Personal Pronouns (Kata Ganti Perorangan)

Personal pronouns (kata ganti perorangan) adalah pronouns (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan kata benda, hewan atau orang.

Contoh:

Raymond bought a new camera three months ago. He absolutely loves it.

Pada kalimat kedua di atas ada dua buah personal pronouns, yaitu He dan it. Kata He mengganti kata Raymond dan kata it mengganti kata a new camera.

Penggunaan personal pronouns tergantung dari beberapa hal, diantaranya yaitu:

  • Personal pronouns sebagai subject atau object
  • Personal pronouns sebagai singular atau plural
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang laki-laki atau perempuan
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga

Daftar kata personal pronouns:

Orang Jumlah Subject Object
Orang Pertama Singular I me
Orang kedua Singular you you
Orang ketiga Singular he/she/it him/her/it
Orang pertama Plural we us
Orang kedua Plural you you
Orang ketiga Plural they them

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai subject:

  1. You are happy.
  2. You are late.
  3. You are my best student.
  4. Do you like ice-cream?
  5. I like ice-cream.
  6. I love learning Japanese!
  7. I love learning English!
  8. I like your dress.
  9. I really like spaghetti.
  10. I can’t come on Wednesday. I‘m working.
  11. I left college in 2009.
  12. He runs fast.
  13. He is my cousin
  14. He is clever.
  15. He is from Jogja.
  16. He is running up and down the stairs.
  17. He forgot his textbook.
  18. He went to bed early.
  19. She has a nice voice.
  20. She is on holiday
  21. She forgot his laptop.
  22. Novi did not come to school yesterday. She had to go to the doctor
  23. She is dreaming.
  24. She is riding his bike.
  25. She has got a sister.
  26. She loves playing basketball.
  27. She often reads until late at night.
  28. Come look at my cat! She has climbed to the top of that tree.
  29. It doesn’t work.
  30. It was on the the refrigerator.
  31. It was on the table.
  32. It is easy to understand.
  33. It is Blue.
  34. It’s getting late.
  35. It‘s so lovely to see you.
  36. We have to leave soon.
  37. We went home.
  38. We live in Australia.
  39. Should we go jogging before or after breakfast?
  40. Is it ok if we finish early today?
  41. We are watching TV.
  42. Do you need a table for four?
  43. Would you prefer ice-cream or peppermint tea?
  44. They all cleaned up together.
  45. They come from Bandung.
  46. They all lived happily ever after.
  47. They live in Japan.
  48. They won the league.
  49. They are on the wall.
  50. They are in the lobby.
  51. They don’t finish the lesson until five o’clock.

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai object:

  1. Yayuk helped me.
  2. Heni asked me to get some milk.
  3. Can you help me please?
  4. Can they hear me?
  5. Maryam spent the day with me.
  6. Arif loves you.
  7. I can see you.
  8. Did Haryo beat him?
  9. Ratri said she wants to marry him.
  10. She doesn’t like him.
  11. I told him to stay home and study instead of going out.
  12. What’s wrong with him?
  13. I want him to listen.
  14. The audience loved him.
  15. Abe went with her.
  16. Does Maryam know her?
  17. I bought a ticket for her.
  18. I saw her in town yesterday.
  19. Krisna knows her.
  20. Can the man fix it?
  21. Who broke it?
  22. Please pick up that piece of paper and take it with you.
  23. Bluher drove us.
  24. He will email us tomorrow.
  25. Don’t take it from us.
  26. Tya’s coming to visit us in September.
  27. The dog followed us.
  28. Did Orig and Kania beat you at doubles?
  29. Orig and Kania beat them.
  30. Ricky gave them the letter.
  31. I will take them.
  32. We saw them in campus yesterday, but they didn’t see us.
  33. Where are the reports? I thought I gave them to you.
  34. Ask them if they will be joining us.

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai object setelah prepositions (to, for, from, at, dll):

  1. She is waiting for me.
  2. Thanks again for everything you did for me.
  3. Stop laughing at me.
  4. I’ll get it for you.
  5. I will wait for you.
  6. Is anyone sitting next to you?
  7. Give it to him.
  8. Why are you looking at her?
  9. Don’t take it from us.
  10. I’ll speak to them.

Contoh personal pronouns sebagai subject dan object di dalam satu kalimat:

  1. I want you to read this book.
  2. You are the fastest runner on the team, and we’re depending on you.
  3. She didn’t like the way he spoke to her.
  4. We enjoyed hearing her sing.
  5. We would love for you to join us.
  6. They talked to me about acting in the play.

Cara membedakan personal pronouns you singular atau plural adalah berdasarkan dari kalimatnya. Contoh:

  • Orig, do you need any help? (you merujuk kepada satu orang, Orig)
  • Coach to team: “The match starts at 11.30. I need you to be here at 11.” (you merujuk kepada satu kelompok)

Terkadang, you all digunakan untuk merujuk semua orang di dalam kelompok:

What would you all like to drink?

Dalam bahasa informal, terkadang you digunakan untuk merujuk semua orang:

You get a pension if you’re a man over the age of 60 or a woman over 50.

Selain merujuk kepada benda, personal pronouns it dapat digunakan untuk merujuk kepada cuaca, temperatur, waktu, jarak, negara, kendaraan dan mesin. Contoh:

  1. It‘s raining. (cuaca)
  2. It‘s snowing. (cuaca)
  3. It will probably be hot next week. (cuaca)
  4. Is it five o’clock yet? (waktu)
  5. It‘s already five o’clock. (waktu)
  6. It‘s 30 kilometers from here to Bandung. (jarak)
  7. We spent Two weeks in India. It’s a beautiful country. (negara)
  8. Two hours after the ship sailed, it developed engine trouble. (kendaraan)

Personal pronouns it juga dapat digunakan untuk merujuk hewan. Selain it, he/him atau she/her bisa juga digunakan untuk merujuk kepada hewan, terutama hewan peliharaan. Beberapa kendaraan seperti kapal dan beberapa negara bisa diperlakukan seperti perempuan dan dirujuk menggunakan She/her. Contoh:

  1. This is our dog Tintin. He‘s an Alsatian.
  2. The Titanic was a great ship but she sank on her first voyage.
  3. My first car was a Senia and I treated her like my wife.
  4. Thailand has now opened her border with Cambodia.

Personal pronouns we dan us bisa merujuk kepada pembicara + pendengar, pembicara + orang lain tanpa pendengar, semua orang (pembicara + pendengar + orang lain). Contoh:

  • We could go and see a film right now. What do you think? (we = pembicara + pendengar)
  • Ricky asked us if we‘d drive to Jakarta and get you. (us/we = pembicara + orang lain tanpa pendengar).
  • Changing diet, rather than dieting, is a healthier alternative. There are changes we should all make. (we = pembicara + pendengar + orang lain)

They dan them digunakan untuk merujuk kepada sekelompok orang, benda dan binatang:

  • The boys are getting on my nerves. They‘re making so much noise. Can you tell them to be quiet? I’m trying to work.
  • Have you seen my keys? I never remember where I’ve left them.

They dan them juga dapat digunakan untuk merujuk kepada institusi atau pemerintah:

  • I heard they’re going to publish a new edition of ‘Peace and Economy’.
  • They’re opening the new motorway today.

Biasanya, He/him digunakan untuk merujuk kepada laki-laki dan she/her untuk merujuk kepada perempuan. Saat kita tidak yakin apakah seseorang itu laki-laki atau perempuan maka kita bisa menggunakan they/them. Contoh:

  • This is Amadeo. He’s my brother. I don’t think you have met him. (Kata him merujuk kepada my brother. Menggunakan him karena sudah jelas my brother adalah laki-laki)
  • This is Citra. She’s my sister. Have you met her before? (Kata her merujuk kepada my sister. Menggunakan her karena sudah jelas my sister adalah perempuan)
  • Talk to a teacher. Ask them to help you (them merujuk kepada a teacher (seorang guru), menggunakan them dan bukannya he atau she karena di dalam kalimat tidak disebutkan jenis kelamin guru (a teacher) yang dimaksud)
  • You could go to a friend. They might help you (They merujuk kepada a friend (seorang teman), menggunakan they dan bukannya he atau she karena di dalam kalimat tidak disebutkan jenis kelamin teman (a friend) yang dimaksud)

Personal pronouns seperti they atau them yang bisa digunakan untuk merujuk kepada laki-laki atau perempuan disebut sebagai generic pronouns.

Selain menggunakan they/them untuk merujuk kepada orang yang kelaminnya tidak jelas, pemakaian personal pronouns berikut ini bisa kita gunakan: he or she, he/she, s/he, (s)he, him or her, him/her. Contoh:

  • When you get into the building, go to the person on the desk in the reception area. He or she can tell you where to go.
  • Go to a hairdresser. Ask him/her to come up with a style that suits you, your hair, your lifestyle.
  • The bank manager could help with your problem. He/she will probably be able to give you a loan.

Personal pronouns berguna untuk menghindari sebuah noun diulang-ulang. Noun yang yang digantikan oleh personal pronouns disebut sebagai antecedent. Contoh:

President Obama delivered a speech on health care reform. He spoke for more than half an hour.

Antecedent dari kalimat di atas adalah President Obama yang diganti dengan personal pronouns He.

Beberapa personal pronouns yang berfungsi sebagai object (me, him, her, us dan them) bisa digunakan sebagai jawaban pendek dalam bahasa informal. Contoh:

Q: Who ate all the cookies?
A: Me. (formalnya: I did)

Beberapa kesalahan yang biasanya terjadi pada penggunaan personal pronouns adalah penggunaan I atau me. Contoh:

  • Yayuk and me are meeting in Jakarta in July – incorrect
  • Yayuk and I are meeting in Jakarta in July – correct

Personal pronouns yang tepat untuk digunakan pada kalimat di atas adalah I karena kata “Yayuk and I” diperlakukan sebagai sebuah subject. Contoh lainnya:

  • They gave the promotion to I – incorrect
  • They gave the promotion to me – correct

Personal pronouns yang tepat untuk digunakan pada kalimat di atas adalah me karena me memiliki posisi sebagai object. Contoh lainnya:

  • My friends and me went on holiday to a little town on the west coast – incorrect
  • My friends and I went on holiday to a little town on the west coast – correct
  • Hariza and me went shopping – incorrect
  • Hariza and I went shopping – correct
  • Dira spent the day with Haryo and I – incorrect
  • Dira spent the day with Haryo and me – correct
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