Active dan passive verbs (Kata kerja aktif dan pasif)

Kalimat aktif adalah jika subject yang melakukan tindakan sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah jika bukan subject yang melakukan tindakan. Kata kerja (verbs) yang ada di dalam kalimat aktif disebut sebagai active verbs (kata kerja aktif) sedangkan yang berada di dalam kalimat pasif disebut sebagai passive verbs (kata kerja pasif).

Contoh active verbs:

The man baked a pancake.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (the man) yang melakukan tindakan membuat kue (pancake). Active verbs: baked.

  1. Luthfie baked a big cake.
  2. Brazil beat Italy in the final.
  3. Someone has cleaned the windows.
  4. Imam climbed the ladder.
  5. He can not decide what to do.
  6. Haryo was eating an apple.
  7. Abdil hit the tree with his stick.
  8. The man jumped off the step.
  9. I actually love pancake!
  10. Ranggi opened the present.
  11. The actors had performed the play by Shakespeare.
  12. The boy picked up the coin.
  13. The boys pushed the tree over.
  14. The staff is required to watch a safety video every month.
  15. A stone smashed the window.
  16. Somebody stole my laptop.
  17. The professor teaches the students.
  18. Krisna told Aso a lie.
  19. The murderer used a knife.
  20. Taufik was watching the birds.
  21. She was walking to the park.
  22. The girl was washing the dog.

Contoh passive verbs:

A pancake was baked by the man.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (a pancake) bukanlah yang melakukan tindakan. Passive verbs: was baked.

  1. A babysitter has to be arranged for this evening.
  2. Ranggi’s travel plans have to be arranged by September.
  3. The cookies were baked Saturday.
  4. France was beaten in the final.
  5. She was born into a wealthy family.
  6. A bridge is going to be built within the next three years.
  7. New houses are going to be built in our neighborhood.
  8. Are they cleaned regularly?
  9. The windows have been cleaned
  10. Will they not be dismissed?
  11. The car had been driven into a wall by the thief.
  12. A trap was devised to catch the murderer.
  13. They will never be employed by us.
  14. The candles were extinguished as we rushed to the scream.
  15. The car was fixed.
  16. Haven’t they been forgotten?
  17. Lucky was given a warning.
  18. A scream was heard coming from across the house.
  19. All the employees had hired before the store opened.
  20. The new manager had been hired before Raymond left the company.
  21. The victims were hospitalized immediately.
  22. We were invited to Orig and Dini’s wedding.
  23. Ricky was invited to speak at the conference.
  24. The football was kicked by Picky.
  25. The milk had been knocked over by a cat.
  26. The car will have been loaded by the time he gets home.
  27. Rizki is loved by Eka.
  28. The egg was laid by the bird.
  29. The knife was left on the table by Erika.
  30. The crime was illuminated shortly by flashes of lightning.
  31. The crates will have been loaded by then.
  32. Wine is made from grapes.
  33. She had been murdered.
  34. Is he not notified immediately?
  35. You are not paid to watch TV.
  36. When your order is shipped, we will send you a confirmation email.
  37. Everyone was startled by the power outage.
  38. That start-up has been sold for $3 million.
  39. The rights to his book have been sold for $750,000.
  40. Has your wallet been stolen?
  41. The room was strewn with books and magazines.
  42. The contract will be signed next week.
  43. The documents will all be signed by tomorrow.
  44. The document is being sent right now.
  45. A knife was used to commit the murder.
  46. The phone was being used by Mr Saputra.
  47. A safety video will be watched by the staff every month.
  48. The windows had been washed.
  49. Their cars were being washed while they were in the mall shopping.
  50. The dog was being washed by the girl.
  51. The dog was being washed when I got home.

Dalam kalimat pasif, orang atau pihak yang melakukan aksi atau tindakan disebut sebagai agent. Jika kita ingin menunjukkan orang atau pihak yang melakukan tindakan dalam sebuah kalimat pasif maka kita bisa menggunakan kata by. Contoh:

  1. He was attacked by a dangerous dog.
  2. Lieutenant B was caught by the brilliant detective A.
  3. The Pancake was eaten by Carya.
  4. The card was made by Donal.
  5. The picture was painted by Korentz.
  6. The area is mainly populated by families with small children.
  7. The money was stolen by her husband.
  8. The students are taught by the professor.

Kalimat pasif bisa di dapatkan dengan menambahkan verb to be dan past participle (verb dengan tambahan -d atau -ed untuk regular). Contoh:

  1. Our computers were being attacked by hackers.
  2. They are being bullied.
  3. His mother had been brought up in England.
  4. The windows have been cleaned.
  5. The work will be finished soon.
  6. They might have been invited to the party
  7. Have you been interviewed for many jobs?
  8. Arrangements will be made to move them to other locations.
  9. Dinner was being served.
  10. All the merchandise will have been shipped by next week.
  11. English is spoken all over the world.
  12. He is taken to school by his mum.
  13. We were told not to touch anything.

Terkadang verb get juga bisa digunakan untuk mendapatkan kalimat pasif. Contoh:

  1. Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.
  2. Indra got hurt in a crash.
  3. Brazil got beaten by France.

Cara mengubah kalimat aktif yang memiliki indirect object menjadi kalimat pasif adalah dengan menjadikan indirect object tersebut menjadi subject pada kalimat pasif. Contoh:

Aktif: I gave him a book for his birthday (verb: gave, indirect object: him)
Pasif: He was given a book for his birthday (verb: was given)

Pada contoh di atas, indirect object (him) pada kalimat pertama menjadi subject (He) pada kalimat kedua. Contoh lainnya:

Aktif: Someone sent her a cheque for a hundred euros (verb: sent, indirect object: her)
Pasif: She was sent a cheque for a hundred euros (verb: was sent)

Kalimat pasif lebih susah dimengerti buat pembaca dibandingkan dengan kalimat aktif karena memiliki lebih banyak kata. Untuk mengurangi kata yang terlalu banyak dalam sebuah tulisan kita bisa mengubah beberapa kalimat pasif menjadi kalimat aktif. Contoh:

  • Pasif: At dinner, five shrimp were eaten by Alim.
  • Aktif: Alim ate five shrimp at dinner.
  • Pasif: All the pies were eaten by Iman.
  • Aktif: Iman ate all the pies.
  • Pasif: The last cookie was eaten by whom?
  • Aktif: Who ate the last cookie?
  • Pasif: Cheese was eaten by Rati.
  • Aktif: Rati ate the cheese.
  • Pasif: The students questions are always answered by the teacher.
  • Aktif: The teacher always answers the students questions.
  • Pasif: May you be blessed with happiness!
  • Aktif: May God bless you with happiness!
  • Pasif: A diamond necklace was bought by her.
  • Aktif: She bought a diamond necklace.
  • Pasif: A house is being built by them.
  • Aktif: They are building a house.
  • Pasif: A house was built by him
  • Aktif: He built a house
  • Pasif: A house has been built by him
  • Aktif: He has built a house
  • Pasif: A house will be built by him
  • Aktif: He will build a house
  • Pasif: It might be bought.
  • Aktif: Somebody might buy it.
  • Pasif: A new bridge was built by the government.
  • Aktif: The government built a new bridge.
  • Pasif: For the bake sale, three dozen cookies will be baked by Ratih.
  • Aktif: Ratih will bake three dozen cupcakes for the bake sale.
  • Pasif: Dinner is cooked by someone every day.
  • Aktif: Somebody cooks dinner every day.
  • Pasif: The room will be cleaned by Wira every Saturday.
  • Aktif: Wira will clean the room every Saturday.
  • Pasif: The house will be cleaned by me every Monday.
  • Aktif: I will clean– the house every Monday.
  • Pasif: The project will have been completed before the deadline.
  • Aktif: They will have completed the project before the deadline.
  • Pasif: The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
  • Aktif: They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
  • Pasif: The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater.
  • Aktif: The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams.
  • Pasif: The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch.
  • Aktif: The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch.
  • Pasif: The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow.
  • Aktif: The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow.
  • Pasif: The flat tire was changed by Dyota.
  • Aktif: Dyota changed the flat tire.
  • Pasif: Once a week, the house is cleaned by Adji.
  • Aktif: Once a week, Adji cleans the house.
  • Pasif: The ballots were counted by the volunteers.
  • Aktif: The volunteers counted the ballots.
  • Pasif: Recently, the work has been being done by Bhuana.
  • Aktif: Recently, Bhuana has been doing the work.
  • Pasif: I don’t want to be disturbed.
  • Aktif: I dont want anyone to disturb me.
  • Pasif: The town was destroyed by fire.
  • Aktif: Fire destroyed the town.
  • Pasif: The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire.
  • Aktif: The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb.
  • Pasif: Water is drunk by everybody.
  • Aktif: Everybody drinks water.
  • Pasif: The fishing rig was designed by Indrawan.
  • Aktif: Indrawan designed the fishing rig.
  • Pasif: Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Glen.
  • Aktif: Glen generously donated money to the homeless shelter.
  • Pasif: Reading is enjoyed by Nurul.
  • Aktif: Nurul enjoys reading.
  • Pasif: That piece is really enjoyed by the choir.
  • Aktif: The choir really enjoys that piece.
  • Pasif: I saw it being eaten by the cat.
  • Aktif: I saw the cat eating it.
  • Pasif: Grapes are being eaten by the child.
  • Aktif: The child is eating bananas.
  • Pasif: The cat was fed by me.
  • Aktif: I fed the cat.
  • Pasif: The jar is filled with sand.
  • Aktif: Sand filled the jar.
  • Pasif: The work will be finished by 7:00 PM.
  • Aktif: Someone will finish the work by 7:00 PM.
  • Pasif: I knew the work would be finished by 7:00 PM.
  • Aktif: I knew John would finish the work by 7:00 PM.
  • Pasif: The job has been finished by me.
  • Aktif: I have finished the job.
  • Pasif: My work having been finished, I went home.
  • Aktif: Having finished my work, I went home.
  • Pasif: My phone wasn’t fixed yesterday.
  • Aktif: They didn’t fix my phone yesterday.
  • Pasif: He ought to be forgiven.
  • Aktif: They ought to forgive him.
  • Pasif: She wasn’t sure how long she’d been being followed.
  • Aktif: She wasn’t sure how long they’d been following her.
  • Pasif: The application for a new job was faxed by her.
  • Aktif: She faxed her application for a new job.
  • Pasif: Instructions will be given to you by the manager.
  • Aktif: The manager will give you instructions.
  • Pasif: The ball is hit by Maya.
  • Aktif: Maya hits the ball.
  • Pasif: He will be hanged at dawn.
  • Aktif: They will hang him at dawn.
  • Pasif: Bunga’s being helped by Ado.
  • Aktif: Ado’s helping Bunga.
  • Pasif: The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
  • Aktif: The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
  • Pasif: You could have been badly hurt.
  • Aktif: It could have badly hurt you.
  • Pasif: I wondered why I hadn’t been invited.
  • Aktif: I wondered why they hadn’t invited me.
  • Pasif: The lion was killed by the hunter.
  • Aktif: The hunter killed the lion.
  • Pasif: Anindya’s schedule was kept meticulously.
  • Aktif: Anindya kept her schedule meticulously.
  • Pasif: If you told me, your secret would be kept.
  • Aktif: If you told me, I would keep your secret.
  • Pasif: I have a feeling that a secret may be being kept.
  • Aktif: I have a feeling that you may be keeping a secret.
  • Pasif: His training regimen had been kept up for a month.
  • Aktif: He had kept up his training regimen for a month.
  • Pasif: Your bicycle would have been kept here if you had left it with me.
  • Aktif: I would have kept your bicycle here if you had left it with me.
  • Pasif: The bird, having been kept in a cage for so long, might not survive in the wild.
  • Aktif: Having kept the bird in a cage for so long, Maya wasn’t sure it could survive in the wild.
  • Pasif: A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Diah tonight.
  • Aktif: Diah is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
  • Pasif: I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Dira tonight.
  • Aktif: I thought Dira was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
  • Pasif: All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner.
  • Aktif: The wedding planner is making all the reservations.
  • Pasif: The pies would always be made by my mother.
  • Aktif: My mother would always make the pies.
  • Pasif: The cows will be moved after tea by the farm-hands.
  • Aktif: The farm-hands will move the cows after tea.
  • Pasif: The tin of tuna fish was opened by Dewi.
  • Aktif: Dewi opened the tin of tuna fish.
  • Pasif: The servant was punished by the master.
  • Aktif: The master punished the servant.
  • Pasif: How is his name pronounced?
  • Aktif: How does one pronounce his name?
  • Pasif: I insisted on being paid.
  • Aktif: I insisted on them paying me.
  • Pasif: The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew.
  • Aktif: The crew paved the entire stretch of highway.
  • Pasif: The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Aditya for two years before he moved to Paris.
  • Aktif: Chef Aditya had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
  • Pasif: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo Da Vinci.
  • Aktif: Leonaro Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.
  • Pasif: The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Aktif: The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Pasif: The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Aktif: The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Pasif: The entire house was painted by Adhit.
  • Aktif: Adhit painted the entire house.
  • Pasif: The five apples were paid by me.
  • Aktif: I paid for five apples.
  • Pasif: The bills used to be paid by Yoga.
  • Aktif: Yoga used to pay the bills.
  • Pasif: The video was posted on Facebook by Dika.
  • Aktif: Dika posted the video on Facebook.
  • Pasif: He can be questioned for two hours.
  • Aktif: They can question him for two hours.
  • Pasif: He won’t be being questioned when you get there.
  • Aktif: They won’t be questioning him when you get there.
  • Pasif: The novel was read by Mom in one day.
  • Aktif: Mom read the novel in one day.
  • Pasif: The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell.
  • Aktif: The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell.
  • Pasif: The papers say he may be released.
  • Aktif: The papers say they may release him.
  • Pasif: My sales ad was not responded to by anyone.
  • Aktif: No one responded to my sales ad.
  • Pasif: Sugar cane is raised by some people in Indonesia.
  • Aktif: Some people raise sugar cane in Indonesia.
  • Pasif: The obstacle course was run by me in record time.
  • Aktif: I ran the obstacle course in record time.
  • Pasif: The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes.
  • Aktif: Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah.
  • Pasif: Your car will have been repaired by 4pm.
  • Aktif: They will have repaired your car by 4pm.
  • Pasif: The car was repaired by Budi.
  • Aktif: Budi repaired the car.
  • Pasif: Many cars had been repaired by Rian before he received his mechanic’s license.
  • Aktif: Rian had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
  • Pasif: The printer cartridge was replaced by the engineer.
  • Aktif: The engineer replaced the printer cartridge.
  • Pasif: Dinner has been served.
  • Aktif: Kid has served dinner.
  • Pasif: The treaty is being signed by the three kings.
  • Aktif: The three kings are signing the treaty.
  • Pasif: Spanish is spoken by more than 200 million people worldwide.
  • Aktif: More than 200 million people speak Spanish.
  • Pasif: The report was sent yesterday.
  • Aktif: I sent the report yesterday.
  • Pasif: My purse had been stolen by somebody.
  • Aktif: Somebody had stolen– my purse
  • Pasif: Is Thriller going to be sung at the party?
  • Aktif: Is he going to sing Thriller at the party?
  • Pasif: English is taught by him.
  • Aktif: He teaches English.
  • Pasif: I should have been told.
  • Aktif: You should have told me.
  • Pasif: The matter will be taken forward by Kaisar.
  • Aktif: Kaisar will take the matter forward.
  • Pasif: It seems to have been taken.
  • Aktif: They seem to have taken it.
  • Pasif: Everything used to be taken care of by Wahyu.
  • Aktif: Wahyu used to take care of everything.
  • Pasif: She’ll have been being treated for exactly two months tomorrow.
  • Aktif: They’ll have been treating her for exactly two months tomorrow.
  • Pasif: The flowers were trampled by the dog.
  • Aktif: The dog trampled the flowers.
  • Pasif: A movie is going to be watched by us tonight.
  • Aktif: We are going to watch a movie tonight.
  • Pasif: That house has been being watched for weeks.
  • Aktif: The police have been watching that house for weeks.
  • Pasif: A letter is being written by her.
  • Aktif: She is writing a letter.
  • Pasif: Right now, the letter is being written by Della.
  • Aktif: Right now, Della is writing the letter.
  • Pasif: A book was being written by him.
  • Aktif: He was writing a book.
  • Pasif: A letter was written to Bluher by Pandu.
  • Aktif: Pandu wrote a letter to Bluher.
  • Pasif: By whom was this letter written?
  • Aktif: Who wrote this letter?
  • Pasif: A scathing review was written by the critic.
  • Aktif: The critic wrote a scathing review.
  • Pasif: A green shirt was worn by him.
  • Aktif: He wore a green shirt.
  • Pasif: Seat belts must be worn.
  • Aktif: Passengers must wear seat belts.
  • Pasif: At 9:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
  • Aktif: At 9:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
  • Pasif: At 9:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by Danu.
  • Aktif: At 9:00 PM tonight, Danu will be washing the dishes.
  • Pasif: The comet was viewed by the science class.
  • Aktif: The science class viewed the comet.
  • Pasif: The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year.
  • Aktif: Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year.
  • Pasif: That castle has been visited by many tourists.
  • Aktif: Many tourists have visited that castle.
  • Pasif: Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew.
  • Aktif: The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night.

Dalam beberapa kasus, untuk mengubah kalimat pasif menjadi aktif kita harus menambahkan subject. Contoh:

  • Pasif: The engine was fixed.
  • Aktif: He fixed the engine.

Pada contoh di atas, subject (He) harus ditambahkan ke dalam kalimat untuk mengubah kalimat pasif menjadi aktif. Contoh lainnya:

  • Pasif: Fish that are not popular in the restaurants are discarded.
  • Aktif: They discard the fish that are not popular in the restaurants.
  • Pasif: He was being interrogated when I called.
  • Aktif: They were interrogating him when I called.
  • Pasif: The ficus will be kept.
  • Aktif: Deo will keep the ficus.
  • Pasif: My house is being kept tidy.
  • Aktif: Bluher is keeping my house tidy.
  • Pasif: The puppy was happy to have been kept.
  • Aktif: Maya was happy to have kept the puppy.
  • Pasif: A seat was being kept for you.
  • Aktif: The theater was keeping a seat for you.
  • Pasif: All your old letters have been kept.
  • Aktif: I have kept all your old letters.
  • Pasif: The book wants to be kept.
  • Aktif: She wants to keep the book.
  • Pasif: The butter is kept in the fridge.
  • Aktif: I keep the butter in the fridge.
  • Pasif: The map had been misplaced.
  • Aktif: Aso misplaced the map.
  • Pasif: The crowbar was used to open the window.
  • Aktif: The burglar used a crowbar to open the window.
  • Pasif: The dishes are washed.
  • Aktif: Abe washed the dishes.

Dua cara menggunakan verbs ini (aktif dan pasif) disebut sebagai voices. Dalam penggunaan sehari-hari, kalimat aktif lebih sering digunakan. Sedangkan kalimat pasif hanya digunakan untuk beberapa situasi tertentu atau untuk memberi penekanan bahwa tindakan yang dilakukan lebih penting daripada orang yang melakukannya. Berikut ini adalah beberapa situasi kalimat pasif digunakan:

  1. Untuk melaporkan sebuah peristiwa kejahatan yang pelakunya belum diketahui, polisi biasanya menulis “the bank was robbed”.
  2. Pembawa acara berita melaporkan peristiwa kejahatan dalam bentuk pasif untuk menghilangkan penekanan pada pelaku tindakan seperti: “Police are being notified that three prisoners have escaped”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya “The dispatcher is notifying police that three prisoners have escaped”.
  3. Untuk mengaburkan orang yang bertanggung jawab, politisi biasanya menulis “Mistakes were made” atau “Shots were fired”.
  4. Untuk dokumen-dokumen formal seperti laporan penelitian. Contoh: “The results were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association” atau “A fair grading system was found to be important to all students”.
  5. Penulis novel misteri biasanya menulis dalam pasif voice seperti: “the jewels were taken” untuk lebih memfokuskan pada peristiwa yang terjadi.
  6. Pelaku bisnis menggunakan pasif voice supaya sebuah kalimat tidak terlihat begitu memaksa dengan menulis “Your service will be shut off”. Bandingkan dengan aktif voice yang terlihat lebih memaksa “We are going to shut off your service”.
  7. Untuk lebih menekankan pada penerima tindakan dibandingkan pelaku tindakan. Contoh: “President Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya: “Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy”.
  8. Untuk digunakan dalam pengumuman: “Passengers are reminded to fasten their seatbelts”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya: “The Captain reminds passengers to fasten their seatbelts”.
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