Interrogative Pronouns (Kata Ganti Tanya)

Interrogative pronouns adalah pronouns (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk bertanya.

Kata yang termasuk interrogative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, dan what. Kata who dan whom hanya bisa digunakan untuk merujuk kepada orang sedangkan kata lainnya digunakan untuk merujuk kepada orang atau benda.

Who digunakan untuk menanyakan orang. Contoh:

  1. Who are you?
  2. Who are the signers of the Declaration of Independence?
  3. Who called last night?
  4. Who came last night?
  5. Who do you think will win the playoff game?
  6. Who did you meet?
  7. Who is dancing?
  8. Who is going to take out the trash?
  9. Who is laughing at me?
  10. Who is that?
  11. Who is the best footballer in the world?
  12. Who is the villain here?
  13. Who is there?
  14. Who left you the message?
  15. Who opened the refrigerator?
  16. Who said that?
  17. Who threw the football?
  18. Who told you to do that?
  19. Who told you?
  20. Who wrote the letter?
  21. Who wants ice cream?
  22. Who was driving the car?
  23. Who was embarrassed the most?
  24. Who will design the new logo?
  25. Who won the race?
  26. A woman who I think is a genius.
  27. I’m wondering who will be at the party.
  28. I am not sure who can swim the fastest.
  29. We all know who pulled that prank.

Whom digunakan untuk menanyakan orang walaupun jarang digunakan. Contoh:

  1. Whom did you call?
  2. Whom did you speak to?
  3. Whom did you tell?
  4. Whom do I ask for at the desk?
  5. Whom do you live with?
  6. Whom do you prefer to vote for?
  7. Whom do you suggest we nominate for class president?
  8. Whom shall we ask?
  9. Whom should I vote for?
  10. Whom were you speaking with this morning?
  11. You should ask whom to call.
  12. Once you learn to speak Japanese, whom are you going to talk to?
  13. To whom are you speaking?
  14. To whom did you give the note?
  15. To whom did you give the message?
  16. To whom was that said?
  17. We wondered whom the book was about.

Whose digunakan untuk menanyakan kepunyaan orang atau benda. Contoh:

  1. Whose are these books?
  2. Whose did they take?
  3. Whose is this?
  4. There are only five cars. Whose is missing?
  5. I wonder whose dog knocked our garbage can over.

Catatan: Whose juga kata yang digunakan oleh possessive pronouns.

Which digunakan untuk menanyakan orang atau benda. Contoh:

  1. Which belongs to her?
  2. Which came first?
  3. Which did you buy?
  4. Which do you prefer?
  5. Which is the greater?
  6. Which is your coat?
  7. Which is the best answer among all the choices?
  8. Which of these ladies is your mother?
  9. Which of these two do you prefer?
  10. Which of these books have you read?
  11. Which will the doctor see first?
  12. Which would you prefer, coffee or tea?

What digunakan untuk menanyakan orang atau benda. Contoh:

  1. What are you talking about?
  2. What did you say?
  3. What did you buy?
  4. What do you want for dinner?
  5. What do you want for your birthday?
  6. What do you want?
  7. What does the man want?
  8. What happened next?
  9. What is that?
  10. What is the number on the door?
  11. What is your favorite color?
  12. What is your friend’s name?
  13. What is your sister’s name?
  14. What is your secret?
  15. What’s happened?
  16. What’s your phone number?
  17. Can you tell me what you are thinking?
  18. I wonder what we’re doing tomorrow.

Kalimat yang menggunakan interrogative pronouns selalu kalimat yang digunakan untuk bertanya sehingga kalimat-kalimat tersebut biasanya diakhiri dengan tanda tanya “?” walaupun tidak semua.

Ada perbedaan antara who dan whom, yaitu:

  • Who digunakan untuk merujuk kepada subject
  • Whom digunakan untuk merujuk kepada object.

Cara mengetahui kata yang lebih tepat digunakan dalam sebuah kalimat tanya antara who atau whom adalah dengan melihat pada kalimat jawabannya. Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban.

Jika sebuah kalimat jawaban lebih cocok menggunakan he/she maka kalimat tanya tersebut harus menggunakan who, sebaliknya gunakan whom. Contoh:

Who/whom ate my sandwich? – He/she/him/her ate my sandwich

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

  • He/she ate my sandwich – benar
  • Him/her ate my sandwich – salah

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah who.

Who ate my sandwich?

Contoh lainnya:

Who/whom should I talk to about labeling food in the refrigerator? – I should talk to he/she/him/her.

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

  • I should talk to he/she – salah
  • I should talk to him/her – benar

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah whom.

Whom should I talk to about labeling food in the refrigerator?

Contoh lainnya:

Who/whom drives her mother’s car to Jakarta? – Maya drives her mother’s car to Jakarta.

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

  • He/she drives her mother’s car to Jakarta – benar
  • Him/her drives her mother’s car to Jakarta – salah

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah who.

Who drives her mother’s car to Jakarta?

Contoh lainnya:

The car is driven to school by who/whom? atau By who/whom is the car driven to school? – The car is driven to school by Maya.

Coba gunakan kata he/she atau him/her pada kalimat jawaban di atas:

The car is driven to school by he/she – salah
The car is driven to school by him/her – benar

Berdasarkan contoh di atas, kata yang lebih tepat digunakan untuk kalimat tanya di atas adalah whom.

The car is driven to school by whom? atau By whom is the car driven to school?

Interrogative adjectives memiliki beberapa kata yang sama dengan interrogative pronouns yaitu whose, what dan which. Namun ada perbedaan dalam pemakaiannya yaitu yang satu digunakan sebagai adjective (kata sifat) sedangkan yang satunya lagi digunakan sebagai pronouns (kata ganti). Contoh:

Which feat is the greater?

Kata which di atas adalah interrogative adjectives karena memodifikasi kata feat.

Contoh lainnya:

Which is the greater?

Kata which di atas adalah interrogative pronouns karena berdiri sendiri.

Dalam beberapa kasus walaupun sangat jarang digunakan dalam kalimat, kata interrogative pronouns dapat ditambahkan imbuhan –ever atau –soever. Beberapa diantaranya yaitu: whatever, whatsoever, whichever, whoever, whosoever, whomever, whomsoever, whosever.

Interrogative pronouns dengan akhiran –ever biasanya digunakan untuk memberi tekanan atau menunjukkan keterjutan. Contoh:

  1. Whoever would want to eat such a gross thing?
  2. Whoever would want to do such a nasty thing?
  3. Whomever made that noise should come to my desk.
  4. Whatever did you say?
  5. Whatever did he say to make her cry like that?
  6. Whatever is he doing with that rod?
  7. Whatever’s that yellow thing on your plate?
  8. Whatever did you say that for?
  9. Whatever does she see in him – he’s horrible!
  10. Whatever made him buy that jacket?
  11. They’re all fantastic! Whichever will you choose?
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