Serba Serbi Present Tense

Aloo kawan-kawan semuanya. Apa kabar kalian hari ini?

Hari ini saya mau sharing lagi tips bahasa Inggris tentang Present Tense. Tapi sebelumnya coba baca tulisan tentang tenses yang ini dan yang ini untuk menyegarkan ingatan kalian lagi mengenai tenses.

Siapkan popcorn dan jus jeruknya sekalian ya karena tulisan ini agak panjang. Mari kita mulai.

1. Simple Present Tense.

Rumus:

  • S + Verb (s/es).
  • I, You, We, They + V1.
  • He, She, It + V1 + s/es.

Kita menggunakannya untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang berlangsung setiap saat. Baik dimasa lampau, sekarang, maupun yang akan datang.

A. Fakta yang ada ataupun umumnya terjadi atau bisa disebut juga general truth.

Perhatikan untuk kalimat negatif bila subjeknya I/we/you/they maka kita menambahkan Don’t/do not dan bila subjeknya he/she/it maka kita menambahkan doesn’t/does not.

Contoh:

  • Water consists of oksigen and hydrogen.
  • It Snows in Canada.
  • Aida Speaks English and Japanese.
  • The earth revolves around the sun.
  • Bandung is in Indonesia.
  • Windows are made of glass.
  • Bandung is not in the East Java.
  • The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • We live in this city.
  • Some early philosophers knew that the earth is round.
  • Fortune favors the brave.
  • She lives in Bandung.
  • I live in Bandung.
  • I think I know her.
  • They understand the theory better now.
  • She loves me so much.
  • That Korean song sounds good but I cannot catch every single word on it.
  • Windy has three cats and two parrots.
  • This cake tastes so delicious.
  • I don’t speak Korean.
  • Wahyu doesn’t eat fish.
  • She is not Indonesia.
  • A cat has four legs.
  • I am not racer.
  • Isn’t she beautiful?
  • She doesn’t speak French.
  • I don’t speak Spanish.
  • Where does Hariza live?
  • Do you watch TV every day?
  • What do you do before you work?

B. Kita bisa menggunakannya untuk menjelaskan aktivitas yang selalu berulang-ulang, keadaan, kebiasaan (habit), hobby, jadwal, program, kegiatan berseri ataupun kemampuan. Biasanya memakai kata always, ussually, sometimes, often, seldom, never, dan everyday.

Contoh:

  • We always get up at 6 o’clock.
  • She always eats a sandwich for lunch.
  • I always take a bath before I eat breakfast.
  • I drink a cup of coffee every morning.
  • I have breakfast at six.
  • Anggia plays tennis on saturday.
  • The moon goes round the earth.
  • The sun sets in the West.
  • Chandra usually goes to school by bus.
  • He never drinks beer.
  • She drinks tea every morning.
  • She always studies every day.
  • We usually come early.
  • Elizabeth is often angry with me.
  • Ranggi sometimes comes late.
  • I seldom eat in the cafe.
  • I never smoke.
  • They travel to their country house every weekend.
  • My watch keeps good time.
  • I play football.
  • She does not play football.
  • He sends much money to her parents in the village every month.
  • Maya swims every morning.
  • The train leaves every morning at 7 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 8 AM.
  • He always forgets his wallet.
  • She never forgets her purse.
  • This sports car runs very fast.
  • Rice is expensive nowadays.
  • The tennis game starts at 09.30 am.
  • The train arrives at 03.00 pm.

C. Untuk menjelaskan perintah, permintaan, ataupun arah.

Contoh:

  • Open the packet and pour the contents into cold water.
  • You take the No.3 angkot to Dago and then No.2 to Station.
  • Get out of here!
  • Please close the door!
  • You walk for three hundred meters, then you turn right.

D. Dalam Simple Present Tense, bila subjeknya berupa he/she/it maka Verbnya ditambahkan s/es.

Contoh perubahannya:

  • Verb berakhiran ch/s/sh/x/z: fix-fixes, box-boxes, pass-passes, push-pushes, wash-washes, kiss-kisses, relax-relaxes, watch-watches.
  • Verb berakhiran y: marry-marries, carry-carries, play-plays, study-studies, say-says, try-tries, worry-worries, cry cries, reply-replies, fly-flies, buy-buys, enjoy-enjoys, play-plays, say-says.
  • verb dengan do, go, dan have berubah menjadi does, goes, dan has.

E. Bisa digunakan untuk menyatakan rencana untuk masa yang akan datang.

Contoh:

  • We go to Bali next week.
  • I start my vacation a week from Saturday.
  • When does the school reopen?
  • Her father arrives tomorrow.
  • Our holiday starts on the 26th January.
  • We’ll give it to you when she arrives.
  • He’ll see you before she leaves.

2. Present Continuous Tense.

Rumus:

  • I + am + present participle/Ving.
  • He/She/It + is + present participle/Ving.
  • They/We/You + are + present participle/Ving.

Tenses ini dapat kamu gunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung.

A. Apabila ada kejadian yang sedang terjadi maupun sedang tidak terjadi yang berhubungan dengan pendengaran, penglihatan, rasa, penciuman, dan kejadian atau kegiatan tersebut prosesnya bisa ditangkap dengan indra maka kamu bisa menggunakan tenses ini.

Proses yang bisa ditangkap indra misalkan saja adalah ringing atau berbunyi. Semua orang bisa mengetahui ada yang sedang berbunyi. Sedangkan proses yang tidak bisa ditangkap dengan indra yaitu hearing atau mendengar. Karena “hearing” itu hanya bisa dilakukan oleh orang yang melakukannya, dan hearing ini tidak bisa kita lihat atau kita ketahui pada orang yang sedang melakukannya. Contoh lainnya bisa kamu lihat di non continuous verb dan mixed verb.

Biasanya pada tenses ini terdapat kata-kata seperti at the moment, at present, right now, now, for the time being. Contoh:

  • The door bell is ringing.
  • She is studying right now.
  • You are not swimming now.
  • You are learning English now.
  • We are studying English now.
  • I am not standing.
  • I am sitting.
  • I am writing now.
  • Is she sitting or standing?
  • She is not eating meal.
  • You aren’t studying.
  • I am not taking bath.
  • They aren’t sleeping at the moment.
  • She is sleeping.
  • I need an umbrella because it is raining.
  • Shinta and Natasha are talking.
  • Is Dita having dinner?
  • Are you reading newspaper?
  • I’m driving a car to Bandung now.
  • Are you sleeping?
  • They are watching television.
  • They are not reading their books.
  • What are you doing?
  • Why aren’t you doing your homework?
  • It’s 6 o’clock and the children are getting up.
  • I am reading this article.
  • Are you listening to me?
  • Are your parents at home?
  • It is not moving, is it?
  • What are Anggi and Dita doing now? Are they studying?
  • It’s 9 o’clock and the children are getting up.
  • The boys are playing football.
  • Why are you sitting at my chair?

B. Tenses ini dapat juga digunakan untuk menyatakan dua aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung dengan kata while dan and. Contoh:

  • My mom is cooking in the kitchen and my father is reading newspapers in the living room.
  • Zeneth is studying Biology while Shara is solving Math problems.

C. Aktivitas yang akan terjadi atau tidak terjadi dalam waktu dekat juga bisa dijelaskan dengan tense yang satu ini.

  • I am going to the movies tonight.
  • I am not going to the theater tonight.
  • I am not going to the party tonight.
  • I am meeting some friends after work.
  • Isn’t she coming with us tonight?
  • She is leaving next month.
  • Is she visiting his parents next weekend?
  • I can play football with you tomorrow. I am not working.
  • We’re eating in the Marsel Cafe tonight. We’ve already booked the table.
  • We are leaving for Jakarta by the morning plane.
  • They are taking the seven o’clock train.

D. Peristiwa yang masih terjadi hanya saja dalam durasi yang lebih lama. Peristiwa atau kegiatan ini mungkin hanya terjadi kali ini saja atau tidak diulang-ulang dan ada kemungkinan saat dibicarakan tidak sedang dilakukan.

  • I am studying to become engineer.
  • I am not studying to become mechanic.
  • I am reading the book Harry Potter.
  • I am not reading any books right now.
  • Are you working on any special projects at work?
  • Aren’t you teaching at the high school now?
  • She is teaching Korean and learning Japanese.

E. Penggunaan tense yang menyatakan pengulangan dengan kalimat seperti always, constantly, continually. Yang perlu diperhatikan bahwa kalimat yang menggunakan tense ini memiliki makna negatif.

  • My dog is very silly. He is always running out into the road.
  • She is always coming to class late.
  • He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.
  • I don’t like them because they are always complaining.

F. Sebenarnya ada beberapa verb yang tidak bisa dipakai untuk Continuous tense tapi lebih cocok dipakai untuk simple tense. Kamu bisa baca di postingan saya yang lama tentang Stative Verbs atau Non Continuous Verb. Beberapa verbnya adalah kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan fungsi indra, perasaan, dan possession.

Contoh:

  • see
  • hear
  • taste
  • appear
  • look

3. Present Perfect Tense.

Rumus:

  • I/We/You/They + have + V3.
  • He/She/It + has + V3.

Tenses ini kita gunakan untuk menunjukkan kegiatan/aktivitas yang sudah terjadi atau belum terjadi tanpa mempedulikan kapan aktivitas/kegiatan tersebut terjadi pastinya atau kejadian tersebut tak dapat diamati prosesnya. Kalau kawan-kawan ingin menunjukkan kapan kegiatan tersebut dilakukan maka kawan-kawan lebih cocok pakai bentuk Simple Past.

Kita tak bisa menggunakan keterangan waktu yang spesifik untuk tenses yang satu ini seperti one year ago, yesterday, last week, when I was child, at the moment, When I lived in Bali, one day, dan that day. Walaupun begitu kawan semua lebih dianjurkan untuk menggunakan kata keterangan seperti once, many times, several times, ever, never, yet, so far, just, already, dan before.

Contoh:

  • I think I have seen that movie before.
  • I have written that letter.
  • I have broken my arm.
  • I have already had my dinner.
  • I have cooked the lunch.
  • I have already seen that movie.
  • We have moved into a new apartment.
  • We have seen that movie twelve times.
  • People have not traveled to Pluto.
  • People have traveled to Mars.
  • People have traveled to the Moon many times.
  • Elizabeth has traveled around the world.
  • Windy has told her.
  • There have been many earthquakes in Japan.
  • Has there ever been a war in the Korea?
  • Yes, there has been a war int the Korea.
  • How many questions have I asked so far?
  • Have you ever been here before?
  • Someone has stolen her money.
  • They have gone.
  • Have you read the book yet?
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
  • Have you done your homework?
  • What has Bening sent to you?
  • Why she has been there all day long?
  • Has Cinta come?

A. Bisa dipakai untuk menyatakan berapa kali suatu peristiwa dilakukan pada waktu lampau. Peristiwa yang terjadi ini bukanlah yang terakhir dan masih mungkin akan terjadi lagi.

Contoh:

  • She has fallen in love five times.
  • You have seen this movie two times.
  • Those students have failed the exam three times.
  • The army has attacked that city three times.
  • I have had three quizzes and four tests so far this semester.
  • We have had many major problems while working on this project.
  • He has talked to several specialists about his problem, but nobody knows why he is sick.
  • We have always walked home by that route.
  • Kiki has written many books.

B. Menunjukkan suatu peristiwa yang telah terjadi di masa lalu dan masih terjadi sampai sekarang. Fungsi yang satu ini spesial hanya untuk Verb yang tidak bisa dipakai dalam Present Continuous bisa menggunakan tense yang satu ini.

Perbedaan penggunaan for dan since adalah kalau for diikuti dengan durasi waktu, sedangkan since disebutkan awal mulai terjadinya peristiwa.

Untuk adverb yet sendiri penggunaannya bisa ditempatkan ditengah kalimat maupun di akhir kalimat. Tapi untuk kalimat tanya, yet hanya ditempatkan diakhir kalimat. Untuk yet yang ditempatkan ditengah kalimat rumusnya adalah S + have/has + not + V3 + yet. Sedangkan yet yang ditempatkan diakhir kalimat rumusnya adalah S + have/has + yet + to V1.

Contoh:

  • Mr. and Mrs. Juju have lived in that city for twelve years. (Sekarang masih tinggal di sana).
  • We have studied Japanese since three months ago. (sekarang masih belajar).
  • I have liked her since I first met her. (Masih suka).
  • I have yet to see to see her smile. (Masih belum melihat).
  • She has not eaten yet. (Masih belum makan).
  • Dita has not told her yet. (Masih belum memberitahunya).
  • Dita has yet to tell her. (Masih belum memberitahunya).
  • They have not gone yet. (Masih belum pergi).
  • They have yet to go. (Masih belum pergi).
  • She has known me for three years. (Masih kenal).
  • I have known her for a long time. (Masih kenal).
  • I have known her for a many years. (Masih kenal).
  • I have studied in this school for three months. (Masih belajar).
  • We have not seen this movie yet. (Masih belum menonton).
  • We have yet to see this movie. (Masih belum menonton).
  • She has been here for three hours. (Masih disini).
  • We haven’t seen Cheffin for several months. (Masih belum bertemu).
  • I haven’t had any news of her since she moved to Alaska. (Masih belum menerima kabar).
  • Sherly has taught in this school for three years. (Masih mengajar).
  • Nela has loved chocolate since she was a little girl. (Masih suka coklat).
  • Prismita has not read the news yet. (Masih belum baca).
  • Prismita has yet to read the news. (Masih belum baca).
  • I have not sent the letter yet. (Masih belum kirim).
  • I have yet to send the letter. (Masih belum kirim).
  • She has been in Japan for three years. (Masih tinggal di sana).
  • I have lived here for all my life. (Masih tinggal di sini).
  • I have had a cold for three weeks. (Sekarang masih sakit).
  • I have been here for ten minutes. (Masih disini)
  • She has been here since three o’clock. (Masih di sini).
  • Maria has worked in that company since she graduated. (Masih kerja disana).
  • She has worked for the company for more than two years. (Masih kerja disana).
  • My son hasn’t called me for almost three months. (Masih belum menelepon).

C. Kawan-kawan dapat juga memakai Simple Present Perfect Tense untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang baru saja selesai dengan menambahkan just diantara have dan V3.

Contoh:

  • She has just finished lunch.
  • She has just arrived.
  • We have just gone out.

E. Dalam menggambarkan pengalaman seseorang yang pernah dialami ataupun belum pernah mengalaminya kita dapat menggunakan tense ini. Seperti “We have the experience of”. Yang perlu kita perhatikan adalah jangan menggunakan tense ini untuk menjelaskan suatu acara atau event yang sangat detail dengan keterangan waktunya. Selain itu spesial untuk kata already dan yet tidak boleh dipakai paka tense Continuous. Kata adverb “already” yang berarti telah terjadi bisa kawan-kawan tambahkan sebelum V3 maupun setelahnya.

Contoh:

  • I have been to Japan.
  • I have been to Japan twice.
  • I have never been to Japan.
  • I think I have met her once before.
  • I have never drunk wine.
  • I don’t have any experience to drink wine.
  • Has she gone yet?
  • She has never traveled by train.
  • Kania has studied three foreign languages.
  • Have you ever met him?
  • No, I have never met him.
  • Many tourists have visited that park.
  • That park has been visited by many tourists.
  • Have you eaten yet?
  • Has Sarah traveled around the world yet?
  • Has she read the news yet?

F. Biasanya kita juga menggunakan Present Perfect untuk membicarakan tentang perubahan yang terjadi dalam suatu periode waktu.

Contoh:

  • She have grown since the last time I saw her.
  • The government has become more interested in health education.
  • Korean has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Singapore.

G. Kita juga bisa memakai tense yang satu ini untuk menyatakan perbuatan seseorang ataupun organisasi yang pernah dilakukan di masa lalu dan telah selesai tanpa melihat kapan waktu terjadinya. Jadi lebih berorientasi pada akibatnya daripada waktunya.

Contoh:

  • Saniya has eaten all the biscuits.
  • I have already told her.
  • I have cut my finger.
  • I have finished my homework.
  • I have done my homework.
  • They have discussed about their project.
  • Someone has stolen money already.
  • My son has been to Tokyo of Japan.
  • They have read the innstruction but they don’t understand them.
  • She has already gone.
  • I have read this book twice already.
  • She has already fallen in love three times.
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
  • Our son has learned how to read.
  • Man has walked on the Moon.
  • Scientists have split the atom.
  • Have you read Harry Potter?
  • Have you done your homework yet?
  • I have done my homework already.

H. Aktivitas yang masih belum selesai dilakukan dan diharapkan akan selesai secepatnya juga bisa dinyatakan oleh Present Perfect.

  • Yanita has not finished his homework yet.
  • I haven’t finished my homework.
  • Adith hasn’t bought the dictionary.
  • I haven’t been here for twenty-five minutes.
  • The students haven’t submitted the assignment.
  • The police haven’t caught the thief.
  • Maya hasn’t ever been there.
  • Anggi hasn’t mastered Korea, but she can communicate.
  • Marianna has still not arrived.
  • The rain hasn’t stopped.

I. Menambahkan keterangan waktu sebenarnya bisa dilakukan untuk Present Perfect Tense. Tapi yang perlu diperhatikan adalah kepastian jelasnya kapan peristiwa tersebut terjadi kita tidak tahu.

Kita bisa melakukan hal ini dengan menambahkan keterangan seperti: this month, this week, up to now, so far, in the last week, in the last year.

Perhatikan bahwa “last year” berbeda artinya dengan “in the last year”. Last year mempunyai arti tahun sebelum tahun sekarang dan ini menunjukkan waktu yang sangat spesifik. Sedangkan in the last year berarti peristiwa tersebut bisa saja terjadi di salah satu hari dalam satu tahun terakhir sampai sekarang atau mulai 365 hari yang lalu sampai hari ini. In the last year bukanlah keterangan waktu yang spesifik, namun berarti peristiwa tersebut terjadi dalam suatu periode atau durasi waktu.

Kalau kawan-kawan mau pakai kata last year, maka kawan-kawan dapat menggunakan Simple Past Tense.

Contoh:

  • Have you been to Korea in the last year?
  • I have read that book three times in the last month.
  • We have seen that movie five times in the last year.
  • I have had five tests in the last week.
  • She graduated from university less than two years ago. She has worked for two different companies so far.
  • My motorcycle has broken down two times this week.

Contoh:

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Rumus:

  • I/We/You/They + have + been + V3.
  • He/She/It + has + Ving.

A. Pada umumnya kita menggunakan tense ini untuk menyatakan kejadian atau peristiwa yang telah dimulai diwaktu yang lalu dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang.

Perlu diperhatikan bahwa semua tenses yang ada continuous nya sangat menekankan keterangan waktu dan proses yang terjadi dapat diamati sedangkan tenses yang lainnya lebih menekankan pada aktivitasnya. Kawan semua bisa mempelajari mengenai hal ini lebih lanjut diVerb-verb yang memang tidak bisa digunakan dalam tenses-tenses continuous yang disebut Stative Verbs atau Non Continuous Verb.

Keterangan waktu yang bisa digunakan untuk Present Perfect Continuous Tense atau Present Perfect Progressive Tense ini adalah all morning, all day, since yesterday, since an hour ago, for three hours, for a long time, for five minutes, for two weeks, since saturday.

Contoh:

  • I have been doing my homework for two hours.
  • She has been waiting for you since 4 o’clock.
  • She has been writing the letter for three hours.
  • They have been eating lunch for twenty minutes.
  • They have been doing their homework since 09.30.
  • She has been reading the book for an hour.
  • She has been waiting for ten minutes.
  • It has been going on since early this morning.
  • She has been sleeping for three hours.
  • I’ve been waiting for three hours and she still hasn’t turned up.
  • I have been waiting for you for an hour.
  • My mom has been mopping the floor for an hour.
  • I have been listening to music for twenty minutes.
  • You have been sitting here since five o’clock.
  • All of the students have been studying hard.
  • The baby has been crying for almost twenty minutes.
  • I haven’t been studying since breakfast.
  • I have been reading for three hours.
  • We’ve been working hard on it for ages.
  • I’ve been looking at other options recently.
  • We’ve been studying since 8 o’clock.
  • How long have you been learning Japanese?
  • You haven’t been reading since morning.
  • Have you been reading the newspaper since morning?
  • Have they been chatting for two hours?
  • Has it been raining since last night?
  • Has Ms. Rofie been having a meeting?
  • How long you have been learning France?
  • She’s been writing to her regularly for a couple of years.
  • She’s been phoning me all week for an answer.

B. Sebagai tambahan kita juga menggunakan tense ini untuk menjelaskan suatu proses pekerjaan yang telah selesai Sehingga menghasilkan akibat seperti sekarang.

Contoh:

  • I’m tired because I’ve been running.
  • Why is the grass wet? Has it been raining?
  • You don’t understand because you haven’t been listening.
  • Why is her clothes so wet? She has been watering the garden.
  • She has been watching to many videos.
  • It’s been raining.
  • Someone’s been eating my cake.
  • She has been cooking since last night.
  • The kitchen is a mess. Who has been cooking?
  • You look tired. Have you been sleeping properly?
  • I’ve got a stiff neck. I’ve been working to long on computer.

Demikianlah kawan-kawan pembahasan kita kali ini mengenai present tense dan jenis-jenisnya semoga bermanfaat. Sengaja saya sajikan dengan banyak contoh biar bisa lebih mudah dimengerti. Kalau Kawan semua ingin menambahkan, mengoreksi, maupun ingin bertanya disilahkan untuk memberikan komentar.

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