’t live like that, can you?

Could

1. Could digunakan untuk menyatakan kemampuan seseorang melakukan sesuatu pada masa lampau (bentuk past dari can):

  1. Alim could not help his little brother with his homework yesterday (“help” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa dan “could” digunakan sebagai modal verb untuk melengkapi “help”).
  2. Amadeo could speak Japanese when he lived in Japan, but he’s forgotten most of it now.
  3. Arsya could ski like a pro by the age of 10.
  4. Danu could play excellent golf when he was only ten.
  5. Farah couldn’t hear the speaker because the crowd was cheering so loudly.
  6. He called us because he couldn’t find the house.
  7. He could drive a car when he was seventeen.
  8. He could not see me yesterday.
  9. He could read when he was four years old.
  10. He couldn’t come yesterday.
  11. He couldn’t dance at all until he took lessons.
  12. I could always beat you at tennis when we were kids.
  13. I could read when I was four.
  14. I could ride a horse when I was younger but now I can’t.
  15. I could run ten miles in my twenties.
  16. I could run very fast when I was younger.
  17. I could speak French when I was a kid.
  18. I couldn’t drive a car until I was 33. Then I moved to the countryside, so I had to learn.
  19. I couldn’t move the table. It was too heavy.
  20. I couldn’t understand the chapter we had to read for homework. It was so difficult.
  21. I didn’t feel very well yesterday. I couldn’t eat anything.
  22. I looked everywhere for my glasses but I couldn’t find them anywhere.
  23. I read the book two times, but I couldn’t understand it.
  24. My grandmother couldn’t use a computer until last month. Since then she’s been taking lessons at the library.
  25. She could juggle eight balls when she was only 12 years old.
  26. She could speak Korean when she was a child, but now she has forgotten it.
  27. We couldn’t get to the meeting on time yesterday, because the train was delayed by one hour.
  28. We couldn’t get the door open.
  29. When I was a child I could climb trees.
  30. When I was younger I could run fast.
  31. Could you swim when you were 10?

2. Could digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang mungkin benar pada masa lampau (bentuk past dari can):

  1. He said that he could come today.
  2. He was obviously joking. He could not be serious.
  3. I could fly via Surabaya if I leave the day before.
  4. It could be very hot in summer.
  5. Our teacher could be very strict when we were at school.
  6. People could starve in those days.
  7. Prices could be high in the eighteenth century.
  8. The post could sometimes take weeks.
  9. We knew it could not be true.
  10. You could lose your way in the dark.
  11. You couldn’t use computers in the eighteenth century.

3. Could digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang mungkin terjadi di masa depan:

  1. I think we could go to war again.
  2. It could rain tomorrow!
  3. It could rain. Take an umbrella.

4. Could digunakan untuk memberikan saran:

  1. He could try and fix it himself.
  2. We could go to the movies if you are interested.
  3. We could meet at the weekend.
  4. We could meet on Friday.
  5. We could try to fix it ourselves.
  6. You could eat out tonight.
  7. You could see a movie or go out to dinner.
  8. You could spend your vacation in Bali.
  9. You could take the tour of the castle tomorrow.

5. Could digunakan untuk menawarkan bantuan secara sopan (lebih sopan daripada can dan will):

  1. Could I get you anything else?
  2. Could I give you a lift?
  3. I could carry that for you.

6. Could digunakan untuk meminta izin/bantuan/sesuatu atau meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu secara sopan (lebih sopan daripada can): ok

  1. Could I ask a question please?
  2. Could I borrow your dictionary?
  3. Could I borrow your stapler?
  4. Could I bury my cat in your back yard?
  5. Could I go now please? (meminta izin)
  6. Could I go now?
  7. Could I have my bill please? (meminta sesuatu)
  8. Could I have something to drink? (meminta sesuatu)
  9. Could I have your autograph? (meminta izin)
  10. Could I have your number?
  11. Could I leave early today, please?
  12. Could I please use your bathroom?
  13. Could I talk to your supervisor please?
  14. Could I use your computer to email my boss?
  15. Could we go home now?
  16. Could we have a break, please?
  17. Could we meet on Monday? (meminta sesuatu)
  18. Could we move on to the next topic now please? (meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu)
  19. Could you help me move this table? (meminta bantuan)
  20. Could you help me? (meminta bantuan)
  21. Could you lend me a dictionary please? (meminta izin)
  22. Could you pass me the salt please?
  23. Could you please call a tow truck for me? My car broke down (meminta bantuan).
  24. Could you say that again more slowly?
  25. Could you take a message please? (meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu)
  26. Excuse me, could I just say something?
  27. I’m busy right now. Could you call back later? (meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu)

7. Untuk menyatakan izin yang ada pada masa lampau:

  1. In high school, we couldn’t leave the classroom without a pass.
  2. He couldn’t go to the concert because his mother wouldn’t let him.

8. Could have digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin dilakukan pada masa lampau namun tidak jadi dilakukan:

  1. Jhon could have gone to Cambridge University, but he decided to travel instead (“could” adalah modal verb, “have” adalah auxiliary verb dan “gone” adalah kata kerja biasa. “could” dan “have” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja yang melengkapi “gone”).
  2. Farina could have bought the book, but she borrowed it from the library instead.
  3. Rizki could have passed the exam if he’d studied a bit more.
  4. He could have studied harder, but he was too lazy and that’s why he failed the exam.
  5. I could have bought bread but I didn’t know we needed it.
  6. I could have danced all night.
  7. I could have left earlier, but it rained.
  8. I could have played the piano well but I didn’t practise enough.
  9. I could have stayed up late, but I decided to go to bed early.
  10. She could have come to the restaurant if she’d left work earlier.
  11. She could have learned Mandarin, but she didn’t have time.
  12. She could have married anyone she wanted to.
  13. She could have studied law, but she preferred to become a journalist.
  14. They could have come earlier, but the traffic jammed.
  15. They could have won the football match, but Alim hurt his ankle.
  16. They could have won the race, but they didn’t try hard enough.
  17. We could have come earlier.
  18. Why did you sit there doing nothing? You could have helped me.

9. Could have digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan mengenai sesuatu yang mungkin sudah terjadi yang dilihat dari masa kini/lampau:

  1. It’s nine o’clock. They could have arrived now.
  2. The roads were very bad this evening. They could have been stuck in the snow.
  3. Where was Maryani last night? She could have taken the wrong bus.
  4. Why is Carya late? He could have forgotten that we were meeting today.
  5. Why is Carya late? He could have got stuck in traffic.
  6. Why is Carya late? He could have overslept.

10. Couldn’t have digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang tidak mungkin terjadi pada masa lampau:

  1. He couldn’t have broken the classroom window. He wasn’t even in school today.
  2. I couldn’t have arrived any earlier. There was a terrible traffic jam.
  3. I couldn’t have arrived on time, even if I’d left earlier. There were dreadful traffic jams all the way.
  4. The race was really difficult. She couldn’t have won because she’s not fit enough.
  5. The weather couldn’t have been any worse!
  6. They couldn’t have been kinder to me. They were absolutely lovely.
  7. We couldn’t have finished the game, even if we’d wanted to. It was raining very hard and we had to stop.

11. Could not have digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang tidak mungkin benar:

  • Indrawan could not have the key.

12. Could bisa digunakan dalam quesion tag:

  • It could be any of those things, couldn’t it?

1st conditional (If + present simple, … could + infinitive): Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin akan terjadi berdasarkan kondisi tertentu:

  1. If he doesn’t do his work, he could get fired.
  2. If we don’t hurry we could be late.
  3. We could go on the trip if I didn’t have to work this weekend.

2nd conditional (if + past simple, … could + infinitive): Untuk menyatakan sesuatu di masa kini/depan yang kemungkinan tidak akan terjadi atau tidak mungkin akan terjadi:

  1. If he trained every day, he could represent his country
  2. If I had a little more money, I could buy a car.
  3. If I had more time this Summer, I could travel around the world.
  4. If I had more time, I could travel around the world.
  5. If we had some oranges I could make you some fresh juice.
  6. I could write the letter if you told me what to include.
  7. You couldn’t do the job if you didn’t speak Chinese fluently.

May

1. May digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan/ketidakpastian:

  1. Adib may be coming to see us tomorrow (“may” adalah modal verb, “be” adalah auxiliary verb dan “coming” adalah kata kerja biasa. “may” dan “be” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja yang melengkapi “coming”).
  2. Djali and Anna may not buy that house. It’s very expensive.
  3. Iesa may be upset. I can’t really tell if he is annoyed or tired.
  4. Juni may be at home, or perhaps at work.
  5. Shandi may get upset if you don’t tell him the truth.
  6. China may become a major economic power.
  7. He may arrive early.
  8. He’s very good, in fact, I think he may win the competition.
  9. I am thinking again about what Cynthia said. She may be right.
  10. I may be home late.
  11. I may see you at the weekend.
  12. I wouldn’t talk to Tim right now. He may still be angry after his team lost.
  13. It may rain tomorrow!
  14. Oh dear! It’s half past nine. We may be late for the meeting.
  15. School pupils may do better with this new teaching method.
  16. She may need our help.
  17. The mouse may be dead.
  18. There may not be very many people there.
  19. They may come by car.
  20. We may go out dinner tonight. Do you want to join us?
  21. Where is Widi? She may be in the wrong room.
  22. Yoggie may be coming to see us tomorrow.

2. May digunakan untuk meminta izin/sesuatu secara sopan (lebih sopan dari can):

  1. May I ask a question please? (“ask” berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa dan “May” digunakan sebagai modal verb untuk melengkapi “ask”).
  2. May I borrow the car tomorrow?
  3. May I borrow your eraser?
  4. May I borrow your pen?
  5. May I come in?
  6. May I go to the bathroom, please?
  7. May I have another cup of coffee?
  8. May I have your attention, please?
  9. May I have your autograph?
  10. May I leave now?
  11. May I make a phone call?
  12. May I sit down, please?
  13. May I sit here?
  14. May I sit next to you?
  15. May I take a photograph of you?
  16. May I use your bathroom please?
  17. May I use your bathroom?
  18. May I use your phone please?
  19. May I use your phone?
  20. May I watch television for an hour?
  21. May we come a bit later?
  22. May we go home now?

3. May digunakan untuk memberi izin secara sopan dan formal (lebih sopan dari can):

  1. Dika, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner.
  2. You may choose what you like.
  3. You may go home now, if you like.
  4. You may go now.
  5. You may leave the room.
  6. You may leave the table now that you’re finished with your dinner.
  7. You may leave the table once you have finished your meal.
  8. You may leave the table when you finish your dinner.
  9. You may start your exam now.
  10. You may take only one brochure.

4. May not digunakan untuk menolak memberi izin:

  1. You may not borrow the car until you can be more careful with it.
  2. You may not leave the table until you are finished with your dinner.
  3. You may not leave the table. You’re not finished with your dinner yet.
  4. You may not park your car here. It’s reserved for guests of the hotel only.
  5. You may not park your car in front of the gate.
  6. You may not take more than one brochure.
  7. You may not use my mobile phone!
  8. You may not use the car tonight.
  9. You may not wear sandals to work.
  10. You may not!

5. May digunakan untuk menawarkan bantuan:

  • May I help you?

6. May digunakan untuk mengundang:

  • You may as well come inside. Yoga will be home soon.

7. May digunakan untuk menyatakan harapan (wishes):

  1. May all your wishes come true.
  2. May the Force be with you.
  3. May the New Year bring you love and happiness.
  4. May the odds be ever in your favor.
  5. May you both live a long and happy life together.
  6. May you live long and happy

8. May have digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin sudah terjadi pada masa kini/lampau:

  1. I can’t see your train on the board. It may have been cancelled.
  2. I may have left my wallet at home.
  3. It may have already been broken before you bought it.
  4. She is late. I think she may have missed her plane.
  5. She may have eaten the cake.
  6. She may have sent the letter yesterday.
  7. They may have arrived hours ago.
  8. They may have finished when she got there.
  9. They may have forgotten all about it.
  10. What was that noise? It may have been a dog outside our window.
  11. Where was Sista last night? She may have felt ill.

1st conditional (if + present simple, … may + infinitive): Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin akan terjadi berdasarkan kondisi tertentu:

  1. Drivers may feel tired if they do not take a break every 3 hours.
  2. Adults may find it difficult to sleep if they use technology before going to bed.
  3. If you are nice to me, I may buy you a gift when I’m in Australia.

Might

1. Might digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan/ketidakpastian (might lebih tidak pasti dibandingkan may):

  1. Djali is late. He might be sleeping.
  2. Nita might not have got your message.
  3. Satri might not have the key.
  4. Tri might come later.
  5. He might be the love of my life.
  6. He said he might reconsider his decision.
  7. He said that he might move out to Semarang.
  8. I might be able to help you, but I’m not sure yet.
  9. I might go on holiday to Japan next year.
  10. I might go to the library after school today.
  11. I might go to the movies tonight.
  12. I might not join you after all.
  13. I might see you tomorrow.
  14. I’m not really sure where Laksmi is. She might be sitting in the living room, or perhaps she’s in the backyard.
  15. It looks nice, but it might be very expensive.
  16. It might rain later.
  17. It’s quite bright. It might not rain today.
  18. Our company might get the order if the client agrees to the price.
  19. School pupils might do better with this new teaching method.
  20. She might be late because of the public transport strike.
  21. She might be on the bus. I think her car is having problems.
  22. She might not be on the bus. She might be walking home.
  23. She might not know that she needs a visa.
  24. She might not take the bus. She might get a ride from Andrea.
  25. She might take the bus to get home. I don’t think Andrea will be able to give her a ride.
  26. That painting might not have been painted by Picasso. It could be a forgery.
  27. They might come back again.
  28. They might come later.
  29. They might come later.
  30. They might not buy a house at all.
  31. They might not come to the party.
  32. They might not finish the project on time. The main engineer is ill.
  33. We thought he might sell the house
  34. We’d better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now.
  35. Where is Endah? She might come soon.
  36. You never know, they might give us a 10% discount.
  37. Your purse might be in the living room.

2. Might digunakan untuk meminta izin/sesuatu secara sangat sopan (lebih sopan daripada may):

  1. Might I ask you a question?
  2. Might I borrow the stapler?
  3. Might I borrow your pen?
  4. Might I have a word in private?
  5. Might I have something to drink? (meminta sesuatu)
  6. Might I suggest an idea? (meminta izin untuk menawarkan pendapat)
  7. Might we just interrupt for a moment?
  8. If I’ve finished all my work and I’m really quiet, might I leave early?

3. Might digunakan untuk memberi izin:

  • You might go now if you feel like it.

4. Might digunakan untuk memberikan saran/rekomendasi (lebih sopan daripada may):

  1. We might as well take Monday off. There’s no work to be done anyway.
  2. You might like to try the chicken sandwich. It’s our special today.
  3. You might try the cheesecake.
  4. You might visit the the museum during your visit.
  5. You might want to stop by the museum gift shop on your way out.

5. Might have digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin sudah terjadi pada masa kini/lampau:

  1. I might have left the keys in the kitchen.
  2. It’s nine o’clock. They might have arrived now.
  3. She might have known about the accident.
  4. She might have taken the bus. I’m not sure how she got to work.
  5. They might have done the homework yesterday.
  6. They might have got lost. Nobody knows where they are.
  7. We were very worried. Someone might have taken the car.
  8. We won’t eat until they arrive. They might not have had supper.
  9. Where was Gita last night? She might have worked late.
  10. Why is Fanny late? He might have forgotten that we were meeting today.
  11. Why is Fanny late? He might have got stuck in traffic.

2nd conditional (if + past simple, … might + infinitive): Untuk menyatakan sesuatu di masa kini/depan yang kemungkinan tidak akan terjadi atau tidak mungkin akan terjadi:

  1. If I didn’t have to work, I might go with you.
  2. If I entered the contest, I might actually win.

Must

1. Must digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang sangat mungkin benar berdasarkan bukti atau alasan tertentu:

  1. Bluher has lived in Paris for years. His French must be very good.
  2. Chandra always does really well on exams. She must study a lot.
  3. Haryo must drink a lot of coffee. He’s finished two packets already this week.
  4. Luthfi must be home. I heard a noise coming from his room.
  5. Orig and Dini must be very tired. They have a new baby.
  6. Pandu must be happy. His girlfriend just agreed to marry him.
  7. Ranggi’s amazingly good at the piano. She must practise a lot.
  8. Umi has a huge library in her house. She must love books.
  9. All my plants must be dead! I forgot to water them before I went on holiday.
  10. Dinosaurs were very big, they must have eaten a lot.
  11. He must be very tired. He’s been working all day long.
  12. I was using my pencil a minute ago. It must be here somewhere!
  13. If you haven’t eaten all day, you must be hungry.
  14. It must be cold outside. That man in the street is wearing a coat.
  15. It’s -10 C outside. You must be frozen.
  16. It’s getting dark. It must be quite late.
  17. It’s six in the morning and you still haven’t gone to bed? You must be tired!
  18. It’s snowing, so it must be very cold outside.
  19. Look at all of that snow. It must be really cold outside.
  20. Phone her now. She must be home by now.
  21. That must be Ahmad. They said he was tall with bright red hair.
  22. That must not be Krisna. He is supposed to have red hair.
  23. The car in front is driving so slowly that I think they must be looking for something.
  24. The ground was wet this morning. It must have rained last night.
  25. There must be something wrong with the fridge! It’s making a very unusual noise.
  26. This book must belong to the library. It’s certainly not mine.
  27. This must be Taufik’s house. This house has a red door and it’s number 34, just like he said.
  28. This must be the right address!
  29. What a lot of lovely flowers you have! You must really like gardening.
  30. What an amazing kitchen you’ve got! You must like cooking.
  31. Where is my purse? I saw it earlier, so it must be in this room.
  32. Where is Ratri? She must be on the bus.
  33. Where’s Hariza? She must be at the library, as she often goes there at this time.
  34. Why is that man looking around like that? He must be lost.
  35. You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry.

2. Must digunakan untuk menyatakan perintah/aturan/kebutuhan:

  1. Ninda, you must not play in the street! (menyatakan perintah)
  2. A dog must get special training in order to be a guide dog (menyatakan aturan).
  3. Children must do their homework.
  4. Children mustn’t tell lies. It’s very naughty.
  5. Drivers must stop at red lights.
  6. Drivers must stop when the traffic lights are red.
  7. Everyone must bring something to eat.
  8. He must not sleep now.
  9. He must return the book tonight.
  10. Humans must have drinking water at least every two days (menyatakan kebutuhan).
  11. I must get up early.
  12. I must go now.
  13. I must go to the dentist (menyatakan kebutuhan).
  14. I must memorize all of these rules about modal verbs.
  15. I must study today (menyatakan kebutuhan).
  16. I must wear a tie to school.
  17. I mustn’t eat too much cake or I’ll get fat!.
  18. I mustn’t spend too much money today, as I’ve only got a little left.
  19. I really must try to get fit.
  20. I’m sorry, but you mustn’t make a noise in here.
  21. It’s a hospital. You mustn’t smoke.
  22. People must remain seated until the show is over.
  23. People mustn’t walk on grass.
  24. Plants must have light and water to grow.
  25. Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school.
  26. The teams must not have more than 11 players on the field during a match.
  27. The test starts at 11.30. You mustn’t be late.
  28. They must be here on time.
  29. They must get there on time.
  30. They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary.
  31. We have a lot of work tomorrow. You mustn’t be late.
  32. We must get a permit to enter the park next week.
  33. We must have a special permit to camp in the national park.
  34. We must not tell anyone.
  35. We must say good-bye now.
  36. We mustn’t be late for the exam.
  37. We mustn’t forget to lock all the doors before we leave.
  38. We mustn’t miss the train, because it’s the last one tonight.
  39. You can borrow my new dress, but you mustn’t get it dirty.
  40. You can wear what you like, but you must look neat and tidy.
  41. You must act promptly.
  42. You must clean your plate before you have dessert (menyatakan perintah).
  43. You must drive carefully.
  44. You must get up early tomorrow.
  45. You must give up smoking, it’s bad for you.
  46. You must have a passport to cross the border.
  47. You must have a permit to enter the national park.
  48. You must not disturb her.
  49. You must not drive over the speed limit.
  50. You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
  51. You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics.
  52. You must not open the gift until it is your birthday.
  53. You must not sleep.
  54. You must not smoke in the hospital.
  55. You must not swim in that river. It’s full of crocodiles.
  56. You must not tell Novi about the party tomorrow night. It’s a surprise!
  57. You must not walk on the grass.
  58. You must speak politely to the customers.
  59. You must stop at a red light.
  60. You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
  61. You must study the last two chapters before the test.
  62. You must take some medicine for that cough.
  63. You must take some time off and get some rest.
  64. You must turn in your assignment on time.
  65. You must use this form; We must try to escape.
  66. You must wear a helmet (menyatakan aturan).
  67. You must wear a seatbelt at all times.
  68. You mustn’t drink so much. It’s not good for your health.
  69. You mustn’t eat so much chocolate, you’ll be sick
  70. You mustn’t forget your sun cream. It’s going to be very hot!
  71. You mustn’t get on the subway if you haven’t paid for the ride.
  72. You mustn’t leave medicines where children can get to them.
  73. You mustn’t smoke here.
  74. You mustn’t smoke here. It’s a smoke-free building.
  75. You mustn’t smoke inside the school.
  76. You mustn’t tell anyone what I just told you. It’s a secret.
  77. You mustn’t use your smartphone while you are driving.
  78. Your diving equipment must be cleaned regularly if you want to keep it in good condition.

3. Must digunakan untuk mengundang secara sangat sopan (lebih sopan daripada would):

  1. We must go out for a drink.
  2. We must meet again soon.
  3. You must come round and see us.
  4. You must try this coffee. It’s excellent.

4. Must digunakan untuk memberikan saran/rekomendasi (lebih kuat dibandingkan should):

  1. The ice cream here is delicious. You must try some.
  2. We really must get together for dinner sometime.
  3. You must meet my best friend.
  4. You must see the new Keanu Reeves movie, it’s fantastic.

5. Must digunakan untuk meminta saran/nasihat:

  1. Must I do it?
  2. Must they punished?

6. Must have digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang sangat mungkin benar yang dilihat dari masa kini/lampau:

  1. Aisyah is so late! She must have missed the train!.
  2. Lucky must have eaten all the biscuits! There are none left.
  3. Saras couldn’t find her glasses. She thought she must have left them at her office.
  4. He must have won the lottery with the new house and car he has just bought.
  5. It must have rained a lot in the night. There are puddles everywhere.
  6. It was a pretty vicious dog. He must have been terrified.
  7. Oh no, I don’t have my keys! I must have left them in the taxi.
  8. She must have been at home, her car was there.
  9. That must have been my mother calling me last night, nobody else has my number.
  10. That woman drives a very expensive car. She must have a lot of money.
  11. The food is really good at that restaurant. They must have a great chef.
  12. There’s rubbish all over my garden! A fox must have been in the bin.
  13. They hadn’t eaten all day. They must have been hungry.
  14. When I got up this morning, the kitchen was spotless. Ratih must have tidied it before she went to bed last night.
  15. When Kania got home, she found the ice cream had melted. It must have been too hot in the car.
  16. When Rakhmie got home yesterday there were flowers on the table. Her husband must have bought them.
  17. Where was Ferta last night? She must have forgotten about our date.
  18. You look happy. You must have heard the good news.
  19. You must have practised a lot before you gave your speech. It was really good.

7. Must bisa diganti dengan have to dengan sedikit perubahan arti:

  1. He must finish the report by Monday -> He has to finish the report by Monday.
  2. I must leave -> I have to leave.
  3. you must study -> You have to study.

Shall

1. Shall digunakan untuk menyatakan perintah/aturan/larangan:

  1. A record shall be kept of all students arriving late to class (aturan sekolah).
  2. I shall be replaced by someone from the Jakarta office.
  3. Members of the board of directors shall be elected annually (aturan perusahaan).
  4. Students shall not enter this room (aturan sekolah).
  5. The board of directors shall be responsible for payment to stockholders (aturan perusahaan).
  6. The college president shall report financial shortfalls to the executive director each semester.
  7. The government shall declare an emergency (perintah negara).
  8. There shall be no trespassing on this property.
  9. Those convicted of violating this law shall be imprisoned for a term of not less than two years.
  10. You shall abide by the law (perintah).
  11. You shall not pass! (perintah dan larangan).

2. Shall digunakan untuk menawarkan saran/bantuan jika kita cukup yakin mendapatkan jawaban positif (lebih sopan menggunakan could):

  1. It’s cold. Shall I close the window? (menawarkan bantuan)
  2. Let’s drink, shall we? (menawarkan saran)
  3. Shall I call a doctor for you? (menawarkan bantuan)
  4. Shall I call you on your mobile? (menawarkan saran)
  5. Shall I get a pizza for dinner tonight? (menawarkan saran)
  6. Shall I get your jacket? It’s cold in here.
  7. Shall I help you with that? (menawarkan bantuan)
  8. Shall I help you with your luggage? (menawarkan bantuan)
  9. Shall I help you? (menawarkan bantuan)
  10. Shall I open the window? (menawarkan saran)
  11. Shall I order us a bottle of wine? (menawarkan saran)
  12. Shall I pick you up from airport? (menawarkan saran)
  13. Shall I wait for you? (menawarkan saran)
  14. Shall we begin dinner? (menawarkan saran)
  15. Shall we dance? (menawarkan saran)
  16. Shall we go for a walk? (menawarkan saran)
  17. Shall we go now? (menawarkan saran)
  18. Shall we move into the living room? (menawarkan saran)
  19. Shall we say 4.30 then? (menawarkan saran)
  20. Shall we take a taxi home? (menawarkan saran)
  21. That bag looks heavy. Shall I carry it for you? (menawarkan bantuan)

3. Shall digunakan untuk meminta saran/nasihat:

  1. Shall I do that or will you?
  2. Shall I go now?
  3. Shall I read now?
  4. What shall I do with your mail when it arrives?
  5. What shall we wear?
  6. What time shall we meet?

4. Shall digunakan untuk memberikan janji/konfirmasi:

  1. I shall be here at 9 tomorrow.
  2. I shall be there by 8:00.
  3. I shall get you a new bike for your birthday.
  4. I shall make the arrangements for you.
  5. I shall make the travel arrangements. There’s no need to worry (memberikan janji).
  6. I shall meet you there at 9.
  7. I shall take care of everything for you (memberikan janji).
  8. I shall turn 33 next week (memberikan konfirmasi).
  9. You shall be the first person to know (memberikan janji).

5. Shall digunakan untuk menyatakan tekad/keinginan:

  1. I shall never forget where I came from.
  2. I shall overcome all the hindrances in my way.
  3. Man shall explore the distant regions of the universe.
  4. We shall overcome oppression.

6. Shall digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang mungkin benar:

  1. He shall be the CEO of the company by next year.
  2. He shall become our next king.
  3. I’m afraid Mr. Abe shall become our new director.
  4. We shall know the results of the exam next week.

7. Shall bisa digunakan dalam quesion tag:

  • Let’s go to the beach, shall we?

Should

1. Should digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang mungkin benar pada masa kini/depan:

  1. Adyati should be at home by now. Give her a call.
  2. Ask Imlati. She should know.
  3. By now, they should already be in Bandung.
  4. Diah said she would come over right after work, so she should be here by 7:00.
  5. Everybody should arrive by 7 pm.
  6. He should be here any moment now.
  7. He should be in bed by now.
  8. He should be very tired. He’s been working all day long.
  9. He should have the letter by now. I sent it a couple of weeks ago.
  10. He should receive the message by next Friday.
  11. I posted the cheque yesterday so it should arrive this week.
  12. It should be fine tomorrow.
  13. It shouldn’t take long to drive here.
  14. It’s nearly seven o’clock. They should arrive soon.
  15. Profits should increase next year.
  16. She should be here by 8:00.
  17. She should receive my letter by Monday.
  18. Talk to Marissa in Human Resources. She should be able to help.
  19. The house should be ready to move into by next month. It’s almost finished.
  20. The proposal should be finished on time.
  21. The room should be being cleaned now.
  22. There should be an old city hall building here.
  23. They should be here soon.
  24. They should be there by now.
  25. They should win the game because they are a much better team.
  26. We should be there this evening.
  27. You should know all about it by the weekends.

2. Should digunakan untuk memberikan saran/nasihat/petunjuk:

  1. Adit shouldn’t teach him words like those.
  2. Are you tired? You shouldn’t work so much (memberikan nasihat).
  3. Dian shouldn’t smoke so much. It’s not good for her health.
  4. Does your tooth still hurt? You should make an appointment with the dentist (memberikan nasihat).
  5. He should be more thoughtful in the decision-making process.
  6. He shouldn’t encourage such bad behavior.
  7. He shouldn’t play with those wires if he doesn’t know what he is doing.
  8. I really should be in the office by 8:00 AM.
  9. I really should leave now.
  10. I should be at work before 8:00 (nasihat untuk diri sendiri).
  11. I should be cleaning the room now.
  12. I should clean my room today (saran untuk diri sendiri).
  13. I should clean the room once a day.
  14. I should take a bus this time.
  15. I shouldn’t be late. The train usually arrives on time (nasihat untuk diri sendiri).
  16. I think I should study harder to master English (nasihat untuk diri sendiri).
  17. I think we should check everything again.
  18. I think you should study for the test so that you don’t fail.
  19. If you are sick, you shouldn’t go to work. You’ll infect everyone there.
  20. If you think that was amazing, you should have seen it last night.
  21. On hearing the fire alarm, hotel guests should leave their room immediately.
  22. Passengers should check in at least 3 hours before departure time.
  23. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods.
  24. The room should be cleaned once a day (memberikan nasihat).
  25. They should work harder.
  26. This is to say that it is the right thing to do or the correct thing.
  27. We should get to Bandung before midday.
  28. We should go by train.
  29. We should not be late.
  30. We should return the video before the video rental store closes.
  31. We should sort out this problem at once.
  32. We shouldn’t leave without saying goodbye.
  33. When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam.
  34. You really should go to the new restaurant on Main Street.
  35. You really shouldn’t do that.
  36. You should be at work before 8.
  37. You should be dancing.
  38. You should buy a new car.
  39. You should call your mother.
  40. You should check that document before you send it out.
  41. You should check your posture when using the computer.
  42. You should focus more on your family and less on work.
  43. You should get more sleep.
  44. You should get up earlier.
  45. You should get up early.
  46. You should get your teeth cleaned at least once a year.
  47. You should go now.
  48. You should go to the police.
  49. You should look at me when I am talking to you.
  50. You should never lie to your doctor.
  51. You should never lie.
  52. You should pay more attention in class.
  53. You should rest at home today.
  54. You should revise your lessons.
  55. You should save some money.
  56. You should see a doctor.
  57. You should see the train station after you exit the Metro (memberikan petunjuk).
  58. You should see to the doctor.
  59. You should send an email.
  60. You should speak to a lawyer.
  61. You should stop smoking.
  62. You should take some time off next week to get some rest.
  63. You should try some of this spaghetti.
  64. You shouldn’t eat so many sweets. They are bad for you.
  65. You shouldn’t eat so much chocolate. It’s not good for you.
  66. You shouldn’t leave small objects lying around . Such objects may be swallowed by children.
  67. You shouldn’t put your feet on the table. It’s not polite.
  68. You shouldn’t smoke so much.
  69. You shouldn’t smoke. It isn’t good for your health.
  70. You shouldn’t talk like that to your grandmother.
  71. You shouldn’t throw your litter onto the street.
  72. Your hair is too long. You should get a haircut.

3. Should digunakan untuk menawarkan bantuan secara sopan jika tidak yakin akan mendapatkan jawaban positif:

  • Should I call a doctor?

4. Should digunakan untuk meminta saran:

  1. Should I go to the beach with them?
  2. Should I have discussed it with you before making the decision?
  3. Should I have returned the form before I came here?
  4. Should I send the letter now?
  5. Should we continue our meeting?
  6. Should we go this way?
  7. What should we do now?
  8. Where should we go this winter?

5. Should have digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan mengenai sesuatu yang mungkin sudah terjadi pada masa lampau:

  1. His plane should have arrived by now.
  2. It’s nearly nine o’clock. They should have arrived by now.
  3. Rati should have arrived by now.
  4. The room should have been cleaned yesterday.
  5. The train should have left by now.
  6. There were no delays. They should have landed by now.
  7. Widya should have arrived in Jakarta last week. Let’s call her and see what she is up to.
  8. Wira should have finished work by now.

6. Should have digunakan untuk menyatakan nasihat yang seharusnya dilakukan pada masa lampau namun tidak dilakukan:

  1. Adji should have been more careful!
  2. Anna should have left earlier. She missed her flight (nasihat yang tidak dilakukan: pergi lebih cepat, hasil: ketinggalan pesawat).
  3. Krisna should have left early, then he wouldn’t have missed the plane.
  4. He forgot that he should have submitted the homework today.
  5. I should have been cleaning the room instead of watching TV.
  6. I should have cleaned the room yesterday.
  7. I should have completed it earlier to meet the deadline.
  8. I should have done that yesterday.
  9. I should have gone to bed early.
  10. I should have started saving money years ago!
  11. I should have studied harder!
  12. I should have studied more but I was too tired.
  13. I shouldn’t have eaten so much cake!
  14. I shouldn’t have eaten so much chocolate! I feel sick!
  15. I’m really cold! I should have brought my coat (nasihat yang tidak dilakukan: membawa jaket, hasil: kedinginan).
  16. Our neighbours shouldn’t have cut down the tree in their garden. It was a really beautiful tree.
  17. The children should have done their homework last night. Then they wouldn’t be panicking on the way to school.
  18. We should have visited the place on the way.
  19. We shouldn’t have invited so many people to our party! I’m worried that we won’t have enough room for everyone.
  20. You should have bought some milk at the shops. We don’t have any milk.
  21. You should have called me when you arrived.
  22. You should have given your boss the report yesterday when he asked for it.
  23. You should have gone to bed earlier, now you have missed the train.
  24. You should have helped her when she asked.
  25. You should have seen it. It was really beautiful.
  26. You shouldn’t have been rude to him. He’s going to be really angry now.
  27. You shouldn’t have taken that job. It was a bad idea.
  28. You shouldn’t have taken this job. I can see you’re not enjoying it.

7. Should be verb-ing berguna untuk menyatakan nasihat yang seharusnya dilakukan pada masa kini namun tidak dilakukan:

  1. We should be studying for the test.
  2. You should be wearing your seatbelt.

8. Pada beberapa kasus, ought to bisa menggantikan should (ought to terkesan lebih formal):

  1. He should go home -> He ought to go home.
  2. They should stop doing that -> They ought to stop doing that.
  3. you should study more -> You ought to study more.

Will

1. Will digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang sangat mungkin akan terjadi pada masa depan:

  1. Adhiet will not be there. He has a previous obligation.
  2. Aini won’t be happy with the results of the exam.
  3. Arie will be there by 8:00.
  4. Kaisar will be a footballer some day.
  5. Sherly will come later.
  6. At the end of the course, you will be able to make your own website.
  7. Come on. You won’t need much, just a change of clothes.
  8. He thinks it will rain tomorrow.
  9. He will play tennis tomorrow.
  10. He won’t be able to speak Chinese in a week! It will take months.
  11. Humidity will ruin my hairdo.
  12. I think it will rain later so take an umbrella with you.
  13. I think you will find the movie interesting.
  14. I will not be in the office tomorrow.
  15. It will rain tomorrow.
  16. Profits will increase next year.
  17. She will be happy with her exam results.
  18. The manager won’t be pleased to hear that a customer slipped on the wet floor.
  19. The marketing director will be replaced by someone from the Jakarta office.
  20. The marketing director will not be replaced after all.
  21. The meeting will be over soon.
  22. The news will spread soon.
  23. The President will not be re-elected at the next election.
  24. The river will overflow its banks every spring.
  25. They will not stay here.
  26. They will take the bus to the South next week.
  27. We definitely won’t finish this work today.
  28. We’ll be late.
  29. We’ll never get there.
  30. You won’t get in unless you have a ticket.

2. Will digunakan untuk memberi janji/bantuan (lebih sopan menggunakan could):

  1. Don’t worry, I won’t tell anyone (memberi janji).
  2. I can assure you sir, the order will be shipped out tonight (memberi janji).
  3. I promise I won’t tell anyone.
  4. I promise that I will write you every single day (memberi janji).
  5. I will come again tomorrow.
  6. I will do it as you say.
  7. I will do my best to help you (memberi bantuan).
  8. I will have it ready by tomorrow.
  9. I will make dinner tonight.
  10. I will make the travel arrangements. There’s no need to worry.
  11. I will never forget you.
  12. I will never give up the fight for freedom.
  13. I will take care of everything for you.
  14. I will take this duty.
  15. I’ll call a taxi for you.
  16. I’ll do that for you if you like (menawarkan bantuan).
  17. I’ll drive you to work if you want.
  18. I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday.
  19. I’ll give you a lift home after the party (memberi bantuan).
  20. I’ll give you a lift to the station (memberi bantuan).
  21. I’ll see you later.
  22. Iman will pick you up at 7:00 am.
  23. She will call you tonight.
  24. The next meeting will be held on Monday.
  25. We will be there in a minute.
  26. We will come and see you next week.
  27. We’ll see you tomorrow.
  28. You look tired. I’ll finish the dishes for you.

3. Will digunakan untuk mengundang:

  • We’re going to the movies. Will you join us?

4. Will digunakan untuk menyatakan keputusan melakukan sesuatu:

  1. I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk.
  2. I think we’ll go right now.
  3. I will go to school tomorrow.
  4. I will go to the cinema tonight.
  5. I’ll do my exercises later on.
  6. We will have to take the train.
  7. Which one? Um, I will have the cinnamon rolls please.

5. Will digunakan untuk menyatakan kerelaan (willingness):

  1. His mother won’t let him go to the party.
  2. Perhaps dad will lend me the car.

6. Will digunakan untuk meminta bantuan atau meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu (lebih sopan menggunakan could dan would):

  1. Will you carry this for me please?
  2. Will you please help me lift this box?
  3. Will you please help me?
  4. Will you please take the trash out?
  5. Will you give me some money?

7. Will digunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan (habit):

  1. My daughter will fall asleep as soon as she is put into bed.
  2. He will give up if he starts losing. He always does that.
  3. Erwin will always be late!

8. Will digunakan untuk menyatakan kapasitas:

  1. This airplane will take 100 passengers.
  2. This bucket will hold three gallons of water.

9. Won’t digunakan untuk menyatakan penolakan melakukan sesuatu:

  1. I told him to clean his room but he won’t do it.
  2. She won’t listen to anything I say.

10. Will have digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang sangat mungkin sudah terjadi yang dilihat dari masa sekarang/depan:

  1. By the end of the decade scientists will have discovered a cure for influenza.
  2. By the time we get there, Satri will have left.
  3. By this time next year I will have been learning English for 25 years!
  4. Don’t phone them just yet, they won’t have got up.
  5. I will phone at five o’clock. He will have got home by then.
  6. It is nearly seven o’clock. They will have arrived by now.
  7. It’s half past four. Dad will have finished work.
  8. Look at the time. The match will have started.
  9. The meeting will have ended by six o’clock, so I’ll see you then.
  10. The parcel will have arrived before now.

1st conditional (if + present simple, … will + infinitive): Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang sangat mungkin akan terjadi berdasarkan kondisi tertentu:

  1. If he comes, I’ll be surprised.
  2. If he pays you back, I’ll eat my hat.
  3. If I don’t go to bed early, I’ll be tired tomorrow.
  4. If I go out tonight, I’ll go to the cinema.
  5. If I go to Paris next month for work, I’ll visit the Eiffel Tower.
  6. If I have enough money, I’ll buy some new shoes.
  7. If I have time, I will help you.
  8. If I see her I will let her know.
  9. If I see her, I’ll tell her.
  10. If I study today, I’ll go to the party tonight.
  11. If I win the competition, I will donate half of the prize money to charity.
  12. If it rains, I won’t go to the park.
  13. If it rains, we will cancel the trip.
  14. If she doesn’t go to university, her parents won’t be happy.
  15. If she studies harder, she’ll pass the exam.
  16. If that candidate becomes President, the country will be in trouble.
  17. If the weather doesn’t improve, we won’t have a picnic.
  18. If we don’t see each other tomorrow, we’ll see each other next week.
  19. If we eat all this cake, we’ll feel sick.
  20. If we go on holiday this summer, we’ll go to Argentina.
  21. If we wait here, we’ll be late.
  22. If you continue to practise so hard, you will be able to beat me before too long!
  23. If you don’t start working harder, you will have to repeat the course next year.
  24. If you don’t want to go out, I’ll cook dinner at home.
  25. If you eat my chocolate that is in the fridge, you’ll sleep outside with the dog.
  26. If you get back late, I’ll be angry.
  27. If you say anything I will kill you!
  28. If you sit in the sun, you’ll get burned.
  29. If you take me to the mall, I’ll buy you an ice cream.
  30. If you touch that wire, you will get an electric shock.
  31. Bhuana will help you if you ask him.
  32. He won’t get a better job if he doesn’t pass that exam.
  33. I will be annoyed if they don’t arrive on time.
  34. I won’t go if you don’t come with me.
  35. I’ll buy a new dress if I have enough money.
  36. I’ll come early, if you want.
  37. I’ll give her a call if I can find her number.
  38. I’ll wash the dishes if you dry.
  39. She’ll be late if the train is delayed.
  40. She’ll cook dinner if you go to the supermarket.
  41. She’ll miss the bus if she doesn’t leave soon.
  42. She’ll stay in London if she gets a job.
  43. She’ll take a taxi if it rains.
  44. The dog will bite you if you pull its tail.
  45. They’ll go on holiday if they have time.
  46. They’ll go to the party if they are invited.
  47. We’ll be late if we don’t hurry.
  48. What will you do if they fire you?
  49. You will feel better if you take this medicine.
  50. You will get a better job if you can speak English.
  51. You will miss the bus if you don’t hurry.
  52. Your boss will be angry if you don’t finish the job.

Would

1. Would digunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang sering dilakukan pada masa lampau (habit):

  1. Before internet people would send letters to each other.
  2. Indrawan wouldn’t eat broccoli when he was a kid. He loves it now.
  3. Normally, we would work until 7 p.m.
  4. She would cause the whole family to be late, every time.
  5. When he got older, he would never do his homework.
  6. When he was young, he would always do his homework.
  7. When I lived in Japan, I would take Japanese lessons two times a week.
  8. When I was a child, I would spend hours playing with my train set.
  9. When I was a kid, I would always go to the beach.
  10. When I was a kid, I wouldn’t go into the water by myself.
  11. When I was at school I would get up before everyone else in our house.
  12. When I was in the army, we would get up at 4:30 am.
  13. When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach.
  14. When we were children, we would go to the beach every summer.

2. Would digunakan untuk menyatakan kerelaan pada masa lampau (willingness):

  1. Dad wouldn’t lend me the car, so we had to take the train.
  2. He said he wouldn’t help us.
  3. He told me he would be here before 7:00.
  4. He told me he would not be here before 7:00.
  5. His mother wouldn’t let him go to the party.
  6. I said I would help you.
  7. I said I wouldn’t help you.
  8. I told you he would help us.
  9. My son wouldn’t eat his food.
  10. She promised she would send a postcard from Sweden.

3. Would digunakan untuk mengundang/menawarkan sesuatu:

  1. I would be happy to help you with preparation for your exam (menawarkan bantuan).
  2. What would you like to eat?
  3. Would you like a cup of tea?
  4. Would you like another drink?
  5. Would you like some more tea?
  6. Would you like to come round tomorrow?
  7. Would you like to go to the movies with me tonight?
  8. Would you like to have a coffee with me? Yes, I would.
  9. Would you like to play golf this Monday?
  10. Would two o’clock suit you? – That’d be fine (menawarkan saran).

4. Would digunakan untuk meminta bantuan atau meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu secara sopan (lebih sopan daripada can dan will):

  1. I would like to order the onion soup please.
  2. Would you call me tonight? Yes, I will.
  3. Would you carry this for me please?
  4. Would you help me with this homework?
  5. Would you help me? Yes, I would.
  6. Would you like to come with us?
  7. Would you mind carrying this?
  8. Would you mind closing the door?
  9. Would you mind helping me?
  10. Would you mind not telling him that?
  11. Would you mind waiting a moment?
  12. Would you mind walking a little faster? We’re going to be late.
  13. Would you pass the salt please?
  14. Would you please help me?
  15. Would you please take off your hat? (meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu)

5. Would digunakan untuk meminta izin secara sopan (lebih sopan daripada will):

  1. Would it be okay if I slept here tonight?
  2. Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?
  3. Would you mind if I sat here?

6. Would digunakan untuk menyatakan keinginan:

  1. I would like some coffee.
  2. I would like to have one more pencil.
  3. I’d like that one please.
  4. I’d like to go home now.

7. Would digunakan untuk menyatakan pilihan:

  1. I would rather go shopping today.
  2. I’d rather go home now.
  3. I’d rather have that one.
  4. She would rather go to the beach.
  5. We would prefer to leave immediately.
  6. We’d rather say something than stay quiet.
  7. Would you prefer tea or coffee? – I’d like coffee please.

8. Would digunakan untuk menyatakan harapan:

  • It would be nice if a rainbow appeared.

9. Would digunakan untuk menyatakan ketidak-setujuan secara sopan:

  1. I would like to point out that you need to review those numbers.
  2. I wouldn’t agree with that.

10. Would digunakan untuk membicarakan sesuatu di masa lalu:

  • When I was in Bandung last year I would spend hours sitting at coffee shops writing ideas for my novel.

11. Would digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan yang mungkin benar:

  • I hear a whistle. That would be the six o’clock train.

12. Would have digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang sudah terjadi yang dilihat dari masa lampau:

  1. I phoned at five o’clock. I knew he would have got home by then.
  2. I thought you would have cooked dinner by the time I arrived.
  3. It was half past four. Dad would have finished work.

13. Would have digunakan untuk menyatakan keinginan pada masa lampau yang tidak dilakukan/terlaksana:

  1. Cindy would have finished the work, but she felt ill and had to go home.
  2. Robert would have called Nastiti, but he didn’t have her number (“would” digunakan sebagai modal verb, “have” sebagai auxiliary verb, dan “called” sebagai kata kerja biasa)
  3. I would have called you, but I didn’t know your number.
  4. I would have come to see you! I didn’t know you were ill.
  5. I would have gone to the party, but I was really busy.
  6. I would have helped you. I didn’t know you needed help.
  7. If I had had enough money, I would have bought a car.
  8. They would have come to have breakfast with us, but they went to bed too late the night before.
  9. We would have joined you at the restaurant, but we couldn’t get a babysitter.

2nd conditional (if + past simple, … would + infinitive): Untuk menyatakan sesuatu di masa kini/depan yang kemungkinan tidak akan terjadi atau tidak mungkin akan terjadi:

  1. If he got a new job he would probably make more money.
  2. If he was younger, he’d travel more.
  3. If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies.
  4. If he were taller, he’d be accepted into the team.
  5. If I became President, I would reduce the salaries of all politicians.
  6. If I didn’t have a headache, I would go to the party.
  7. If I had enough money I would buy a house with twenty bedrooms and a swimming pool.
  8. If I had enough money, I would travel around the world.
  9. If I had enough money, I’d buy a big house.
  10. If I had gone with my friends to Bali, I would be lying on a white sand beach right now.
  11. If I had his number, I would call him.
  12. If I had the money I’d buy a new car.
  13. If I knew his name, I would tell you.
  14. If I met the Queen of England, I would say hello.
  15. If I spoke perfect English, I’d have a good job.
  16. If I were elected president next year, I would cut the cost of education.
  17. If I were not in debt, I would quit my job.
  18. If I were president, I would cut the cost of education.
  19. If I were president, I would not raise taxes.
  20. If I were president, I would not sign the tax increase next week.
  21. If I were you, I wouldn’t go out with that man.
  22. If I were you, I’d get a new job.
  23. If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.
  24. If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.
  25. If she passed the exam, she’d be able to enter university.
  26. If she studied harder, she would pass the exam.
  27. If she wasn’t always so late, she’d be promoted.
  28. If we lived in Madrid, we would study Spanish.
  29. If we lived in Mexico, I’d speak Spanish.
  30. If we weren’t friends, I’d be angry with you.
  31. If we won the lottery, we’d travel the world.
  32. If you had a better job, we’d be able to buy a new car.
  33. Adji would help you if you asked him.
  34. I would be happy if I had more free time.
  35. I would give her a call if I could find her number.
  36. I would go if I could afford it.
  37. I would tell you the answer if I knew what it was.
  38. I’d marry someone famous if I were a movie star.
  39. If I had a million dollars, I would buy you an exotic pet.
  40. She would be still be correcting my grammar if she were still alive.
  41. She would pass the exam if she ever studied.
  42. She would travel all over the world if she were rich.
  43. She’d be happier if she had more friends.
  44. She’d call him if she had his number.
  45. She’d pass the exam if she studied more.
  46. There would be fewer accidents if everyone drove more carefully.
  47. They’d go to Spain on holiday if they liked hot weather.
  48. They’d have more money if they didn’t buy so many clothes.
  49. We would have a lot of money if we sold our house.
  50. We wouldn’t be late again if we bought a new car.
  51. We’d buy a house if we decided to stay here.
  52. We’d come to dinner if we had time.
  53. What if he lost his job. What would happen then?
  54. Would she come if I paid for her flight?
  55. Would you accept the job if they offered it to you?
  56. You would lose weight if you took more exercise.
  57. You’d lose weight if you ate less.

3rd conditional (If + Past Perfect, … would have + past participle): Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang tidak terjadi pada masa lampau dan hasilnya:

  1. If he had asked me, I would have helped him (tidak terjadi: dia bertanya, yang terjadi: dia tidak bertanya, hasilnya: tidak ditolong).
  2. If he had become a musician, he would have recorded a CD.
  3. If he hadn’t taken the job, he would have gone travelling (tidak terjadi: dia tidak mengambil pekerjaan, yang terjadi: dia mengambil pekerjaan, hasilnya: dia tidak berjalan-jalan).
  4. If I had been born in a different country, I would have learned to speak a different language.
  5. If I had been president, I would have cut the cost of education.
  6. If I had been president, I would not have raised taxes.
  7. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I would not have had to come to work this week.
  8. If I had known, I wouldn’t have done that.
  9. If I had seen you, I would have said hello.
  10. If I hadn’t eaten so much, I wouldn’t have felt sick (tidak terjadi: tidak terlalu banyak makan, yang terjadi: terlalu banyak makan, hasilnya: sakit)
  11. If it had been a little warmer we would have gone for a swim.
  12. If she had gone to art school, she would have become a painter. (tidak terjadi: masuk sekolah seni, yang terjadi: tidak masuk sekolah seni, hasilnya: tidak menjadi seorang pelukis)
  13. If she had gone to university, she would have studied French.
  14. If she had studied, she would have passed the exam (tidak terjadi: dia belajar, yang terjadi: dia tidak belajar, hasilnya: tidak lulus)
  15. If the car hadn’t broken down, she wouldn’t have missed the train.
  16. If they had gone to bed early, they wouldn’t have woken up late.
  17. If we had arrived earlier, we would have seen Adit.
  18. If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn’t have missed the plane (tidak terjadi: naik taksi, yang terjadi: tidak naik taksi, hasilnya: terlambak naik pesawat)
  19. If we hadn’t gone to the party, we wouldn’t have met them.
  20. If you had been more careful, you wouldn’t have had an accident.
  21. If you had studied all of these grammar pages, you would have passed the exam.
  22. If you had studied, they would have passed the exam.
  23. If you hadn’t been late, we wouldn’t have missed the bus.
  24. He would have been happier if he had stayed at home (tidak terjadi: tinggal di rumah, yang terjadi: tidak tinggal di rumah, hasilnya: tidak menjadi lebih bahagia).
  25. He would have been on time for the interview if he had left the house at nine
  26. He would have been on time if he had left earlier.
  27. He would have been very angry if he had seen you.
  28. He would have died if the ambulance hadn’t arrived quickly.
  29. He would have taken a taxi if he had had enough money.
  30. He wouldn’t have become lost if he had taken the map with him.
  31. I would have called you if I hadn’t forgotten my phone.
  32. I would have taken a photo if I had brought my camera with me.
  33. I wouldn’t have left my job if I had known how difficult it is to find another one.
  34. She would have become a teacher if she had gone to university
  35. She would have gone to your birthday party if she hadn’t been sick.
  36. She would have passed the exam if she had studied harder.
  37. She wouldn’t have been tired if she had gone to bed earlier
  38. She wouldn’t have done it if she had known you were ill.
  39. She wouldn’t have met him if she hadn’t come to London.
  40. The team would have won if the referee hadn’t taken the bribe.
  41. They would have been late if they hadn’t taken a taxi.
  42. We would have come if we had been invited.
  43. We wouldn’t have got married if we hadn’t gone to the same university.
  44. You would have passed the exam if you had studied all of these grammar pages.
  45. You wouldn’t haved needed fillings if you had brushed your teeth more frequently.

 

Auxiliary Verbs (Kata Kerja Bantu)

Auxiliary verbs adalah kata kerja (verbs) yang digunakan untuk melengkapi kata kerja biasa sehingga terbentuklah kata kerja baru yang terdiri dari dua kata atau lebih yang disebut sebagai frasa kata kerja (verbs phrase).

Contoh:

  • I am leaving (“leaving” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “am” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “leaving”).
  • Do you smoke? (“smoke” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “Do” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “smoke”).
  • She has arrived (“arrived” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “has” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “arrived”).

Catatan:

  • Posisi auxiliary verbs selalu diletakkan sebelum kata kerja biasa.
  • Auxiliary verbs disebut juga sebagai helping verbs.
  • Kata kerja biasa terkadang disebut juga sebagai main verbs (kata kerja utama) atau lexical verbs (kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan kamus) atau full verbs (kata kerja penuh) atau kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri.

Ada tiga auxiliary verbs yang umum digunakan, yaitu: be, do dan have. Selain itu masih ada auxiliary verbs lainnya yang disebut sebagai modal verbs, yaitu: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, dan would.

Verb be

Beberapa kata yang termasuk dalam verb be yaitu:

  • am: bentuk present dari verb be dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang pertama tunggal (1st person singular: I).
  • is: bentuk present dari verb be dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang ketiga tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it).
  • are: bentuk present dari verb be dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga jamak (we/you/they) dan orang kedua tunggal (you).
  • was: bentuk past (I/he/she/it).
  • were: bentuk past (we/you/they).
  • been: bentuk past participle.
  • being: bentuk present participle.

Catatan:

  • verb be termasuk ke dalam irregular verbs karena perubahan bentuknya yang tidak mengikuti aturan.
  • Berdasarkan fungsinya, verb be bisa dibedakan menjadi kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri) atau sebagai auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu).

Verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri)

Contoh verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat positif atau pernyataan:

  1. They are twenty years old (“are” adalah kata kerja biasa. Tidak ada auxiliary verb pada kalimat ini).
  2. He/she is cool.
  3. I am 23.
  4. I am a professor in the economics department.
  5. It is very peaceful here
  6. They are excited.
  7. We are waiting.
  8. You are Indian.

Contoh verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. They are not twenty years old.
  2. I am not angry.

Contoh verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Are they twenty years old?
  2. Am I in the right place?
  3. Are they the best players on the team?
  4. Are we nearly there?
  5. Are you my new boss?
  6. Are you okay?
  7. Is he/she old enough to go to bars?

Auxiliary verb be

Auxiliary verb be umumnya digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat progressive dan pasif.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat progressive:

  1. He is playing football (“playing” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “is” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “playing”).
  2. He had been playing football (“had” dan “been” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “playing” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  3. He has been playing football (“has” dan “been” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “playing” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  4. He was playing football.
  5. He was watching TV when the phone rang.
  6. He was winning the election.
  7. Heni is going to be upset when she hears what happened.
  8. A new road is being built behind the school.
  9. I am going now.
  10. I am having a cup of coffee.
  11. I am taking a bath.
  12. I am typing.
  13. I am writing a book.
  14. I was having a bath when you called!
  15. Nike is taking Raymond to the airport.
  16. Orig is writing an e-mail to a client at the moment.
  17. Police are investigating the incident
  18. She is preparing dinner for us.
  19. She was baking a pie for dessert.
  20. She was cooking when I arrived.
  21. They have been studying all night (“have” dan “been” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “studying” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  22. You are going to travel to London.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat pasif:

  1. Argentina were beaten by German in the final.
  2. BMW Minis are made in Oxford.
  3. He was seen by fans at the airport.
  4. I was given a free meal.
  5. It was written by a petitioner.
  6. She is reading a magazine.
  7. The apple was eaten
  8. The bed was made as soon as I got up.
  9. The coat was left on the bus.
  10. The film is produced in Hollywood.
  11. The film was produced in Hollywood.
  12. The house has/had been built.
  13. The house is/was built.
  14. The house will be built.
  15. This song has been sung by all nations.
  16. We were talking to them for ages.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. She is not going to the dance.
  2. They are not sleeping.
  3. You are not going to travel to Bandung.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Are you going to travel to Bandung?
  2. What were the kids doing when you last saw them?
  3. Where were you going when I saw you last night?
  4. Why are you talking?

Verb do

Beberapa kata yang termasuk dalam verb do yaitu:

  • Do: bentuk present dari verb do dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah I/you/we/they
  • Does: bentuk present dari verb do dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang ketiga tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it)
  • Did: bentuk past
  • Done: bentuk past participle
  • Doing: bentuk present participle

Catatan:

  • Verb do termasuk ke dalam irregular verbs karena perubahan bentuknya yang tidak mengikuti aturan.
  • Berdasarkan fungsinya, verb do bisa dibedakan menjadi kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri) atau sebagai auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu).

Verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri)

Verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dapat digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat positif, negatif dan tanya. Namun untuk membentuk kalimat negatif dan tanya maka kita membutuhkan tambahan auxiliary verb do.

Contoh verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat positif atau pernyataan:

  1. She does her homework every day (“does” sebagai kata kerja biasa. Tidak ada auxiliary verb dalam kalimat ini).
  2. He does his homework on the way to school.
  3. He/she does the cleaning.
  4. I do my homework.
  5. They do yoga.
  6. We do the washing up.
  7. You do the laundry.

Contoh verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. She doesn’t do her homework every day (“does” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “do” sebagai kata kerja biasa).

Contoh verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Does she do her homework every day? (“does” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “do” sebagai kata kerja biasa).

Auxiliary verb do

Auxiliary verb do umumnya digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat negatif dan tanya.

Contoh auxiliary verb do dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. Do not eat the cheese (“eat” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “do” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “eat”).He did not play football.
  2. He does not play football.
  3. I didn’t appreciate his jokes. They weren’t funny.
  4. I do not know the truth.
  5. I do not like cheese
  6. I do not work in a law firm downtown.
  7. I don’t like meat.
  8. I don’t study at night.
  9. I really like fish but I don’t care for meat.
  10. If he doesn’t arrive on time, he’ll have to take a later flight.
  11. She doesn’t agree with me.
  12. She doesn’t work here anymore.
  13. Taufik doesn’t always spill things, but it happens a lot.
  14. They didn’t arrive here yet.
  15. We didn’t go to the beach yesterday because it was raining.

Contoh auxiliary verb do dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Ahmad didn’t put his coffee in a cup with a lid.
  2. Bluher doesn’t want to go to the movies, he wants to stay home instead.
  3. Did he finish his homework?
  4. Did he play football?
  5. Did Krisna bring coffee?
  6. Did they like the soup?
  7. Did you come to school yesterday?
  8. Did you visit New York last holiday?
  9. Didn’t he know how to play football?
  10. Do I know you?
  11. Do they come from Jakarta?
  12. Do we need to keep going straight?
  13. Do wildflowers grow in your back yard?
  14. Do you attend this school?
  15. Do you like cheese?
  16. Do you like chocolate? (“Do” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “like” sebagai kata kerja biasa)
  17. Do you like German food?
  18. Do you speak English?
  19. Do you want a coffee?
  20. Do you want tea?
  21. Do you want to have another one?
  22. Does he play football?
  23. Does he work here?
  24. Does he/she drive to work? (“Does” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “drive” sebagai kata kerja biasa)
  25. Does Luthfi write all his own reports?
  26. Does she speak English?
  27. Does your mother speak English?
  28. What did you do last night?
  29. Where did you go on your summer vacation?
  30. Where does your brother work?
  31. Why do you think she didn’t call you like she said she would?

Verb have

Beberapa kata yang termasuk dalam verb have yaitu:

  • have: bentuk present dari verb have dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah I/you/we/they.
  • has: bentuk present dari verb have dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang ketiga tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it).
  • had: bentuk past dan past participle.
  • having: bentuk present participle.

Catatan:

  • verb have termasuk ke dalam irregular verbs karena perubahan bentuknya yang tidak mengikuti aturan.
  • Have dan has bisa digunakan untuk membuat kalimat present perfect tense sedangkan had digunakan untuk membuat kalimat past perfect tense.
  • Berdasarkan fungsinya, verb have bisa dibedakan menjadi kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri) atau sebagai auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu).

Verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri)

Verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dapat digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat positif, negatif dan tanya.

Contoh verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat positif atau pernyataan:

  1. I have a car (“have” sebagai kata kerja biasa. Tidak ada auxiliary verb dalam kalimat ini).
  2. I have a dog.
  3. He has a new haircut.
  4. It has a hole near the door.
  5. She has a great personality.
  6. The washing machine has a leak in it.
  7. You have something on your shirt.

Contoh verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. I do not have a car (“do” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “have” sebagai kata kerja biasa).

Contoh verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Do I have a car? (“Do” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “have” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  2. Who has my pen?

Auxiliary verb have

Auxiliary verb have umumnya digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat aktif dan pasif, perfect tenses (have/has untuk present/future perfect sedangkan had untuk past perfect tenses), positif, negatif dan tanya.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat aktif:

  1. He has played football (“played” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “has” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “played”).
  2. He had played football.
  3. He has been playing football.
  4. He had been playing football.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat pasif:

  1. The house has/had been built.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat perfect tenses:

  1. She has lived here for a long time (Present Perfect).
  2. We have seen this TV show before (Present Perfect).
  3. I have cut my finger (Present Perfect).
  4. Ferta has eaten most of her hotdog for lunch. (present perfect tense)
  5. You have been practicing hard (present perfect progressive).
  6. I have been following you for a mile (present perfect progressive).
  7. They have been writing that novel for a long time (present perfect progressive).
  8. I had already decided not to go before he asked me (Past Perfect).
  9. They had finished the race before it started raining (Past Perfect).
  10. She had already left when he arrived (Past Perfect).
  11. Ricky had cleaned before Citra came home. (past perfect tense)
  12. He had been touring Europe for two months (past perfect progressive).
  13. We will have traveled to every country in the world after this trip (future perfect).
  14. Donal will have been studying for two years come this November (future perfect progressive).

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat positif:

  1. Dad has been working hard all day.
  2. Dyah has always wanted to try skydiving.
  3. He had seen many cathedrals, but none so grand as that one.
  4. He had won the election.
  5. He has done the work.
  6. He has given his all.
  7. He/she has lived in America.
  8. I have finished my dinner.
  9. I have got a car.
  10. I have purchased a new pair of shoes to replace the ones that were lost in my luggage.
  11. I have visited London many times.
  12. In three years, we will have established community gardens.
  13. Indra has bought a new shirt to replace the one that was ruined earlier.
  14. She had been queen of the town.
  15. She has been living in Australia for 7 years.
  16. She has broken her leg.
  17. The judge had asked her to speak up.
  18. They have called me three times.
  19. They have decided to advertise your job.
  20. Unfortunately, our dinner has been eaten by the dog.
  21. We have done a lot so far.
  22. We have seen it before.
  23. We will have been flying for 21 hours by the time we get home.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. I have not got a car.
  2. I have not seen him for ages.
  3. Marie hasn’t called yet, she’s late as usual.
  4. My father has never visited the England.
  5. The secretaries haven’t written all the letters yet.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Has anyone seen my mobile phone?
  2. Has Korentz left yet?
  3. Have I got a car?
  4. Have we practiced this song enough?
  5. Have you been to Japan?
  6. Have you done your homework?
  7. Have you heard that?

Singkatan

Berikut ini adalah daftar penulisan auxiliary dan modal verbs yang disingkat:

Auxiliary verbs:

  • are not = aren’t
  • do not = don’t
  • does not = doesn’t
  • had not = hadn’t
  • has not = hasn’t
  • have not = haven’t
  • he has = he’s
  • He/she has not = he/she hasn’t
  • I have = I’ve
  • I have not = I haven’t/I’ve not
  • it has = it’s
  • She is not = She’s not/She isn’t
  • they have = They’ve
  • They have not = they haven’t/they’ve not
  • we have = we’ve
  • We have not = we haven’t/we’ve not
  • you have = you’ve
  • You have not = you haven’t/you’ve not

Modal verbs

  • cannot = can’t
  • could not = couldn’t
  • might not = mightn’t
  • must not = mustn’t
  • should not = shouldn’t
  • we will not = We’ll not/we won’t
  • would not = wouldn’t

Ellipsis

Ellipsis adalah menyingkat kalimat (menghilangkan beberapa kata dari kalimat).

Contoh:

Pertanyaan: Can you sing?
Jawaban: Yes, I can.

Sebenarnya, kalimat jawaban di atas sudah disingkat dari kalimat jawaban yang lebih lengkap yaitu “Yes, I can sing”. Menyingkat kalimat seperti di atas disebut sebagai ellipsis.

Pada kalimat jawaban yang lebih lengkap “Yes, I can sing” terdapat modal verb “can” dan kata kerja biasa “sing”. Sedangkan pada kalimat jawaban yang telah disingkat “Yes, I can” hanya terdapat modal verb “can”.

Pada kalimat jawaban yang telah disingkat “Yes, I can”, walaupun kata “sing” telah dihilangkan namun sebenarnya kata “sing” tersebut dianggap masih ada pada kalimat tersebut. Sehingga walaupun auxiliary verb “can” tidak diikuti oleh kata kerja biasa “sing” namun kata kerja biasa “sing” tersebut dianggap masih ada. Hal ini sudah sesuai dengan aturan bahwa auxiliary verb tidak bisa berdiri sendiri dan harus diikuti oleh kata kerja biasa.

Catatan: Auxilary verb yang terdapat di dalam kalimat yang telah disingkat (ellipsis) terkadang disebut juga sebagai dummy verb.

Contoh lainnya:

  1. Can you speak English? Yes, I can (speak English)
  2. Do you have a sister? No, I don’t (have a sister)
  3. Do you like reading? Yes, I do (like reading)
  4. Does she work here? No, she doesn’t (work here).

Tag question

Tag question adalah sebuah kalimat tanya singkat yang mengandung auxiliary verb yang ditambahkan pada bagian akhir kalimat pernyataan. Jika kalimat pernyataan berupa kalimat negatif (dengan kata not) maka tag question berisi kalimat positif (tanpa kata not) dan begitu juga sebaliknya.

Contoh:

  1. Abe bakes a lot, doesn’t he?
  2. Abe doesn’t bake a lot, does he?
  3. He can’t speak French, can he?
  4. He plays piano well, doesn’t he?
  5. Maryam has been to Argentina twice, hasn’t she?
  6. They all had dinner, but I didn’t.
  7. You’re writing a book, aren’t you?