Relative Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penghubung)

Relative pronouns berguna untuk menghubungkan kalimat utama dan anak kalimat. Kalimat utama adalah kalimat yang bisa berdiri sendiri sedangkan anak kalimat fungsinya hanya menjelaskan atau menerangkan nouns (kata benda) yang ada di dalam kalimat utama. Anak kalimat yang diawali dengan relative pronouns ini disebut sebagai adjective clause atau relative clause.

Contoh:

Dr Endang, who lectured at UGM for more than 12 years, should have known the difference.

Kalimat di atas merupakan gabungan dari dua buah kalimat yaitu kalimat utama dan anak kalimat dengan relative pronouns who sebagai penghubung:

  • Kalimat utama: Dr Endang should have known the difference.
  • Anak kalimat: Dr Endang lectured at UGM for more than 12 years.
  • Relative pronouns: who
  • Nouns: Dr Endang

Anak kalimat di atas berguna untuk menerangkan mengenai [Dr Endang] yang ada pada kalimat utama.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [Dr Endang] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

Kata yang termasuk relative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which dan that.

Relative pronouns berdasarkan kata yang digantikan:

  • Who dan whom digunakan untuk orang.
  • Whose digunakan untuk kepemilikan.
  • Which digunakan untuk benda.
  • That digunakan untuk benda dan orang (tidak resmi).

Walaupun that bisa digunakan untuk orang namun sebagian pembaca tidak senang bila that digunakan untuk orang. Oleh karena itu hindari menggunakan that untuk orang terutama dalam penulisan resmi seperti surat-menyurat. Kamu bisa menggunakan that untuk orang dalam kalimat percakapan atau situasi tidak resmi.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh kalimat dengan relative pronouns (relative pronouns ditebalkan dan adjective clause diberi garis bawah):

  1. Dena, who is very kind, is my friend.
  2. He is the bank teller who helped us open an account.
  3. Her brother who works at the barbershop is a friend of mine.
  4. Her brother, who works at the barbershop, is a friend of mine.
  5. I am looking for someone who could give me a ride to Jakarta.
  6. I think anyone who speaks in public is nervous beforehand.
  7. I went to Malang with the girl who lives next door.
  8. I went to Surabaya with Irna, who lives next door.
  9. Liana, who is still at the airport, will arrive before 5 o’clock.
  10. Mr Arif, who is a doctor, lives on the corner.
  11. Mr Hendy, who is 56, has just retired.
  12. Ms Yayuk, who is very kind, is my aunt.
  13. My aunt, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
  14. My mother, who called me this morning, says she is coming to visit me this week.
  15. My wife, who lives in New York, has just written me a letter.
  16. People who are clever can always find a way.
  17. She’s the old lady who lent me her phone.
  18. That’s Fazlur, the boy who has just arrived at the airport.
  19. The girl who wore a white dress attracted everybody’s attention at the party.
  20. The man who doesn’t read good books has no advantage over the man who can’t read them. (Mark Twain)
  21. The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO.
  22. The man who you saw in the house is my brother.
  23. The old lady who you have just spoken to is my teacher.
  24. The man who wrote this poem is coming to tea.
  25. The parents who we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  26. The person who called me last night is my cousin.
  27. The person who phoned me last night is my aunt.
  28. The woman who called me yesterday was my aunt.
  29. The woman who I saw yesterday was Aini.
  30. The woman who is talking to Windy is my mother.
  31. The woman who lives next door is a doctor.
  32. The world is a much sunnier place for people who have a positive attitude.
  33. This is the girl who comes from Bekasi.
  34. Tias, who has worked in Jakarta ever since leaving Bandung, will be starting a teaching course in February.
  35. Wulan, who I haven’t seen for ages, rang me this morning.
  36. He is a famous scientist, about whom many books have been written.
  37. I had an uncle in Surabaya whom I inherited a bit of money from.
  38. My cousin, whom I helped to install his computer, always forgets his password.
  39. My sister, whom you met yesterday, wants to speak to you.
  40. She wrote to the person whom she had met last year.
  41. The man to whom you have just spoken is my teacher.
  42. The parents whom we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  43. The Pope, whom I had never met before, spoke to me last night.
  44. This is Adhiet’s brother, with whom I went to school.
  45. This is Zeneth, whom you met at our house last month.
  46. Chefin, whose sister I used to shared a house with, has gone to work in Makassar.
  47. I have a friend whose dog is annoying.
  48. I talked to the woman whose car had broken down in front of the supermarket.
  49. My uncle, whose child you just met, is a doctor.
  50. Students whose parents are wealthy pay extra.
  51. The car, whose driver is a young man, is from Surabaya.
  52. The chief of police, whose work is very important, takes care of the public safety.
  53. The man whose name I always forget is coming to tea.
  54. The Pelican, whose beak can hold more than his belly can, is a queer-looking bird.
  55. The student whose phone just rang should stand up.
  56. The woman, whose father is a doctor, forgot her umbrella.
  57. There was me and there was Sarah, whose party it was, and then there were three other people.
  58. This is Nico, whose brother went to school with me.
  59. Another activity which I have chosen is photography.
  60. Budapest, which is on the Danube, is a beautiful city.
  61. Geometry, about which I know nothing, seems a very dull subject.
  62. Grass, which cows and horses love, is always green in England.
  63. I cannot forget the song which they played yesterday.
  64. I saw the cat which ate the sandwich.
  65. It was the same picture which I saw at the library.
  66. My bike, which I bought yesterday, was stolen.
  67. Pizza, which many of us enjoy, can be messy.
  68. She won’t have much time to prepare for the meeting, which is this morning.
  69. The book which is on the table belongs to Chefin.
  70. The book which is lying on the table is mine.
  71. The cafe, which sells the best coffee in town, has recently been closed.
  72. The car which hit me was red.
  73. The car which I drive is new.
  74. The carpets which you bought last month have gone moldy.
  75. The fruit which was put in the fruit bowl needs to be put in the picnic basket.
  76. The large map, in the middle of which you can see part of the Artic Circle, belonged to my uncle.
  77. The police are looking for the car of which the driver was masked.
  78. The supermarket which we visited last month is closed now.
  79. The theater, in which the play debuted, housed 500 people.
  80. The tower of London, about which a lecture is to given, is a famous historic building.
  81. This is the bank which accepted my identification.
  82. We didn’t bring the receipt, which was a big mistake.
  83. We drove past my old school, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year.
  84. We had a lovely meal at the place which Chefin recommended.
  85. A person that you don’t trust won’t trust you either.
  86. Another activity that I have chosen is photography.
  87. He blamed himself for everything that had happened.
  88. He is the kind of person that will never let you down.
  89. I am looking for someone that could give me a ride to Jakarta.
  90. I cannot remember the hotel that we stayed at.
  91. I had an uncle in Jakarta that I inherited a bit of money from.
  92. I think anyone that speaks in public is nervous beforehand.
  93. Pizza is all that she wants.
  94. She went to the school that my mother went to.
  95. The 7.30 is the train that you need to get.
  96. The bike that I bought yesterday was stolen.
  97. The book that I put on the table is mine.
  98. The book that you were looking at just now is mine.
  99. The cafe that sells the best coffee in town has recently been closed.
  100. The car that hit me was blue.
  101. The car that I drive is new.
  102. The house that Fariz built is large.
  103. The library did not have the book that I wanted.
  104. The man that you met yesterday is coming to tea.
  105. The man that you spoke to yesterday is coming to tea.
  106. The parents that we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  107. The person that phoned me last night is my mother.
  108. The police usually ask for every detail that helps identify the missing person.
  109. This is the cake that Caroline baked.
  110. This is the house that had a great decoration.

Berdasarkan subject dan object:

  • Who digunakan untuk mengganti subject dan object (tidak resmi).
  • Whom digunakan untuk mengganti object (resmi).
  • Whose, which dan that bisa digunakan untuk mengganti subject maupun object.

Contoh:

Mrs Sofie, who is very kind, is my teacher.

  • Kalimat utama: Mrs Sofie is my teacher.
  • Anak kalimat: Mrs Sofie is very kind.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [Mrs Sofie] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

The person that phoned me last night is my mother.

  • Kalimat utama: The person is my mother.
  • Anak kalimat: The person phoned me last night.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [The person] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns that.

The man who you saw in the house is my brother.

  • Kalimat utama: The man is my brother.
  • Anak kalimat: You saw the man in the house.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [the man] memiliki posisi sebagai object dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

The carpets which you bought last year have gone moldy.

  • Kalimat utama: The carpets have gone moldy.
  • Anak kalimat: You bought the carpets last year.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [the carpets] memiliki posisi sebagai object dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns which.

Who dan whom memiliki arti yang sama namun berbeda dalam penggunaan.

Walaupun who bisa digunakan sebagai pengganti object namun who yang digunakan sebagai pengganti object tidak bisa digunakan untuk bahasa resmi. Sebaliknya, whom hanya bisa digunakan untuk bahasa resmi. Sangat jarang sekali ada yang memakai whom untuk bahasa tidak resmi seperti bahasa percakapan.

Contoh:

  1. The person whom I phoned last night is my mother.
  2. The person who I phoned last night are my mother.
  3. The person that I phoned last night is my mother.

Pada ketiga contoh di atas, relative pronouns whom, who dan that menggantikan object [The person].

Contoh 1 hanya digunakan untuk kondisi resmi, sedangkan contoh 2 dan 3 hanya digunakan untuk kondisi tidak resmi.

Berdasarkan arti atau makna dari anak kalimat maka anak kalimat bisa dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu [menjelaskan identitas] atau [memberi informasi tambahan].

1. Menjelaskan identitas

Contoh:

The lady who made your white dress is waiting inside.

Pada contoh di atas:

  • Kalimat utama: The lady is waiting inside.
  • Anak kalimat: who made your white dress.

Bila dilihat berdasarkan arti atau maknanya maka anak kalimat di atas menerangkan mengenai siapa [The lady] atau [The lady] yang mana yang dimaksud karena [The lady] yang dimaksud pada kalimat utama bisa siapa saja.

2. Memberi informasi tambahan

Contoh:

Mrs Anggia, who owns a boutique, is waiting inside.

Pada contoh di atas:

  • Kalimat utama: Mrs Anggia is waiting inside.
  • Anak kalimat: who owns a boutique.

Bila dilihat berdasarkan arti atau maknanya maka anak kalimat di atas hanya [memberi informasi tambahan] mengenai [Mrs Anggia]. Informasi tambahan tersebut tidaklah penting dan bisa dihilangkan tanpa mengganggu makna kalimat utama.

Perbedaan jenis anak kalimat antara [menjelaskan identitas] dan [memberi informasi tambahan] adalah pada penting atau tidak pentingnya anak kalimat. Anak kalimat yang penting disebut sebagai restrictive clause sedangkan anak kalimat yang tidak penting disebut sebagai non-restrictive clause.

Bila anak kalimat tidak dianggap penting maka anak kalimat akan masuk ke dalam kategori [memberi informasi tambahan] dan sebaliknya bila anak kalimat dianggap penting maka anak kalimat akan masuk ke dalam kategori [menjelaskan identitas].

Selain perbedaan di atas, berdasarkan penulisannya, anak kalimat yang [memberi informasi tambahan] harus ditulis di antara symbol koma [,]. Sebaliknya anak kalimat yang [menjelaskan identitas] tidak ditulis di dalam symbol koma.

Contoh:

  1. My sister who lives in Semarang bought a house.
  2. My sister, who lives in Semarang, bought a house.

Kedua contoh di atas bisa digunakan namun memiliki arti dan makna yang berbeda.

Pada contoh 1, anak kalimat memiliki arti atau makna [menjelaskan identitas] [My sister]. Sedangkan Pada contoh 2, anak kalimat memiliki arti atau makna hanya [memberi informasi tambahan] mengenai [My sister].

Anak kalimat pada contoh 1 sifatnya sangat penting untuk menjelaskan siapa itu [My sister]. Sedangkan anak kalimat pada contoh 2 sifatnya tidak penting hanya untuk [memberi informasi tambahan] sehingga anak kalimat pada contoh 2 bisa dihapus.

Asumsinya pada contoh 1 adalah dia memiliki banyak saudara perempuan kemudian oleh anak kalimat dijelaskan mengenai saudara perempuan yang mana yang dimaksud.

Sedangkan asumsi pada contoh 2 adalah dia hanya memiliki satu saudara perempuan dan oleh anak kalimat diberi informasi tambahan bahwa saudara perempuannya itu sekarang tinggal di Semarang. Berdasarkan asumsi tersebut maka kita bisa mengambil kesimpulan bahwa anak kalimat pada contoh 2 tidak menjelaskan saudara perempuan yang mana, anak kalimat hanya memberi informasi tambahan.

Khusus untuk anak kalimat dengan awal relative pronouns that hanya bisa digunakan untuk [menjelaskan identitas].

1. His car, which was very old, broke down after just one kilometres.
2. His car, that was very old, broke down after just one kilometres.

Contoh 1 di atas adalah contoh yang benar secara grammar sedangkan contoh 2 adalah contoh yang salah dan tidak bisa digunakan.

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