Berdasarkan ada atau tidaknya object di dalam sebuah kalimat, verbs bisa dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu transitive dan intransitive verbs (kata kerja transitif dan intransitif).
Transitive verbs adalah verbs (kata kerja) yang melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object.
- Direct object adalah object yang berupa nouns (kata benda) yang mendapatkan tindakan dari verbs. Direct object yang mengikuti transitive verbs biasanya menjelaskan atau menjawab mengenai pertanyaan apa (what) atau siapa (whom). Rumus: Subject + Transitive verb + direct object.
Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat dengan transitive verb (transitive verb diberi format bold dan direct object diberi format underline):
She played the piano
(transitive verb: played, direct object: the piano)
Pada contoh di atas, transitive verb “played” melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object “the piano“. Direct object “the piano” menjelaskan mengenai apa yang dilakukan oleh transitive verb “played“. Contoh lainnya:
- I admire your courage.
- That really annoys me.
- Richard annoys his boss so much that he’ll never get a promotion.
- He bought a book.
- Ahmad bought a new bicycle.
- I baked some cookies.
- Soraya borrowed the methodology book from her classmate because she forgot her copy.
- Emyliana brings Mrs. Cindy lunch every day.
- Please bring coffee.
- He closed the door.
- Rosiana conveyed the message.
- We cut the budget.
- He carried the bag.
- He caught the bus after the party.
- They climbed the mountain.
- She cut the cake.
- I caught a cold.
- The girls carry water to their village.
- They designated a hitter.
- The speaker discussed different marketing strategies in the video.
- My father doesn’t drink beer.
- Rabbits destroy my garden every day.
- We enjoyed the performance.
- I ate the cherries.
- Ricky eats cakes.
- She’s eating chocolate.
- Picky eats dozens of cakes.
- No amount of time can erase the memory of a good cat, and no amount of masking tape can ever totally remove his fur from your couch. (Leo Buscaglia, 1925-1998)
- She filled the cup.
- Donal gave the gift to his sister.
- He kicked the ball.
- The kids like pickles.
- She gave a cookie to the child.
- You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow – Jeff Valdez
- Puti kicked Lucky under the table.
- Bond killed the snake and ate it.
- My cat kills rabbits.
- The princess kissed a frog.
- I know the muffin man -Lord Farquaad, Shrek, 2001.
- Some of the children are learning English.
- She left the keys on the table.
- I like pie.
- We lost a daughter but gained a meathead -Archie Bunker in All in the Family, 1971.
- She loves rainbows.
- Do you love me?
- Danu loves pies.
- She loves animals.
- She makes hats.
- I moved the chair.
- We had been playing football.
- I punched Mickey Mantle in the mouth -Cosmo Kramer, Seinfeld
- We painted the old rocking chair.
- Could you phone the neighbors?
- He read a book.
- I rode the bicycle.
- The committee members will raise money for the new project.
- The company reduced the number of employees.
- Mary saw the eagle two days after it escaped.
- Have they sold their house yet?
- When I said that, my sister smacked me.
- The clock struck one.
- As the clock struck midnight, all the toys opened their eyes.
- A burglar stole my necklace.
- I stitched a quilt.
- Indra will send the price quote as soon as he can.
- Saputra sent a postcard from Australia.
- He told a joke.
- Haryo thanked Pandu.
- Imam threw the ball.
- Can fracking trigger earthquakes?
- The man tore the paper.
- Abdil wanted a new bicycle.
- I want candy.
- Kaisar wants a smile from Melissa, his beautiful but serious lab partner.
- We watched a movie last night.
- He wrote a poem.
- Nadia wrote a love poem on a restaurant napkin.
Transitive verbs bisa dibagi menjadi dua berdasarkan jumlah object yang dimiliki, yaitu monotransitive dan ditransitive verbs. Monotransitive verbs adalah verbs yang hanya dilengkapi dengan direct object sedangkan ditransitive verbs adalah verbs yang dilengkapi dengan direct object dan indirect object.
- Indirect object adalah object yang mendapatkan atau memperoleh direct object yang letaknya sebelum direct object. Rumus: Subject + Transitive verb + indirect object + direct object.
Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat dengan ditransitive verb yang dilengkapi dengan direct dan indirect object (transitive verb diberi format bold, direct object diberi format underline dan indirect object diberi format italic):
Adis brought Imlati a glass of water.
(transitive verb: brought, direct object: a glass of water, indirect object: Imlati)
Pada contoh di atas, transitive verb “brought” melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object “a glass of water“. Direct object “a glass of water” menjelaskan mengenai apa yang dilakukan oleh transitive verb “brought“. Indirect object “Imlati“adalah object yang mendapatkan direct object “a glass of water“.
- My husband bought me some flowers.
- Anthony bought his new girlfriend some roses on her birthday.
- The police caught themselves a criminal.
- Find her a chair.
- Adyati gave Orig the pencil.
- Who gave her lawyers the information?
- Korentz gave his sister a laptop.
- The local council have granted us permission to open a shop.
- The bank won’t lend them any money.
- I lent him some money.
- Make me an offer.
- She offered him her car.
- Please pass me the rice.
- Can you read me the letter?
- He’s saving Diah a piece.
- He sent her a letter.
- They will serve the guests lunch at 12:20 pm.
- She showed the doctor her rash.
- Kid refused to show the teacher her homework.
- Who teaches him Japanese?
Transitive verb di dalam transitive verb
Pada beberapa kasus, transitive verb bisa muncul di dalam sebuah transitive verb. Contoh:
I loathe people who keep dogs. They are cowards who haven’t got the guts to bite people themselves.
I loathe people who keep dogs. They are cowards who haven’t got the guts to bite people themselves.
Pada kalimat pertama di atas terdapat verb dan direct object yaitu: “loathe” dan “people who keep dogs“. Di dalam direct object tersebut terdapat verb dan direct object lain yaitu: “keep” dan “dogs“.
You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow -Jeff Valdez
You can’t get eight cats to pull a sled through snow -Jeff Valdez
Pada kalimat pertama di atas terdapat verb dan direct object yaitu: “get” dan “eight cats to pull a sled through snow. Di dalam direct object tersebut terdapat verb dan direct object lain yaitu: “to pull” dan “a sled“.
Intransitive verbs adalah verbs (kata kerja) yang tidak memiliki atau membutuhkan direct object.
Contoh kalimat dengan intransitive verb (intransitive verb diberi format bold):
- The dog barked.
- The watchdogs bark.
- Were the dogs barking?
- The Wind blows.
- Our car broke down.
- The news hasn’t changed.
- The baby coughed.
- I cried.
- She cried.
- He died.
- The old woman died.
- They disappeared.
- He fainted.
- The book fell.
- The rain fell.
- The horse galloped.
- Nothing happened.
- My throat hurts.
- They jumped.
- He laughs.
- I laughed.
- He laughed.
- Ranggi laughed.
- The bystanders laughed.
- Sorry, but I have to leave.
- They napped.
- My dog ran.
- The dog ran.
- He ran.
- It rained.
- They run.
- The horse runs.
- She sang.
- The sun set.
- The sun shines.
- The building shook.
- The Child sleeps.
- She slept.
- Krisna smiled.
- The cat sneezed.
- I sneezed.
- He snores.
- It snows.
- The bus stopped.
- The stars twinkled.
- Every single person voted.
- Dira winked.
Kata atau frasa setelah intransitive verb
Walaupun intransitive verbs tidak bisa diikuti oleh object namun bisa diikuti oleh kata atau frasa (gabungan dua kata atau lebih) yang menjelaskan mengenai bagaimana sesuatu hal terjadi (how), dimana (where) atau kapan (when) yang berbentuk prepositional phrases (frasa preposisi) atau adverb (kata keterangan). Contoh:
- The train arrives at 4 pm.
- They arrived after the party.
- The students arrived at the residency in Bandung.
- We arrived home late at night.
- Huffing and puffing, we arrived at the classroom door with only seven seconds to spare.
- If Denia continues to be late for work, the boss will fire her.
- She coughed bitterly.
- Many of the students are not well. They coughed throughout the lesson.
- Someone was coughing loudly.
- She was crying all day long.
- Her car died suddenly last night.
- He died after a long illness.
- Flipped on its back, the beetle that Maryam soaked with insecticide dies under the refrigerator.
- He disappeared after the party.
- My dog dreams about chasing rabbits.
- Aso emigrated from Australia in 1998.
- Water evaporates when it’s hot.
- He fainted after lunch.
- Taufik fell on the ferry.
- When he finished the race, he vomited.
- You’ve grown since I last saw you!
- Attendance increased at the weekly study sessions as finals drew near.
- The children laughed heartily.
- They laughed uncontrollably.
- She laughed at the joke.
- They live in Jakarta.
- Indah lives on the west side of the city.
- To escape the midday sun, the cats lie in the shade under our cars.
- They ran down the road.
- It rained across the state.
- It was raining at that time.
- He was running too fast.
- The steamer sails this morning.
- In the evenings, Kania sits on the front porch to admire her immaculate lawn.
- The canary sings sweetly.
- They slept in the street.
- Around fresh ground pepper, Mutia sneezes with violence.
- That perfume smells nice.
- The sick child sneezed in my face.
- We talked for hours.
- Bluher voted for the incumbent in the local election.
- Bluher voted in the local election.
- I walked to the library.
- The president waved to the crowds.
- We went to the fair.
- Raymond went to the campus cafe for a steaming bowl of squid eyeball stew.
- I work for a large firm in Surabaya.
Beberapa verbs seperti arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit dan die tidak mungkin diikuti oleh direct object sehingga selalu bersifat intransitive verbs. Sedangkan beberapa verbs lainnya bisa berfungsi sebagai transitive maupun intransitive verbs tergantung dari kalimatnya. Verbs yang bisa menjadi transitive maupun intransitive verbs disebut sebagai ambitransitive verbs. Contoh ambitransitive verbs:
|The boy broke the cup.
||My oven broke yesterday.
|Marriage hasn’t changed her.
||The area’s changed greatly in the last decade.
|They cheered the band.
|Close your eyes, I’ve got a surprise for you.
||Most shops here close at 8.30 pm.
|We will continue the meeting after the break.
||The meeting continued after the break.
|She dances the rhumba.
|He demonstrated a karate chop to the class.
||The crowd demonstrated outside the theatre.
|Have you done your coursework?
||Raymond’s doing well in his new job.
|If there is no leftover spaghetti, Vidya usually eats whole-grain cereal.
||Because of blood sugar problems, Vidya always eats before leaving for school.
|Heat evaporates water.
||Water evaporates when it’s hot.
|You’ve grown a beard since I last saw you!
||You’ve grown since I last saw you.
|She usually leaves the books on the table.
||The train sometimes leaves early on Saturday.
|He left the gift on the table.
||After he cleaned up, he left.
|Our cat lived till he was 7.
||He was living a life of luxury abroad.
|Ms. Sherly manages the accounting department.
||Picky has had difficulty managing since his wife’s death.
|Could you move your car please?
||The trees were moving in the breeze.
|Open the window; it’s too hot in here!
||The library opens at 9 am.
|Some man opened the window.
||The store opens early today.
|He opened me a soda.
||The door opened.
|My husband paid the mechanic.
||We already paid.
|I paid the waiter for the broken glasses.
||The man behind you already paid.
|My daughter painted her fingernails blue.
||The workers painted yesterday.
|The apes played hide and seek in the woods.
||The apes played in the woods.
|They are playing soccer.
||They’ve been playing all afternoon.
|Four of the students play the guitar.
||The students will play outside today.
|The workers protested their innocence in the street.
||The workers protested in the street.
|He is reading a book.
||He reads at noon.
|I read my newspaper.
||I always read in the garden.
|Ahmad is reading a book.
||Ahmad is reading.
|Pandu returned the book to the library.
||The students returned to school after the party.
|Luthfi used to run a restaurant.
||The path ran over the hill.
|In the summer, Abdil will run his first marathon.
||During cross-country practice, Abdil runs over hills, through fields, across the river, and along the highway.
|She sang the national anthem at the airport.
||Urged by the others, she sang.
|She sang a song.
|The German U-boat sank the British ship.
||The boat sank.
|Taufik set the documents down on the table.
||The sun set low over the Atlantic Ocean.
|Chandra set a chair next to the bed.
||The sun was setting and a red glow filled the sky.
|He’s been singing the national anthem all afternoon.
||He’s been singing all afternoon.
|Heni was found guilty of starting the fire.
||The match starts at 4 pm.
|Taufik tried to stop her from leaving.
||When the rain stopped, we went for a walk.
|Krisna tripped Haryo.
|We visited aunt Soraya.
|Erika walks the dog for miles.
||Erika walks for miles.
|Have you washed your hands?
||I washed, dressed, and went out.
|Write your name here.
||Luthfi couldn’t read or write.
Kalimat dengan transitive verbs bisa diubah menjadi bentuk pasif sedangkan kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak bisa.
Untuk mengubah sebuah kalimat dari bentuk aktif menjadi pasif maka kalimat tersebut harus membutuhkan sebuah object. Karena kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak memiliki object maka kalimat tersebut tidak bisa diubah menjadi bentuk pasif.
Contoh bentuk aktif dan pasif dari transitive verbs:
|The earthquake killed hundreds of people.
||Hundreds of people were killed by the earthquake.
|Rian shot the bear.
||The bear was shot by Rian.
|Thieves stole his car.
||His car was stolen.
|Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.
||The light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison.
|They sold some flowers.
||Some flowers were sold.
|My cat caught a bird.
||A bird was caught by my cat.
|Krisna thanked Wira.
||Wira was thanked by Krisna.
|The bullet penetrated a tree.
||A tree was penetrated by the bullet.
|Firman painted that portrait.
||That portrait was painted by Firman.
|The doctor had saved the child.
||The child had been saved by the doctor.
Perbedaan transitive dan intransitive verbs
- Transitive verbs adalah verbs yang melakukan tindakan terhadap direct object.
- Kalimat dengan transitive verbs bisa memiliki bentuk pasif
- Intransitive verbs adalah verbs yang tidak memiliki atau membutuhkan direct object.
- Kalimat dengan intransitive verbs tidak bisa memiliki bentuk passive
Linking verbs (Kata kerja penghubung)
Linking verbs (kata kerja penghubung) adalah verbs yang bisa digolongkan ke dalam intransitive verbs karena linking verbs tidak memiliki object.
Lingking verbs atau yang disebut juga copula atau copular verbs berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject dengan predicate (predikat) yang berupa adjectives (kata sifat) atau nouns (kata benda) yang menjelaskan mengenai subject tersebut.
Kata atau frasa (gabungan dua kata atau lebih) yang terletak setelah linking verbs disebut sebagai subject complement (pelengkap subjek).
Ada banyak kata yang termasuk ke dalam linking verbs, namun beberapa yang umum yaitu:
- Verb be dan have (am, is, is being, are, are being, was, was being, were, will be, has, has been, have been, will have been, might have been, had been)
- Verbs yang berkaitan dengan indra (look, feel, smell, sound, taste)
- Verb become (become, becomes, became, has become, have become, had become, will become, will have become)
- Verb seem (seemed, seeming, seems, has seemed, have seemed, had seemed, will seem)
- Lainnya (act, appear, come, constitute, equal, form, get, go, grow, keep, make, measure, prove, represent, stay, turn, remain)
Contoh kalimat dengan linking verbs:
My sister is a doctor.
(Subject: My sister, linking verbs: is, noun: a doctor)
Pada contoh di atas, verb “is” tidak melakukan tindakan terhadap object sehingga verb “is” tidak bisa digolongkan ke dalam transitive verbs. Verb “is” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject “My sister” dan noun “a doctor” sehingga bisa disebut sebagai linking verbs.
Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas tidak mendapatkan tindakan dari verb sehingga tidak bisa digolongkan sebagai direct object. Noun “a doctor” pada contoh di atas berguna untuk menerangkan mengenai subject “My sister” sehingga disebut sebagai subject complement.
- I am a teacher.
- I am the postman!
- I am feeling thirsty.
- I am glad it is Saturday.
- Farah is a doctor.
- Juni is a teacher.
- Cindy is a shopaholic.
- She is a nurse.
- Nastiti is a nurse.
- Mr. Shandi is our teacher.
- His father is a farmer.
- Yogie is my boyfriend.
- My dog is an Akita.
- My sister is happy.
- Myra is happy.
- Iesa is nice.
- My sister is at home.
- The car is green.
- My cat is very furry.
- Adib is excited about his promotion.
- Cynthia is excited about her new bike.
- This project is a disaster.
- I think the sun is rising.
- The moon is in outer space.
- Andrea is the manager of the office.
- He is the best soccer player in the world.
- The sky is blue.
- The ball is red.
- The soup is salty.
- Martin is fond of spicy food.
- My birds are hungry.
- We are the champions!
- The fireworks are amazing!
- Clocks are helpful.
- The new neighbors are both engineers.
- The children are smart.
- They are teachers.
- Your friends are here.
- The pens are black.
- We are dismayed about the foreclosure.
- The milk has gone sour.
- Your brother might be disappointed if you don’t go.
- Mega might have been more forthcoming with the news.
- His uncle was the headmaster.
- Our neighbour was a strange man.
- The cat was friendly.
- The cat was playful.
- The play was good.
- She was great in her new performance.
- Qiqi was at the theater.
- The weather was accommodating and the party continued.
- Tuty was a runner.
- The roads were slippery after the snowstorm.
- My best friend were late to the party.
- After the oil spill, the roads were slippery.
- All the kittens were playful.
- Satri will be 30 in October.
- Riding in a car will be safer with a seat belt.
- The child will be tall seven years from now.
- Sometimes, kids act foolish.
- My little brother acts crazy sometimes.
- Satri acted nervous when the teacher found the note.
- Her explanation did not appear plausible.
- Your brother appears ill today.
- She appears upset about the announcement.
- They appeared satisfied with the news.
- A flaw in the design appeared to be the cause of the collapse.
- My father became a locksmith.
- He became a taxi driver.
- He became uncomfortable when he saw the safe was open.
- They became curious of the man standing across the road.
- The dog became thin after his surgery.
- Dreams come true when we believe in them.
- I feel happy today.
- I feel ill.
- I feel unwell.
- I feel refreshed after that nap.
- I feel worthy when the boss compliments me.
- Andika feels sick.
- Fanny feels feverish.
- Rakhmi always feels sleepy after pigging out on pizza from Antonio’s.
- I felt ashamed yesterday.
- We felt sad that the holiday was over.
- Adit felt thankful after eating the whole pizza.
- The crowd fell silent when the concert began.
- The audience fell silent when the conductor walked on stage.
- Most children get cranky when they are sleepy.
- The theater gets dark when the show is about to begin.
- The police department is getting tough on crime.
- Some couples are lucky enough to grow old together.
- Endah grew tired during the concert.
- He grew tired of running.
- You look exhausted after studying all night.
- She looks fine.
- Yoga looks very happy.
- Saras looks very tired.
- She looks tired today.
- The students looked tired.
- Everyone looked happy.
- The vegetables in the bin looked disgusting and spoiled.
- The result of the test remains unknown.
- She remains puzzled, even though it has been three years since he left.
- Hillary remained single for the rest of her life.
- The spectators remained seated after the injury on the field.
- All the children seem satisfied with the bouncy castle.
- Wahyu seems drunk.
- The cat seems fine.
- She seems a nice girl.
- She seems mad.
- A ten-item quiz seems impossibly long after a night of no studying.
- He seems confused.
- The Dalai Lama seems like a nice guy.
- Adji seemed sad after the game.
- The eggs smell rotten.
- The soup smells delicious.
- That pumpkin pie smells good.
- That food smells delicious.
- The cake smells good.
- The rose smells nice.
- Your plans for the wedding sound nice.
- His voice sounds flat.
- That film sounds scary.
- The movie sounds interesting.
- That sounds fantastic.
- The music sounds good.
- The crowd stayed calm in spite of the imminent threat.
- The cinnamon rolls taste great.
- Her soup tastes like burnt socks.
- This soup tastes awful.
- The pie tastes heavenly.
- This spaghetti tastes good.
- This cake tastes amazing.
- Milk tastes delicious.
- The coffee tasted sweet.
- The pizza tasted good.
- The milk will turn sour if you leave it.
- If left too long, that milk may turn sour.
- The embers turn ashy as they cool.
- After drinking the old milk, Wira turned green.
Tidak semua verbs yang ada di dalam daftar linking verbs yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya selalu bersifat linking verbs. Ada beberapa verbs yang bisa berubah menjadi transitive, intransitive ataupun linking verbs tergantung dari kalimat yang digunakan. Contoh:
- Transitive: I grow coconuts (verb “grow” adalah transitive verb karena verb “grow” melakukan sesuatu terhadap direct object “coconuts”)
- Intransitive: Roses grow slowly (verb “grow” adalah intransitive verbs karena verb “grow” tidak melakukan tindakan apapun dan kalimat tidak dilengkapi dengan direct object).
- Linking: The sky grew dark (verb “grew” adalah linking verb karena verb “grew” tidak melakukan tindakan apapun terhadap object, verb “grew” pada kalimat ini hanya berguna untuk menghubungkan antara subject “The sky” dan predicate “dark”)
Pada contoh di atas, verb “grow” bisa menjadi transitive, intransitive ataupun linking verbs. Contoh lainnya:
|The students will feel the fabric.
||The fabric will feel soft.
|The gardener grew some flowers.
||The woman grew silent.
|Remain here while I go ask Dian about time management.
||Dian’s theory about time management remains untested.
|He smells the coffee.
||Wira smells awful.
|Ratih smells the cake.
||The cake smells delicious!
|She tasted the delicious spaghetti sauce.
||The spaghetti sauce tasted delicious.
|They tasted the food.
||The food tastes delicious.
|Would you taste that soup for me?
||The soup tastes spicier than usual.