Principal Parts of Verbs (Bentuk Dasar Verb)

Sebuah verb (kata kerja) memiliki beberapa bentuk yang penggunaannya tergantung dari jenis kalimat yang digunakan. Beberapa bentuk verb ini disebut sebagai “Principal Parts of Verbs”, diantaranya yaitu: present, past, past participle dan present participle.

Perhatikan perbedaan bentuk verbs berikut ini:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
catch catches caught caught catching
grow grows grew grown growing
love loves loved loved loving
read reads read read reading
work works worked worked working

Catatan: Berdasarkan perubahan bentuknya, verbs (kata kerja) bisa dibedakan menjadi regular dan irregular verbs (kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan). Regular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya mengikuti aturan atau pola. Irregular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya tidak mengikuti aturan atau pola yang pasti.

Present

Present adalah verb dasar yang digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat simple present tense.

Catatan: Jika kalimat simple present tense menggunakan orang ke 3 tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it) maka verbs ditambahkan akhiran -s atau -es.

Contoh kalimat simple present tense dengan verb dalam bentuk present:

  1. He prefers coffee to hot cocoa.
  2. I play football every weekend.
  3. I work in Bandung.
  4. It always rains here in winter.
  5. Now the class begins.
  6. she goes out every Saturday night.
  7. She walks to class.
  8. Your exam starts at 10.00.

Past

Past adalah bentuk verb yang digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat simple past tense.

Catatan: Simple past tense adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa sebuah peristiwa sudah berlangsung pada waktu lampau.

Contoh kalimat simple past tense dengan verb dalam bentuk past:

  1. He looked at her friend.
  2. I began the work last week.
  3. I climbed the mountain yesterday.
  4. I cooked for him last night.
  5. I gave a book to Andika.
  6. I ran away because of the screams.
  7. I saw it.
  8. I slapped him because he insulted me.
  9. I went to Bali for vacation.
  10. Indrawan talked to the child harshly.
  11. The little girl blew a bubble.
  12. We wanted to see the show.
  13. Yesterday, I walked to school.

Past participle

Past participle adalah verb yang memiliki beberapa kegunaan, diantaranya yaitu digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect) dan membentuk kalimat pasif.

Membentuk kalimat perfect tense

Catatan: Past participle diletakkan setelah have, has atau had pada kalimat perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect).

Contoh kalimat perfect tenses dengan verb dalam bentuk past participle:

  1. Rian has drunk two glasses of water this afternoon (present perfect).
  2. I have seen it (present perfect).
  3. We had drunk all the water before the order arrived (past perfect).
  4. I had seen it (past perfect).
  5. He will have drunk two bottles by the end of the evening (future ferfect).
  6. I will have seen it (future ferfect).

Membentuk kalimat pasif

Selain berguna untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tense, past participle juga digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat pasif.

Catatan:

  • Kalimat aktif adalah jika subject yang melakukan tindakan sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah jika bukan subject yang melakukan tindakan.
  • Past participle diletakkan setelah verb “be” pada kalimat pasif.

Contoh kalimat pasif dengan dengan verb dalam bentuk past participle:

  1. Fish are eaten by cats.
  2. Her hair was well brushed.
  3. It was seen.
  4. Some apples will be bought by him.
  5. Some books were brought by me.
  6. The book was stolen by the thieves.
  7. The boys were beaten by the man.
  8. The food has been eaten by the children.
  9. The vase was broken by Firman.
  10. We were ordered to sit down.

Sebagai adjective

Dalam beberapa kasus, past participle juga bisa digunakan sebagai adjective. Contoh:

  • He had a broken arm.
  • A torn jacket is soon mended, but hard words bruise the heart of a child~Henry Longfellow.

Perbedaan Past dan Past Participle

Past Past Participle
Verb dalam bentuk past berguna untuk membentuk kalimat simple past tense. Verb dalam bentuk past participle berguna untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tense (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect) dan kalimat pasif.

Present participle

Present participle adalah verb yang ditambahkan akhiran -ing.

Contoh kalimat yang menggunakan present participle:

  1. I saw Budi eating his dinner.
  2. The company is building new headquarters in the Semarang.
  3. We are going to Bekasi.

Catatan: Present participle disebut juga sebagai active participle karena present participle digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat aktif.

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Daftar Irregular Verbs (Kata Kerja Tidak Beraturan)

Berdasarkan perubahan bentuknya, verbs (kata kerja) bisa dibedakan menjadi regular dan irregular verbs (kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan).

Regular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya mengikuti aturan atau pola sedangkan irregular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya tidak mengikuti aturan atau pola yang pasti. Walaupun irregular verbs tidak memiliki aturan pasti pada perubahan bentuknya namun irregular verbs dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa kelompok, yaitu:

1. Present, past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
beset besets beset beset besetting
bet bets bet bet betting
broadcast broadcasts broadcast broadcast broadcasting
burst bursts burst burst bursting
cast casts cast cast casting
cut cuts cut cut cutting
hit hits hit hit hitting
hurt hurts hurt hurt hurting
let lets let let letting
put puts put put putting
quit quits quit quit quitting
read reads read read reading
set sets set set setting
shed sheds shed shed shedding
shut shuts shut shut shutting
slit slits slit slit slitting
split splits split split splitting
spread spreads spread spread spreading
thrust thrusts thrust thrust thrusting
upset upsets upset upset upsetting

Walaupun pada beberapa irregular verbs tidak terjadi perubahan bentuk ejaan atau huruf pada bentuk past dan past participle namun ada perubahan pengucapan atau bunyi (Contoh: pada verb read terjadi perubahan bunyi yang cukup jelas perbedaannya pada bentuk past dan past participle).

2. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
abide abides abode abode abiding
behold beholds beheld beheld beholding
bend bends bent bent bending
bind binds bound bound binding
bleed bleeds bled bled bleeding
breed breeds bred bred breeding
bring brings brought brought bringing
build builds built built building
buy buys bought bought buying
catch catches caught caught catching
cling clings clung clung clinging
creep creeps crept crept creeping
deal deals dealt dealt dealing
dig digs dug dug digging
feed feeds fed fed feeding
feel feels felt felt feeling
fight fights fought fought fighting
find finds found found finding
flee flees fled fled fleeing
fling flings flung flung flinging
grind grinds ground ground grinding
have has had had having
hear hears heard heard hearing
hold holds held held holding
keep keeps kept kept keeping
lay lays laid laid laying
lead leads led led leading
leave leaves left left leaving
lend lends lent lent lending
lose loses lost lost losing
make makes made made making
mean means meant meant meaning
meet meets met met meeting
pay pays paid paid paying
rend rends rent rent rending
say says said said saying
seek seeks sought sought seeking
sell sells sold sold selling
send sends sent sent sending
shoot shoots shot shot shooting
sit sits sat sat sitting
sleep sleeps slept slept sleeping
slide slides slid slid sliding
sling slings slung slung slinging
slink slinks slunk slunk slinking
spend spends spent spent spending
spin spins spun spun spinning
spit spits spat spat spitting
stand stands stood stood standing
stick sticks stuck stuck sticking
sting stings stung stung stinging
string strings strung strung stringing
sweep sweeps swept swept sweeping
swing swings swung swung swinging
teach teaches taught taught teaching
tell tells told told telling
think thinks thought thought thinking
understand understands understood understood understanding
weep weeps wept wept weeping
win wins won won winning
wring wrings wrung wrung wringing

3. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang berbeda

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
arise arises arose arisen arising
awake awakes awoke awoken awaking
be is was/were been being
bear bears bore borne bearing
beat beats beat beaten beating
become becomes became become becoming
befall befalls befell befallen befalling
beget begets begot begotten begetting
begin begins began begun beginning
bite bites bit bitten biting
blow blows blew blown blowing
break breaks broke broken breaking
choose chooses chose chosen choosing
come comes came come coming
do does did done doing
draw draws drew drawn drawing
drink drinks drank drunk drinking
drive drives drove driven driving
eat eats ate eaten eating
fall falls fell fallen falling
fly flies flew flown flying
forbear forbears forbore forborne forbearing
forbid forbids forbade forbidden forbidding
forget forgets forgot forgotten forgetting
forgive forgives forgave forgiven forgiving
forsake forsakes forsook forsaken forsaking
freeze freezes froze frozen freezing
give gives gave given giving
go goes went gone going
grow grows grew grown growing
hide hides hid hidden hiding
know knows knew known knowing
lie lies lay lain lying
ride rides rode ridden riding
ring rings rang rung ringing
rise rises rose risen rising
run runs ran run running
saw saws sawed sawn sawing
see sees saw seen seeing
sew sews sewed sewn sewing
shake shakes shook shaken shaking
show shows showed shown showing
shrink shrinks shrank shrunk shrinking
sing sings sang sung singing
smite smites smote smitten smiting
speak speaks spoke spoken speaking
spring springs sprang sprung springing
steal steals stole stolen stealing
swear swears swore sworn swearing
swim swims swam swum swimming
take takes took taken taking
tear tears tore torn tearing
throw throws threw thrown throwing
tread treads trod trodden treading
undertake undertakes undertook undertaken undertaking
wear wears wore worn wearing
withdraw withdraws withdrew withdrawn withdrawing
write writes wrote written writing

Regular dan Irregular Verbs (Kata Kerja Beraturan dan Tidak Beraturan)

Berdasarkan perubahan bentuknya, verbs (kata kerja) bisa dibedakan menjadi regular dan irregular verbs (kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan).

Regular verbs (kata kerja beraturan)

Regular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya mengikuti aturan atau pola.

Contoh beberapa regular verb dan perubahan bentuknya:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
cry cries cried cried crying
live lives lived lived living
love loves loved loved loving
play plays played played playing
work works worked worked working

Simple present tense

Pada kalimat simple present tense, regular verbs tidak mengalami perubahan bentuk dari bentuk dasar kecuali jika kalimat menggunakan orang ke 3 tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it). Berikut ini adalah beberapa aturan perubahan bentuk regular verbs jika pada kalimat simple present tense menggunakan orang ke 3 tunggal:

  • Regular verbs pada umumnya hanya ditambahkan akhiran -s (seem->seems, look->looks).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir vokal selain -e: tambahkan akhiran -es (veto->vetoes).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -s, -z, -ch, -sh dan -x: tambahkan akhiran -es (kiss->kisses, fizz->fizzes, punch->punches, wash->washes, mix->mixes).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir konsonan+y: ubah y menjadi i dan tambahkan akhiran -es (hurry->hurries, clarify->clarifies).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir vokal+y: tambahkan akhiran -s (play->plays, enjoy->enjoys).

Simple past tense

Beberapa aturan perubahan bentuk regular verbs pada kalimat simple past tense, yaitu:

  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa konsonan atau vokal selain -e: tambahkan akhiran -ed (seem->seemed, laugh->laughed, look->looked).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -e: tambahkan akhiran -d (love->loved, recede->receded, hope->hoped, amaze->amazed).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir konsonan+y: ubah y menjadi i dan tambahkan akhiran -ed (carry->carried, clarify->clarified, cry->cried, dirty->dirtied, fry->fried, hurry->hurried, magnify->magnified, try->tried).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir vokal+y: tambahkan akhiran -ed (decay->decayed, enjoy->enjoyed, play->played, survey->surveyed).
  • Regular verbs yang tersusun dari satu suku kata dan diakhiri dengan huruf konsonan: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ed (shop->shopped, stop->stopped, plan->planned).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa huruf vokal+konsonan yang menekankan pada bagian terakhirnya: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ed (compel->compelled, defer->deferred, incur->incurred,refer->referred, regret->regretted, reship->reshipped).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -c: tambahkan akhiran -k sebelum menmbahkan akhiran -ed (frolic->frolicked).

Past participle

Perubahan bentuk regular verbs pada kalimat dengan past participle sama dengan kalimat simple past tense.

Contoh kalimat:

  • Bentuk dasar: Don’t copy other students’ answers or you will get an F (present tense).
  • Bentuk past: I think he copied my answers (past tense).
  • Bentuk past participle: The only answers he got right were the ones he had copied (past perfect tense).

Catatan: Past participle adalah bentuk verb yang memiliki beberapa kegunaan, diantaranya yaitu digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect) dan membentuk kalimat pasif.

Lihat perbedaan past dan past participle.

Present participle

Beberapa perubahan bentuk regular verbs pada kalimat dengan present participle, yaitu:

  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa konsonan atau vokal selain -e: tambahkan akhiran -ing (laugh->laughing, boo->booing).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -e: ubah huruf terakhir -e menjadi -ing (love->loving, hope->hoping, amaze->amazing).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir y: tambahkan akhiran -ing (hurry->hurrying, clarify->clarifying).
  • Regular verbs yang tersusun dari satu suku kata dan diakhiri dengan huruf konsonan: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ing (shop->shopping).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa huruf vokal+konsonan yang menekankan pada bagian terakhirnya: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ing (refer->referring).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -c: tambahkan akhiran -k sebelum menmbahkan akhiran -ing (frolic->frolicking).

Irregular verbs (kata kerja tidak beraturan)

Irregular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya tidak mengikuti aturan atau pola yang pasti.

Walaupun irregular verbs tidak memiliki aturan pasti pada perubahan bentuknya namun irregular verbs dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa kelompok, yaitu:

1. Present, past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
burst bursts burst burst bursting
cut cuts cut cut cutting
put puts put put putting
read reads read read reading
spread spreads spread spread spreading

Walaupun pada beberapa irregular verbs tidak terjadi perubahan bentuk ejaan atau huruf pada bentuk past dan past participle namun ada perubahan pengucapan atau bunyi (Contoh: pada verb read terjadi perubahan bunyi yang cukup jelas perbedaannya pada bentuk past dan past participle).

2. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
bleed bleeds bled bled bleeding
catch catches caught caught catching
feed feeds fed fed feeding
leave leaves left left leaving
win wins won won winning

3. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang berbeda

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
arise arises arose arisen arising
come comes came come coming
fly flies flew flown flying
grow grows grew grown growing
ride rides rode ridden riding

Contoh irregular verbs di dalam kalimat dalam bentuk past dan past participle:

verb past past participle
Bite-bit-bitten A dog bit her leg. The dog has bitten a hole in my sleeve.
Come-came-come I came here yesterday. We had just come home when he arrived.
Catch-caught-caught I caught four fish yesterday. I had caught three butterflies by the time she arrived.
Draw-drew-drawn Bunga drew that picture last week. Andika has drawn four portraits today.
Drive-drove-driven Amanda drove to Jakarta yesterday. He has already driven into town.
Eat-ate-eaten He ate a box of chocolates. He had already eaten lunch when we arrived.
Fall-fell-fallen He fell down the stairs. The hiker had fallen and broken his back and agonized for hours before being found by a search team.
Feel-felt-felt He felt at home. He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery (Barack Obama).
Fly-flew-flown I flew to Surabaya last week. She has flown many times in her life.
Go-went-gone Aditya went to Semarang last week. They had already gone to the show so we didn’t go.
Hang-hung-hung The keys hung on the wall beside the door. Many have hung from the gallows in the medieval fortress.
Lay-laid-laid He laid the boxes on the ground. He has laid the boxes on the ground and left the room.
Rise-rose-risen She rose from her chair. The book has risen to the top of best-seller lists.
Shrink-shrank-shrunk My jeans shrank in the wash. The cotton material had shrunk in the wash.
Sink-sank-sunk The storm sank the boat. The sun has just sunk below the horizon.

Catatan: Tidak ada aturan atau rumus yang pasti untuk mengetahui perubahan bentuk irregular verbs sehingga kita harus melihat kamus yang ada. Selain itu pemilihan jenis kamus juga penting karena ada verb yang perubahan bentuknya berbeda antara kamus Amerika dan Inggris. Contoh, bentuk past untuk verb “dive” pada kamus British adalah “dived” sedangkan pada kamus Amerika adalah “dove”.

Lihat daftar irregular verbs yang lebih lengkap.

Transitive, Intransitive dan Linking Verbs (Kata Kerja Transitif, Intransitif dan Kata Kerja Penghubung)

Berdasarkan ada atau tidaknya object di dalam sebuah kalimat, verbs bisa dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu transitive dan intransitive verbs (kata kerja transitif dan intransitif).

Transitive verbs

Transitive verbs adalah verbs (kata kerja) yang melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object.

Catatan:

  • Direct object adalah object yang berupa nouns (kata benda) yang mendapatkan tindakan dari verbs. Direct object yang mengikuti transitive verbs biasanya menjelaskan atau menjawab mengenai pertanyaan apa (what) atau siapa (whom). Rumus: Subject + Transitive verb + direct object.

Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat dengan transitive verb (transitive verb diberi format bold dan direct object diberi format underline):

She played the piano
(transitive verb: played, direct object: the piano)

Pada contoh di atas, transitive verb “played” melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object “the piano“. Direct object “the piano” menjelaskan mengenai apa yang dilakukan oleh transitive verb “played“. Contoh lainnya:

  1. I admire your courage.
  2. That really annoys me.
  3. Richard annoys his boss so much that he’ll never get a promotion.
  4. He bought a book.
  5. Ahmad bought a new bicycle.
  6. I baked some cookies.
  7. Soraya borrowed the methodology book from her classmate because she forgot her copy.
  8. Emyliana brings Mrs. Cindy lunch every day.
  9. Please bring coffee.
  10. He closed the door.
  11. Rosiana conveyed the message.
  12. We cut the budget.
  13. He carried the bag.
  14. He caught the bus after the party.
  15. They climbed the mountain.
  16. She cut the cake.
  17. I caught a cold.
  18. The girls carry water to their village.
  19. They designated a hitter.
  20. The speaker discussed different marketing strategies in the video.
  21. My father doesn’t drink beer.
  22. Rabbits destroy my garden every day.
  23. We enjoyed the performance.
  24. I ate the cherries.
  25. Ricky eats cakes.
  26. She’s eating chocolate.
  27. Picky eats dozens of cakes.
  28. No amount of time can erase the memory of a good cat, and no amount of masking tape can ever totally remove his fur from your couch. (Leo Buscaglia, 1925-1998)
  29. She filled the cup.
  30. Donal gave the gift to his sister.
  31. He kicked the ball.
  32. The kids like pickles.
  33. She gave a cookie to the child.
  34. You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow – Jeff Valdez
  35. Puti kicked Lucky under the table.
  36. Bond killed the snake and ate it.
  37. My cat kills rabbits.
  38. The princess kissed a frog.
  39. I know the muffin man -Lord Farquaad, Shrek, 2001.
  40. Some of the children are learning English.
  41. She left the keys on the table.
  42. I like pie.
  43. We lost a daughter but gained a meathead -Archie Bunker in All in the Family, 1971.
  44. She loves rainbows.
  45. Do you love me?
  46. Danu loves pies.
  47. She loves animals.
  48. She makes hats.
  49. I moved the chair.
  50. We had been playing football.
  51. I punched Mickey Mantle in the mouth -Cosmo Kramer, Seinfeld
  52. We painted the old rocking chair.
  53. Could you phone the neighbors?
  54. He read a book.
  55. I rode the bicycle.
  56. The committee members will raise money for the new project.
  57. The company reduced the number of employees.
  58. Mary saw the eagle two days after it escaped.
  59. Have they sold their house yet?
  60. When I said that, my sister smacked me.
  61. The clock struck one.
  62. As the clock struck midnight, all the toys opened their eyes.
  63. A burglar stole my necklace.
  64. I stitched a quilt.
  65. Indra will send the price quote as soon as he can.
  66. Saputra sent a postcard from Australia.
  67. He told a joke.
  68. Haryo thanked Pandu.
  69. Imam threw the ball.
  70. Can fracking trigger earthquakes?
  71. The man tore the paper.
  72. Abdil wanted a new bicycle.
  73. I want candy.
  74. Kaisar wants a smile from Melissa, his beautiful but serious lab partner.
  75. We watched a movie last night.
  76. He wrote a poem.
  77. Nadia wrote a love poem on a restaurant napkin.

Ditransitive verbs

Transitive verbs bisa dibagi menjadi dua berdasarkan jumlah object yang dimiliki, yaitu monotransitive dan ditransitive verbs. Monotransitive verbs adalah verbs yang hanya dilengkapi dengan direct object sedangkan ditransitive verbs adalah verbs yang dilengkapi dengan direct object dan indirect object.

Catatan:

  • Indirect object adalah object yang mendapatkan atau memperoleh direct object yang letaknya sebelum direct object. Rumus: Subject + Transitive verb + indirect object + direct object.

Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat dengan ditransitive verb yang dilengkapi dengan direct dan indirect object (transitive verb diberi format bold, direct object diberi format underline dan indirect object diberi format italic):

Adis brought Imlati a glass of water.
(transitive verb: brought, direct object: a glass of water, indirect object: Imlati)

Pada contoh di atas, transitive verb “brought” melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object “a glass of water“. Direct object “a glass of water” menjelaskan mengenai apa yang dilakukan oleh transitive verb “brought“. Indirect object “Imlati“adalah object yang mendapatkan direct object “a glass of water“.

Contoh lainnya:

  1. My husband bought me some flowers.
  2. Anthony bought his new girlfriend some roses on her birthday.
  3. The police caught themselves a criminal.
  4. Find her a chair.
  5. Adyati gave Orig the pencil.
  6. Who gave her lawyers the information?
  7. Korentz gave his sister a laptop.
  8. The local council have granted us permission to open a shop.
  9. The bank won’t lend them any money.
  10. I lent him some money.
  11. Make me an offer.
  12. She offered him her car.
  13. Please pass me the rice.
  14. Can you read me the letter?
  15. He’s saving Diah a piece.
  16. He sent her a letter.
  17. They will serve the guests lunch at 12:20 pm.
  18. She showed the doctor her rash.
  19. Kid refused to show the teacher her homework.
  20. Who teaches him Japanese?

Transitive verb di dalam transitive verb

Pada beberapa kasus, transitive verb bisa muncul di dalam sebuah transitive verb. Contoh:

I loathe people who keep dogs. They are cowards who haven’t got the guts to bite people themselves.
I loathe people who keep dogs. They are cowards who haven’t got the guts to bite people themselves.

Pada kalimat pertama di atas terdapat verb dan direct object yaitu: “loathe” dan “people who keep dogs“. Di dalam direct object tersebut terdapat verb dan direct object lain yaitu: “keep” dan “dogs“.

You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow -Jeff Valdez
You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow -Jeff Valdez

Pada kalimat pertama di atas terdapat verb dan direct object yaitu: “get” dan “eight cats to pull a sled through snow. Di dalam direct object tersebut terdapat verb dan direct object lain yaitu: “to pull” dan “a sled“.

Intransitive verbs

Intransitive verbs adalah verbs (kata kerja) yang tidak memiliki atau membutuhkan direct object.

Contoh kalimat dengan intransitive verb (intransitive verb diberi format bold):

  1. The dog barked.
  2. The watchdogs bark.
  3. Were the dogs barking?
  4. The Wind blows.
  5. Our car broke down.
  6. The news hasn’t changed.
  7. The baby coughed.
  8. I cried.
  9. She cried.
  10. He died.
  11. The old woman died.
  12. They disappeared.
  13. He fainted.
  14. The book fell.
  15. The rain fell.
  16. The horse galloped.
  17. Nothing happened.
  18. My throat hurts.
  19. They jumped.
  20. He laughs.
  21. I laughed.
  22. He laughed.
  23. Ranggi laughed.
  24. The bystanders laughed.
  25. Sorry, but I have to leave.
  26. They napped.
  27. My dog ran.
  28. The dog ran.
  29. He ran.
  30. It rained.
  31. They run.
  32. The horse runs.
  33. She sang.
  34. The sun set.
  35. The sun shines.
  36. The building shook.
  37. The Child sleeps.
  38. She slept.
  39. Krisna smiled.
  40. The cat sneezed.
  41. I sneezed.
  42. He snores.
  43. It snows.
  44. The bus stopped.
  45. The stars twinkled.
  46. Every single person voted.
  47. Dira winked.

Kata atau frasa setelah intransitive verb

Walaupun intransitive verbs tidak bisa diikuti oleh object namun bisa diikuti oleh kata atau frasa (gabungan dua kata atau lebih) yang menjelaskan mengenai bagaimana sesuatu hal terjadi (how), dimana (where) atau kapan (when) yang berbentuk prepositional phrases (frasa preposisi) atau adverb (kata keterangan). Contoh:

  1. The train arrives at 4 pm.
  2. They arrived after the party.
  3. The students arrived at the residency in Bandung.
  4. We arrived home late at night.
  5. Huffing and puffing, we arrived at the classroom door with only seven seconds to spare.
  6. If Denia continues to be late for work, the boss will fire her.
  7. She coughed bitterly.
  8. Many of the students are not well. They coughed throughout the lesson.
  9. Someone was coughing loudly.
  10. She was crying all day long.
  11. Her car died suddenly last night.
  12. He died after a long illness.
  13. Flipped on its back, the beetle that Maryam soaked with insecticide dies under the refrigerator.
  14. He disappeared after the party.
  15. My dog dreams about chasing rabbits.
  16. Aso emigrated from Australia in 1998.
  17. Water evaporates when it’s hot.
  18. He fainted after lunch.
  19. Taufik fell on the ferry.
  20. When he finished the race, he vomited.
  21. You’ve grown since I last saw you!
  22. Attendance increased at the weekly study sessions as finals drew near.
  23. The children laughed heartily.
  24. They laughed uncontrollably.
  25. She laughed at the joke.
  26. They live in Jakarta.
  27. Indah lives on the west side of the city.
  28. To escape the midday sun, the cats lie in the shade under our cars.
  29. They ran down the road.
  30. It rained across the state.
  31. It was raining at that time.
  32. He was running too fast.
  33. The steamer sails this morning.
  34. In the evenings, Kania sits on the front porch to admire her immaculate lawn.
  35. The canary sings sweetly.
  36. They slept in the street.
  37. Around fresh ground pepper, Mutia sneezes with violence.
  38. That perfume smells nice.
  39. The sick child sneezed in my face.
  40. We talked for hours.
  41. Bluher voted for the incumbent in the local election.
  42. Bluher voted in the local election.
  43. I walked to the library.
  44. The president waved to the crowds.
  45. We went to the fair.
  46. Raymond went to the campus cafe for a steaming bowl of squid eyeball stew.
  47. I work for a large firm in Surabaya.

Ambitransitive verbs

Beberapa verbs seperti arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit dan die tidak mungkin diikuti oleh direct object sehingga selalu bersifat intransitive verbs. Sedangkan beberapa verbs lainnya bisa berfungsi sebagai transitive maupun intransitive verbs tergantung dari kalimatnya. Verbs yang bisa menjadi transitive maupun intransitive verbs disebut sebagai ambitransitive verbs. Contoh ambitransitive verbs:

Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
The boy broke the cup. My oven broke yesterday.
Marriage hasn’t changed her. The area’s changed greatly in the last decade.
They cheered the band. They cheered.
Close your eyes, I’ve got a surprise for you. Most shops here close at 8.30 pm.
We will continue the meeting after the break. The meeting continued after the break.
She dances the rhumba. She dances.
He demonstrated a karate chop to the class. The crowd demonstrated outside the theatre.
Have you done your coursework? Raymond’s doing well in his new job.
If there is no leftover spaghetti, Vidya usually eats whole-grain cereal. Because of blood sugar problems, Vidya always eats before leaving for school.
Heat evaporates water. Water evaporates when it’s hot.
You’ve grown a beard since I last saw you! You’ve grown since I last saw you.
She usually leaves the books on the table. The train sometimes leaves early on Saturday.
He left the gift on the table. After he cleaned up, he left.
Our cat lived till he was 7. He was living a life of luxury abroad.
Ms. Sherly manages the accounting department. Picky has had difficulty managing since his wife’s death.
Could you move your car please? The trees were moving in the breeze.
Open the window; it’s too hot in here! The library opens at 9 am.
Some man opened the window. The store opens early today.
He opened me a soda. The door opened.
My husband paid the mechanic. We already paid.
I paid the waiter for the broken glasses. The man behind you already paid.
My daughter painted her fingernails blue. The workers painted yesterday.
The apes played hide and seek in the woods. The apes played in the woods.
They are playing soccer. They’ve been playing all afternoon.
Four of the students play the guitar. The students will play outside today.
The workers protested their innocence in the street. The workers protested in the street.
He is reading a book. He reads at noon.
I read my newspaper. I always read in the garden.
Ahmad is reading a book. Ahmad is reading.
Pandu returned the book to the library. The students returned to school after the party.
Luthfi used to run a restaurant. The path ran over the hill.
In the summer, Abdil will run his first marathon. During cross-country practice, Abdil runs over hills, through fields, across the river, and along the highway.
She sang the national anthem at the airport. Urged by the others, she sang.
She sang a song. She sang.
The German U-boat sank the British ship. The boat sank.
Taufik set the documents down on the table. The sun set low over the Atlantic Ocean.
Chandra set a chair next to the bed. The sun was setting and a red glow filled the sky.
He’s been singing the national anthem all afternoon. He’s been singing all afternoon.
Heni was found guilty of starting the fire. The match starts at 4 pm.
Taufik tried to stop her from leaving. When the rain stopped, we went for a walk.
Krisna tripped Haryo. Krisna tripped.
We visited aunt Soraya. We visited.
Erika walks the dog for miles. Erika walks for miles.
Have you washed your hands? I washed, dressed, and went out.
Write your name here. Luthfi couldn’t read or write.

Bentuk pasif

Kalimat dengan transitive verbs bisa diubah menjadi bentuk pasif sedangkan kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak bisa.

Untuk mengubah sebuah kalimat dari bentuk aktif menjadi pasif maka kalimat tersebut harus membutuhkan sebuah object. Karena kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak memiliki object maka kalimat tersebut tidak bisa diubah menjadi bentuk pasif.

Contoh bentuk aktif dan pasif dari transitive verbs:

Aktif Pasif
The earthquake killed hundreds of people. Hundreds of people were killed by the earthquake.
Rian shot the bear. The bear was shot by Rian.
Thieves stole his car. His car was stolen.
Thomas Edison invented the light bulb. The light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison.
They sold some flowers. Some flowers were sold.
My cat caught a bird. A bird was caught by my cat.
Krisna thanked Wira. Wira was thanked by Krisna.
The bullet penetrated a tree. A tree was penetrated by the bullet.
Firman painted that portrait. That portrait was painted by Firman.
The doctor had saved the child. The child had been saved by the doctor.

Perbedaan transitive dan intransitive verbs

Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
  • Transitive verbs adalah verbs yang melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object.
  • Kalimat dengan transitive verbs bisa memiliki bentuk pasif
  • Intransitive verbs adalah verbs yang tidak memiliki atau membutuhkan direct object.
  • Kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak bisa memiliki bentuk passive

Linking verbs (Kata kerja penghubung)

Linking verbs (kata kerja penghubung) adalah verbs yang bisa digolongkan ke dalam intransitive verbs karena linking verbs tidak memiliki object.

Lingking verbs atau yang disebut juga copula atau copular verbs berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject dengan predicate (predikat) yang berupa adjectives (kata sifat) atau nouns (kata benda) yang menjelaskan mengenai subject tersebut.

Kata atau frasa (gabungan dua kata atau lebih) yang terletak setelah linking verbs disebut sebagai subject complement (pelengkap subjek).

Ada banyak kata yang termasuk ke dalam linking verbs, namun beberapa yang umum yaitu:

  • Verb be dan have (am, is, is being, are, are being, was, was being, were, will be, has, has been, have been, will have been, might have been, had been)
  • Verbs yang berkaitan dengan indra (look, feel, smell, sound, taste)
  • Verb become (become, becomes, became, has become, have become, had become, will become, will have become)
  • Verb seem (seemed, seeming, seems, has seemed, have seemed, had seemed, will seem)
  • Lainnya (act, appear, come, constitute, equal, form, get, go, grow, keep, make, measure, prove, represent, stay, turn, remain)

Contoh kalimat dengan linking verbs:

My sister is a doctor.
(Subject: My sister, linking verbs: is, noun: a doctor)

Pada contoh di atas, verb “is” tidak melakukan tindakan terhadap object sehingga verb “is” tidak bisa digolongkan ke dalam transitive verbs. Verb “is” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject “My sister” dan noun “a doctor” sehingga bisa disebut sebagai linking verbs.

Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas tidak mendapatkan tindakan dari verb sehingga tidak bisa digolongkan sebagai direct object. Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menerangkan mengenai subject “My sister” sehingga disebut sebagai subject complement.

Contoh lainnya:

  1. I am a teacher.
  2. I am the postman!
  3. I am feeling thirsty.
  4. I am glad it is Saturday.
  5. Farah is a doctor.
  6. Juni is a teacher.
  7. Cindy is a shopaholic.
  8. She is a nurse.
  9. Nastiti is a nurse.
  10. Mr. Shandi is our teacher.
  11. His father is a farmer.
  12. Yogie is my boyfriend.
  13. My dog is an Akita.
  14. My sister is happy.
  15. Myra is happy.
  16. Iesa is nice.
  17. My sister is at home.
  18. The car is green.
  19. My cat is very furry.
  20. Adib is excited about his promotion.
  21. Cynthia is excited about her new bike.
  22. This project is a disaster.
  23. I think the sun is rising.
  24. The moon is in outer space.
  25. Andrea is the manager of the office.
  26. He is the best soccer player in the world.
  27. The sky is blue.
  28. The ball is red.
  29. The soup is salty.
  30. Martin is fond of spicy food.
  31. My birds are hungry.
  32. We are the champions!
  33. The fireworks are amazing!
  34. Clocks are helpful.
  35. The new neighbors are both engineers.
  36. The children are smart.
  37. They are teachers.
  38. Your friends are here.
  39. The pens are black.
  40. We are dismayed about the foreclosure.
  41. The milk has gone sour.
  42. Your brother might be disappointed if you don’t go.
  43. Mega might have been more forthcoming with the news.
  44. His uncle was the headmaster.
  45. Our neighbour was a strange man.
  46. The cat was friendly.
  47. The cat was playful.
  48. The play was good.
  49. She was great in her new performance.
  50. Qiqi was at the theater.
  51. The weather was accommodating and the party continued.
  52. Tuty was a runner.
  53. The roads were slippery after the snowstorm.
  54. My best friend were late to the party.
  55. After the oil spill, the roads were slippery.
  56. All the kittens were playful.
  57. Satri will be 30 in October.
  58. Riding in a car will be safer with a seat belt.
  59. The child will be tall seven years from now.
  60. Sometimes, kids act foolish.
  61. My little brother acts crazy sometimes.
  62. Satri acted nervous when the teacher found the note.
  63. Her explanation did not appear plausible.
  64. Your brother appears ill today.
  65. She appears upset about the announcement.
  66. They appeared satisfied with the news.
  67. A flaw in the design appeared to be the cause of the collapse.
  68. My father became a locksmith.
  69. He became a taxi driver.
  70. He became uncomfortable when he saw the safe was open.
  71. They became curious of the man standing across the road.
  72. The dog became thin after his surgery.
  73. Dreams come true when we believe in them.
  74. I feel happy today.
  75. I feel ill.
  76. I feel unwell.
  77. I feel refreshed after that nap.
  78. I feel worthy when the boss compliments me.
  79. Andika feels sick.
  80. Fanny feels feverish.
  81. Rakhmi always feels sleepy after pigging out on pizza from Antonio’s.
  82. I felt ashamed yesterday.
  83. We felt sad that the holiday was over.
  84. Adit felt thankful after eating the whole pizza.
  85. The crowd fell silent when the concert began.
  86. The audience fell silent when the conductor walked on stage.
  87. Most children get cranky when they are sleepy.
  88. The theater gets dark when the show is about to begin.
  89. The police department is getting tough on crime.
  90. Some couples are lucky enough to grow old together.
  91. Endah grew tired during the concert.
  92. He grew tired of running.
  93. You look exhausted after studying all night.
  94. She looks fine.
  95. Yoga looks very happy.
  96. Saras looks very tired.
  97. She looks tired today.
  98. The students looked tired.
  99. Everyone looked happy.
  100. The vegetables in the bin looked disgusting and spoiled.
  101. The result of the test remains unknown.
  102. She remains puzzled, even though it has been three years since he left.
  103. Hillary remained single for the rest of her life.
  104. The spectators remained seated after the injury on the field.
  105. All the children seem satisfied with the bouncy castle.
  106. Wahyu seems drunk.
  107. The cat seems fine.
  108. She seems a nice girl.
  109. She seems mad.
  110. A ten-item quiz seems impossibly long after a night of no studying.
  111. He seems confused.
  112. The Dalai Lama seems like a nice guy.
  113. Adji seemed sad after the game.
  114. The eggs smell rotten.
  115. The soup smells delicious.
  116. That pumpkin pie smells good.
  117. That food smells delicious.
  118. The cake smells good.
  119. The rose smells nice.
  120. Your plans for the wedding sound nice.
  121. His voice sounds flat.
  122. That film sounds scary.
  123. The movie sounds interesting.
  124. That sounds fantastic.
  125. The music sounds good.
  126. The crowd stayed calm in spite of the imminent threat.
  127. The cinnamon rolls taste great.
  128. Her soup tastes like burnt socks.
  129. This soup tastes awful.
  130. The pie tastes heavenly.
  131. This spaghetti tastes good.
  132. This cake tastes amazing.
  133. Milk tastes delicious.
  134. The coffee tasted sweet.
  135. The pizza tasted good.
  136. The milk will turn sour if you leave it.
  137. If left too long, that milk may turn sour.
  138. The embers turn ashy as they cool.
  139. After drinking the old milk, Wira turned green.

Tidak semua verbs yang ada di dalam daftar linking verbs yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya selalu bersifat linking verbs. Ada beberapa verbs yang bisa berubah menjadi transitive, intransitive ataupun linking verbs tergantung dari kalimat yang digunakan. Contoh:

  • Transitive: I grow coconuts (verb “grow” adalah transitive verb karena verb “grow” melakukan sesuatu terhadap direct object “coconuts”)
  • Intransitive: Roses grow slowly (verb “grow” adalah intransitive verbs karena verb “grow” tidak melakukan tindakan apapun dan kalimat tidak dilengkapi dengan direct object).
  • Linking: The sky grew dark (verb “grew” adalah linking verb karena verb “grew” tidak melakukan tindakan apapun terhadap object, verb “grew” pada kalimat ini hanya berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject “The sky” dan predicate “dark”)

Pada contoh di atas, verb “grow” bisa menjadi transitive, intransitive ataupun linking verbs. Contoh lainnya:

Transitive verbs Linking verbs
The students will feel the fabric. The fabric will feel soft.
The gardener grew some flowers. The woman grew silent.
Remain here while I go ask Dian about time management. Dian’s theory about time management remains untested.
He smells the coffee. Wira smells awful.
Ratih smells the cake. The cake smells delicious!
She tasted the delicious spaghetti sauce. The spaghetti sauce tasted delicious.
They tasted the food. The food tastes delicious.
Would you taste that soup for me? The soup tastes spicier than usual.