Reflexive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Refleksif)
Reflexive pronouns digunakan untuk merujuk kepada subject sebuah kalimat yang melakukan sesuatu kepada subject itu sendiri.
Kata yang termasuk reflexive pronouns yaitu:
- Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
- Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
I saw myself in the mirror.
myself merujuk kepada I, Aku melihat diriku sendiri
Widya still does not trust herself.
herself merujuk kepada Widya, Widya tidak percaya sama dirinya sendiri
- I hurt myself.
- I really hurt myself this morning when I fell down the stairs.
- Teguh hurt himself while he was fixing his car.
- He hurt himself on the rusty nail and had to get a shot.
- He hurt himself playing hockey.
- Dian hurt herself.
- My dog hurt itself.
- Don’t touch that electric wire. You will hurt yourself.
- I enjoyed myself at the concert.
- She enjoyed herself at the party.
- We enjoyed ourselves during the picnic.
- I made myself a sandwich.
- You can make yourselves at home.
- My brother made himself some dinner.
- She made herself a pullover.
- She made herself a cup of tea and sat down in front of the television.
- We ate so much turkey and pumpkin pie that we made ourselves sick.
- We do not always make ourselves practice what we preach.
- I bought myself a new pair of sunglasses for our trip to the beach.
- Wira bought himself a shirt.
- Ratie bought herself a new pair of shoes.
- She bought herself a new purse for her new job.
- The queen bought herself a dog.
- You should buy yourself a new computer.
- At 12.30, Ratih and I went to the cafeteria to buy ourselves some lunch.
- We bought ourselves pretzels at the fair.
- My sister and I bought ourselves popcorn at the movie.
- You can help yourselves to drinks.
- Can you help yourselves?
- Krisna blames himself.
- He blames himself for the accident.
- Why do you blame yourself?
- We blame ourselves.
- We blame ourselves for the results of the election.
- They blame themselves for the accident, because they didn’t pay attention to road signs.
- Parents often blame themselves for the way their children behave.
- I saw myself reflected in her eyes.
- I saw myself as a famous actor.
- When I saw myself in the mirror, I realized that I had paint on my cheek.
- When I saw myself in the mirror, I was horrified, there was red paint on my nose!
- The puppy saw itself in the mirror.
- It saw itself in the mirror.
- What happens when a fighting fish sees itself in the mirror?
- She looks at herself in the mirror.
- She looked at herself in the mirror for hours.
- She looked at herself in the bathroom mirror.
- The girl looked at herself in the mirror.
- They cannot look after themselves.
- Iman sent himself a copy.
- Dyota sent herself a copy.
- He cut himself on the broken glass.
- Anna accidentally cut herself.
- You cut yourself while cutting tomatoes.
- He accidentally cut himself while he was chopping the vegetables.
- I gave myself 12 weeks to get in shape.
- I gave myself plenty of time to get to work.
- The cat gave itself a bath.
- The girls gave themselves enough time to finish the project.
- I will give myself five days to finish that job.
- Della and her husband own their own company, so they can give themselves a holiday any time they like.
- We treated ourselves to a night on the town.
- We treated ourselves to pizza.
- They cannot help themselves.
- You helped yourselves to more ice cream.
- You may help yourself to any of the snacks on the table.
- You fellows can help yourselves to the drinks.
- We helped ourselves to the free drinks at the launch party.
- Would you like to help yourself to another drink?
- We asked ourselves if the new system would actually work.
- We often ask ourselves why we left London.
- Have you asked yourselves why you are here?
- My grandmother is no longer able to feed herself, so I help her.
- Can you feed yourselves?
- The soccer team decided to call themselves the Viking.
- The band call themselves “Electric”.
- I taught myself how to speak English, I never had a teacher.
- I taught myself to play the guitar.
- We taught ourselves French.
- I used a video to teach myself how to knit.
- Did you take a class in engineering, or did you teach yourself?
- Can I ask you a question, Adji? Did you go to classes to learn German, or did you teach yourself?
- The dog scratched itself.
- The dog had fleas and was scratching itself the whole day!
- The dog is scratching itself, it must have fleas!
- They think of themselves as upstanding members of the community.
- Adit promised himself to work harder next semester.
- Misbah promised herself a reward for her hard work.
- My cat always licks itself.
- One of the dogs spent hours licking itself.
- The terrorist shot himself.
- He shot himself.
- I was in a hurry, so I washed the car myself.
- Look! There’s a little bird washing itself in the river.
- I like myself.
- I cannot bring myself to do it.
- I burnt myself on the stove this morning.
- I often quote myself. It adds spice to my conversation.
- I introduced myself to my new neighbor.
- I consider myself fortunate to have escaped before the house collapsed.
- I had to content myself with a few Euros.
- If you don’t know what is wrong with yourself, then ask a doctor.
- You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
- You should let yourself into the house.
- When you save money in the bank, it’s like you are paying yourself.
- Kaisar e-mailed himself a copy of the report.
- He has landed himself in great trouble.
- If he wasn’t always pushing himself at the gym, he wouldn’t be so buff.
- He tried to be himself and not be like Michael Jackson all the time
- He found himself lying by the side of the road.
- He busied himself in the kitchen.
- She applied herself to the job of mending the lights.
- Because she wanted to be like her sister, Tri forced herself to practice each day.
- She cooked herself a quiche.
- She baked herself a birthday cake.
- She thumped herself.
- The old woman poisoned herself.
- Maya poured herself a glass of milk.
- The parrot admired itself in the mirror for several hours each day.
- The kitten groomed itself.
- The cat chocked itself.
- A house divided against itself cannot stand.
- The television uses a timer to turn itself off after one hour.
- Without strong steel architecture, the building would collapse in on itself.
- We often deceive ourselves.
- The students are able to monitor themselves.
- The boys hid themselves.
- The boys hid themselves behind the door.
- They believed in themselves.
- They have got themselves into a mess.
- Some people are so full of themselves.
- They injured themselves during the rugby match.
- The new robotic toys can put themselves away.
- They used to camera on the cell phone to take pictures of themselves.
- The members argued among themselves for an hour.
- The jurors could not agree among themselves.
- They spent some time familiarizing themselves with the new workplace.
- Some animals protect themselves through camouflage.
- The players prepared themselves by staying in shape.
- They managed themselves very well as members of the conference panel.
- The accountants perjured themselves when testifying before Congress.
- I wish the children would behave themselves.
- We forfeit three-fourths of ourselves in order to be like other people. (Arthur Schopenhauer, 1788-1860)
- If the world should blow itself up, the last audible voice would be that of an expert saying it can’t be done. (Peter Ustinov, 1921-2004)
- If history repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, how incapable must man be of learning from experience. (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950)
- Certain tomopterid worms defend themselves by squirting out a bioluminescent fluid. (Bruce Robison, “Light in the Ocean’s Midwaters,” Scientific American)
Berdasarkan letaknya, reflexive pronouns bisa diletakkan sebagai direct object, indirect object atau preposition object.
Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai direct object:
- I am teaching myself to play the piano.
- I pinched myself to see whether it was a dream.
- He saw himself in the mirror and was shocked.
- He shot himself in the head.
- Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.
Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai indirect object:
- I bought myself a slice of cake.
- He made himself coffee.
- Would you like to pour yourself a drink.
- We’ve brought ourselves something to eat.
Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai object of a preposition (to, for, by, dll):
- He gave the present to himself.
- Bhuana read quietly to himself.
- Anindya read to herself.
- He spoke to himself.
- I talk to myself when I am nervous or excited.
- Budi is a bit crazy. He always sits alone and talks to himself.
- That man is talking to himself.
- The man talked to himself as he walked down the street.
- Are you talking to yourself?
- She likes to look at the mirror and smile to herself.
- The young girl was singing happily to herself.
- I whistled to myself to calm down.
- Sometimes I think to myself that it is time to lose some weight.
- You should address the letter to yourself.
- You often talk to yourself and nobody knows what you talk about.
- She bought a present for herself.
- She had to cook for herself.
- They had to cook for themselves.
- We had to cook for ourselves since mom didn’t want to make dinner.
- He was feeling very sorry for himself.
- I bought a present for myself.
- When you go shopping for me, buy a present for yourself.
- She did it by herself.
- We thought to ourselves, this has been the best day we have ever spent together!
Reflexive Pronouns memiliki nilai yang penting di dalam kalimat sehingga jika di dalam kalimat yang ada reflexive pronouns-nya dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya maka kalimat tersebut akan memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda dengan sebelum dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya. Contoh:
I hurt myself (Aku melukai diriku sendiri)
I hurt (makna kalimat tidak jelas)
He made himself coffee (Dia membuat coffee yang sudah pasti untuk dirinya sendiri)
He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun tidak pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)
Kata preposition by + reflexive pronoun digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang melakukan sebuah kegiatan sendiri atau tanpa bantuan orang lain:
- She lives by herself.
- He lived by himself in an enormous house.
- Indrawan went to the party by himself.
- I went to the USA by myself.
- You go to the movies by yourself.
- You are too young to go out by yourselves.
- Why don’t you go by yourself?
- She likes to go on holiday by herself.
- He ate dinner by himself.
- You ate all of the ice cream by yourselves.
- She walked home by herself.
- You can walk to school by yourself.
- I prepared the whole meal by myself.
- The children got dressed by themselves.
- I did my homework by myself.
- She fixed her car by herself.
- It got its food out of the cupboard by itself.
- We ruined everything by ourselves.
- They painted the house by themselves.
- He made breakfast all by himself.
- The children made the entire meal by themselves.
- She created all the Christmas decorations by herself.
Reflexive pronouns tidak bisa digunakan setelah kata feel, meet, concentrate dan relax. Selain itu, reflexive pronouns biasanya tidak digunakan setelah verbs yang memiliki makna kegiatan yang sering atau biasa dilakukan untuk dirinya sendiri seperti wash, shave dan dress kecuali benar-benar diperlukan untuk memperjelas atau memberi penekanan siapa yang melakukan aksi. Contoh:
Reflexive pronouns tidak diperlukan di dalam sebuah kalimat jika kalimat tersebut sudah memiliki makna reflexive:
- I took my mother with me – correct
- I took my mother with myself – incorrect
Reflexive pronouns tidak digunakan setelah place preposition, namun menggunakan personal pronouns. Contoh:
- He put the backpack next to him – correct
- He put the backpack next to himself – incorrect
Intensive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penegasan)
Intensive pronouns digunakan untuk memberi penekanan (emphatic) pada subject atau object bahwa kata tersebut merupakan kata yang penting atau kata itu sendiri yang melakukan sesuatu. Intensive pronouns disebut juga emphatic pronouns.
Kata yang termasuk intensive pronouns yaitu:
- Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
- Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
My sister herself paid for my popcorn.
herself memberi penekanan pada subject My sister, yang menandakan bahwa saudarinya sendiri (My sister) yang membayar popcorn.
I made a sandwich for the President himself.
himself memberi penekanan pada object the President, yang menandakan bahwa Presiden sendiri yang dibuatkan sandwich.
- I myself heard his remarks.
- I myself went to the market and bought it.
- I myself did it without any help from anybody.
- I myself heard the remark.
- I myself am sick of the heat.
- I myself am tired of all this rain.
- I myself am tired of doing homework.
- I myself can look after the whole place.
- I myself forgot about these issues and most people are too polite to mention them.
- I myself made it atau I made it myself.
- You must believe me. I myself heard him shout at her.
- You yourself are to blame for this confusion.
- You yourself are responsible for this mess!
- You yourself will have to answer for your action.
- You yourself can change your life.
- Have you yourself seen it? atau Have you seen it yourself?
- You yourselves asked us to do it.
- You yourselves can win this game.
- I suggest that you yourselves figure out how to resolve this dispute.
- Wahyu himself will be piloting this aircraft across the Atlantic.
- Yoga himself was not aware of the plan.
- The mayor himself spoke to the crowd.
- The minister himself said this.
- The prime minister himself gave me the award.
- President Nixon himself resigned a year later due to his involvement in an illegal cover-up related to his re-election campaign.
- The President himself promised to stop the war.
- The president himself appeared at the rally.
- The president himself wrote me a letter.
- After rescheduling three meetings, the president herself conducted the meeting.
- He himself told me that I was to be promoted.
- He himself said so.
- He himself told me this.
- He himself painted the walls.
- He himself repaired the machine.
- Bunga herself told me that she was quitting her job.
- The actress herself wrote the play.
- The actress herself wrote those lines.
- The queen herself came forward to help.
- The queen herself gave the knight the award atau The queen gave the knight the award herself.
- She herself opened the door.
- She herself spoke to me atau She spoke to me herself.
- Even though everyone expected her to know it already, she herself was surprised by the news.
- The exam itself wasn’t difficult, but exam room was horrible.
- The town itself is not very large.
- The dog itself opened her fridge raider.
- The cat itself caught the mouse.
- Balikpapan itself is quite a small town.
- We ourselves cooked the cake.
- We ourselves made the meal.
- We ourselves made the delicious meal.
- We ourselves built the tree house.
- We ourselves witnessed the accident.
- They themselves set up the makeshift camp.
- They themselves admitted their mistake.
- The boys themselves led the entire team to victory.
- The Bhutanese themselves call their country Druk-Yul or the ‘Land of the Thunder Dragon’.
- The soldiers themselves do not want to attack the enemy fort.
- The troops themselves helped the people escape the burning building.
- The firefighters themselves helped the people escape the building.
- They recommend this book even though they themselves have never read it atau They recommend this book even though they have never read it themselves.
- I finished the job myself.
- I repaired the tire myself.
- I cut her hair myself.
- I baked the bread myself.
- I will do it myself.
- I’ll do it myself.
- I did it myself.
- I will go to school myself.
- I am not a very punctual person myself.
- I heard the lie myself.
- I can look after the whole place myself.
- I did not want to believe it and then I saw the UFO myself.
- Did someone paint your house?” “No, I painted it myself.”
- You will have to explain to them yourself.
- You don’t need help. You can do it yourself.
- You can choose a lawyer yourself or one will be selected for you.
- Fanny, you’ll have to do your homework yourself.
- Wow! Did you write this book yourself?
- Boys, can you make your beds yourselves?
- I was introduced to Barack Obama himself.
- Andika did it himself.
- Erwin fixed the car himself.
- The pitcher scored the winning run himself.
- The father decided to repair the car himself.
- My brother spoke to his boss himself about a raise.
- He baked the cake himself.
- He fixed the leaking roof himself.
- He was planning to ask his assistant to go, but in the end he went himself.
- He wanted to impress her, so he baked a cake himself.
- She made this dinner herself.
- The mayor presented the new program herself.
- Chendy does chores herself because she doesn’t trust others to do them right.
- She’s old enough to wash herself.
- The author signed the book for me herself!
- My sister made the bread herself.
- The queen bought the dog herself.
- She mended the car herself.
- She will do it herself.
- She wrote the short story herself.
- When Satri saw the battleship itself, he knew that he had chosen the right profession.
- Never mind. We’ll do it ourselves.
- We cooked the whole meal ourselves.
- We can move the table ourselves.
- We painted the house ourselves. Nobody helped us!
- We don’t have to go out, we can fix dinner ourselves.
- The boys baked these scones themselves.
- The students made the scenery themselves.
- They did the homework themselves.
- They ate all the food themselves.
- The children are able to tie their shoes themselves.
- You don’t need to help them. They can do it themselves.
- Nobody wanted to help them, so they cleaned the streets themselves.
- The actors saved the local theater money by making costumes themselves.
- The responsibility for renting out school facilities will be transferred direct to the schools themselves.
- The firefighters fought the fire themselves although they received some help from the affected residents.
Berdasarkan manfaatnya atau nilainya di dalam kalimat, intensive pronouns bukanlah kata yang harus ada sehingga walaupun intensive pronouns dihilangkan dari kalimat maka kalimat tersebut masih bisa dimengerti dan maknanya masih sama. Contoh:
- My sister herself paid for my popcorn -> My sister paid for my popcorn.
- I made a sandwich for the President himself -> I made a sandwich for the President.
Dengan menghilangkan intensive pronouns dari sebuah kalimat maka kita bisa mengetahui apakah di dalam kalimat tersebut mengandung intensive pronouns atau tidak. Jika intensive pronouns telah dihilangkan dan kalimat tersebut masih bisa dimengerti dan maknanya masih sama maka kalimat tersebut mengandung intensive pronouns.
Intensive pronouns biasanya diletakkan appositive (setelah subject atau object). Contoh:
My sister herself paid for my popcorn.
Intensive pronouns herself diletakkan setelah subject My sister.
I made a sandwich for the President himself.
Intensive pronouns himself diletakkan setelah object the President.
Biasanya intensive pronouns digunakan untuk memberi penekanan pada sesuatu yang penting atau orang terkenal. Contoh:
Sir Paul McCartney himself sang the final song.
himself memberi penekanan pada subject Sir Paul McCartney yang merupakan seorang penyanyi legendaris. Penyanyi legendaris itu sendiri yang menyanyikan lagu terakhir.
The queen gave the knight the award herself.
herself memberi penekanan pada subject The queen yang merupakan seorang ratu. Ratu itu sendiri yang memberikan hadiah.
Intensive pronouns tidak bisa digunakan sebagai subject. Contoh:
Dalam beberapa kasus, intensive pronouns bermakna also. Contoh:
Aisyah was pretty happy last night. I was pretty happy myself.
Umumnya intensive pronoun diletakkan setelah subject atau object yang dirujuk, namun bisa juga diletakkan sebelumnya walaupun kalimat seperti ini sangat jarang digunakan. Contoh:
Myself, I would never do a thing like that.
Intensive pronouns memiliki kata yang sama dengan reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves). Perbedaannya adalah pada fungsi, nilai dan letaknya. Berikut ini adalah beberapa perbedaan antara reflexive dan intensive pronouns:
- Reflexive Pronouns merujuk kepada subject.
- Intensive Pronouns memberi penekanan pada subject atau object.
- Reflexive Pronouns memiliki nilai yang penting di dalam kalimat sehingga jika di dalam kalimat yang ada reflexive pronouns-nya dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya maka kalimat tersebut akan memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda dengan sebelum dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya.
- Intensive Pronouns boleh dihilangkan dari kalimat. Kalimat yang sudah dihilangkan intensive pronounsnya masih memiliki arti dan makna yang sama.
Subject dan Object:
- Reflexive Pronouns digunakan di dalam kalimat jika subject dan object dalam kalimat tersebut memiliki makna yang sama.
- Intensive Pronouns tidak digunakan di dalam klaimat jika subject dan object dalam kalimat tersebut memiliki makna yang sama.
- Reflexive Pronouns digunakan sebagai object sebuah kalimat.
- Intensive Pronouns tidak bisa digunakan sebagai object.
Reflexive pronouns sebagai indirect objects dan intensive pronouns memiliki struktur yang hampir sama sehingga membingungkan walaupun memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda. Contoh:
- Reflexive: He made himself coffee (Dia membuat coffee yang sudah pasti untuk dirinya sendiri)
- Intensive: He made coffee himself (Dia sendiri yang membuat coffee namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)
Cara untuk mengetahui apakah kedua kalimat di atas mengandung reflexive atau intensive pronouns adalah dengan menghilangkan reflexive atau intensive pronouns dari kalimat dan lihat arti dari kalimat setelahnya. Contoh:
- He made himself coffee -> He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)
- He made coffee himself -> He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)
Pada contoh di atas, kalimat pertama sudah pasti mengandung reflexive pronouns karena makna kalimat berubah antara sebelum dan sesudah reflexive pronuns dihapus. Sedangkan kalimat kedua sudah pasti mengandung intensive pronouns karena makna kalimat tidak berubah antara sebelum dan sesudah intensive pronuns dihapus.