Auxiliary Verbs (Kata Kerja Bantu)

Auxiliary verbs adalah kata kerja (verbs) yang digunakan untuk melengkapi kata kerja biasa sehingga terbentuklah kata kerja baru yang terdiri dari dua kata atau lebih yang disebut sebagai frasa kata kerja (verbs phrase).

Contoh:

  • I am leaving (“leaving” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “am” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “leaving”).
  • Do you smoke? (“smoke” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “Do” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “smoke”).
  • She has arrived (“arrived” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “has” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “arrived”).

Catatan:

  • Posisi auxiliary verbs selalu diletakkan sebelum kata kerja biasa.
  • Auxiliary verbs disebut juga sebagai helping verbs.
  • Kata kerja biasa terkadang disebut juga sebagai main verbs (kata kerja utama) atau lexical verbs (kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan kamus) atau full verbs (kata kerja penuh) atau kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri.

Ada tiga auxiliary verbs yang umum digunakan, yaitu: be, do dan have. Selain itu masih ada auxiliary verbs lainnya yang disebut sebagai modal verbs, yaitu: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, dan would.

Verb be

Beberapa kata yang termasuk dalam verb be yaitu:

  • am: bentuk present dari verb be dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang pertama tunggal (1st person singular: I).
  • is: bentuk present dari verb be dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang ketiga tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it).
  • are: bentuk present dari verb be dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga jamak (we/you/they) dan orang kedua tunggal (you).
  • was: bentuk past (I/he/she/it).
  • were: bentuk past (we/you/they).
  • been: bentuk past participle.
  • being: bentuk present participle.

Catatan:

  • verb be termasuk ke dalam irregular verbs karena perubahan bentuknya yang tidak mengikuti aturan.
  • Berdasarkan fungsinya, verb be bisa dibedakan menjadi kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri) atau sebagai auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu).

Verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri)

Contoh verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat positif atau pernyataan:

  1. They are twenty years old (“are” adalah kata kerja biasa. Tidak ada auxiliary verb pada kalimat ini).
  2. He/she is cool.
  3. I am 23.
  4. I am a professor in the economics department.
  5. It is very peaceful here
  6. They are excited.
  7. We are waiting.
  8. You are Indian.

Contoh verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. They are not twenty years old.
  2. I am not angry.

Contoh verb be sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Are they twenty years old?
  2. Am I in the right place?
  3. Are they the best players on the team?
  4. Are we nearly there?
  5. Are you my new boss?
  6. Are you okay?
  7. Is he/she old enough to go to bars?

Auxiliary verb be

Auxiliary verb be umumnya digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat progressive dan pasif.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat progressive:

  1. He is playing football (“playing” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “is” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “playing”).
  2. He had been playing football (“had” dan “been” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “playing” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  3. He has been playing football (“has” dan “been” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “playing” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  4. He was playing football.
  5. He was watching TV when the phone rang.
  6. He was winning the election.
  7. Heni is going to be upset when she hears what happened.
  8. A new road is being built behind the school.
  9. I am going now.
  10. I am having a cup of coffee.
  11. I am taking a bath.
  12. I am typing.
  13. I am writing a book.
  14. I was having a bath when you called!
  15. Nike is taking Raymond to the airport.
  16. Orig is writing an e-mail to a client at the moment.
  17. Police are investigating the incident
  18. She is preparing dinner for us.
  19. She was baking a pie for dessert.
  20. She was cooking when I arrived.
  21. They have been studying all night (“have” dan “been” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “studying” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  22. You are going to travel to London.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat pasif:

  1. Argentina were beaten by German in the final.
  2. BMW Minis are made in Oxford.
  3. He was seen by fans at the airport.
  4. I was given a free meal.
  5. It was written by a petitioner.
  6. She is reading a magazine.
  7. The apple was eaten
  8. The bed was made as soon as I got up.
  9. The coat was left on the bus.
  10. The film is produced in Hollywood.
  11. The film was produced in Hollywood.
  12. The house has/had been built.
  13. The house is/was built.
  14. The house will be built.
  15. This song has been sung by all nations.
  16. We were talking to them for ages.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. She is not going to the dance.
  2. They are not sleeping.
  3. You are not going to travel to Bandung.

Contoh auxiliary verb be dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Are you going to travel to Bandung?
  2. What were the kids doing when you last saw them?
  3. Where were you going when I saw you last night?
  4. Why are you talking?

Verb do

Beberapa kata yang termasuk dalam verb do yaitu:

  • Do: bentuk present dari verb do dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah I/you/we/they
  • Does: bentuk present dari verb do dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang ketiga tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it)
  • Did: bentuk past
  • Done: bentuk past participle
  • Doing: bentuk present participle

Catatan:

  • Verb do termasuk ke dalam irregular verbs karena perubahan bentuknya yang tidak mengikuti aturan.
  • Berdasarkan fungsinya, verb do bisa dibedakan menjadi kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri) atau sebagai auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu).

Verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri)

Verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dapat digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat positif, negatif dan tanya. Namun untuk membentuk kalimat negatif dan tanya maka kita membutuhkan tambahan auxiliary verb do.

Contoh verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat positif atau pernyataan:

  1. She does her homework every day (“does” sebagai kata kerja biasa. Tidak ada auxiliary verb dalam kalimat ini).
  2. He does his homework on the way to school.
  3. He/she does the cleaning.
  4. I do my homework.
  5. They do yoga.
  6. We do the washing up.
  7. You do the laundry.

Contoh verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. She doesn’t do her homework every day (“does” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “do” sebagai kata kerja biasa).

Contoh verb do sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Does she do her homework every day? (“does” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “do” sebagai kata kerja biasa).

Auxiliary verb do

Auxiliary verb do umumnya digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat negatif dan tanya.

Contoh auxiliary verb do dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. Do not eat the cheese (“eat” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “do” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “eat”).He did not play football.
  2. He does not play football.
  3. I didn’t appreciate his jokes. They weren’t funny.
  4. I do not know the truth.
  5. I do not like cheese
  6. I do not work in a law firm downtown.
  7. I don’t like meat.
  8. I don’t study at night.
  9. I really like fish but I don’t care for meat.
  10. If he doesn’t arrive on time, he’ll have to take a later flight.
  11. She doesn’t agree with me.
  12. She doesn’t work here anymore.
  13. Taufik doesn’t always spill things, but it happens a lot.
  14. They didn’t arrive here yet.
  15. We didn’t go to the beach yesterday because it was raining.

Contoh auxiliary verb do dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Ahmad didn’t put his coffee in a cup with a lid.
  2. Bluher doesn’t want to go to the movies, he wants to stay home instead.
  3. Did he finish his homework?
  4. Did he play football?
  5. Did Krisna bring coffee?
  6. Did they like the soup?
  7. Did you come to school yesterday?
  8. Did you visit New York last holiday?
  9. Didn’t he know how to play football?
  10. Do I know you?
  11. Do they come from Jakarta?
  12. Do we need to keep going straight?
  13. Do wildflowers grow in your back yard?
  14. Do you attend this school?
  15. Do you like cheese?
  16. Do you like chocolate? (“Do” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “like” sebagai kata kerja biasa)
  17. Do you like German food?
  18. Do you speak English?
  19. Do you want a coffee?
  20. Do you want tea?
  21. Do you want to have another one?
  22. Does he play football?
  23. Does he work here?
  24. Does he/she drive to work? (“Does” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “drive” sebagai kata kerja biasa)
  25. Does Luthfi write all his own reports?
  26. Does she speak English?
  27. Does your mother speak English?
  28. What did you do last night?
  29. Where did you go on your summer vacation?
  30. Where does your brother work?
  31. Why do you think she didn’t call you like she said she would?

Verb have

Beberapa kata yang termasuk dalam verb have yaitu:

  • have: bentuk present dari verb have dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah I/you/we/they.
  • has: bentuk present dari verb have dan digunakan jika subject kalimat adalah orang ketiga tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it).
  • had: bentuk past dan past participle.
  • having: bentuk present participle.

Catatan:

  • verb have termasuk ke dalam irregular verbs karena perubahan bentuknya yang tidak mengikuti aturan.
  • Have dan has bisa digunakan untuk membuat kalimat present perfect tense sedangkan had digunakan untuk membuat kalimat past perfect tense.
  • Berdasarkan fungsinya, verb have bisa dibedakan menjadi kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri) atau sebagai auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu).

Verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa (kata kerja yang berdiri sendiri)

Verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dapat digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat positif, negatif dan tanya.

Contoh verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat positif atau pernyataan:

  1. I have a car (“have” sebagai kata kerja biasa. Tidak ada auxiliary verb dalam kalimat ini).
  2. I have a dog.
  3. He has a new haircut.
  4. It has a hole near the door.
  5. She has a great personality.
  6. The washing machine has a leak in it.
  7. You have something on your shirt.

Contoh verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. I do not have a car (“do” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “have” sebagai kata kerja biasa).

Contoh verb have sebagai kata kerja biasa dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Do I have a car? (“Do” sebagai auxiliary verb dan “have” sebagai kata kerja biasa).
  2. Who has my pen?

Auxiliary verb have

Auxiliary verb have umumnya digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat aktif dan pasif, perfect tenses (have/has untuk present/future perfect sedangkan had untuk past perfect tenses), positif, negatif dan tanya.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat aktif:

  1. He has played football (“played” adalah kata kerja biasa dan “has” digunakan sebagai auxiliary verb untuk melengkapi “played”).
  2. He had played football.
  3. He has been playing football.
  4. He had been playing football.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat pasif:

  1. The house has/had been built.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat perfect tenses:

  1. She has lived here for a long time (Present Perfect).
  2. We have seen this TV show before (Present Perfect).
  3. I have cut my finger (Present Perfect).
  4. Ferta has eaten most of her hotdog for lunch. (present perfect tense)
  5. You have been practicing hard (present perfect progressive).
  6. I have been following you for a mile (present perfect progressive).
  7. They have been writing that novel for a long time (present perfect progressive).
  8. I had already decided not to go before he asked me (Past Perfect).
  9. They had finished the race before it started raining (Past Perfect).
  10. She had already left when he arrived (Past Perfect).
  11. Ricky had cleaned before Citra came home. (past perfect tense)
  12. He had been touring Europe for two months (past perfect progressive).
  13. We will have traveled to every country in the world after this trip (future perfect).
  14. Donal will have been studying for two years come this November (future perfect progressive).

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat positif:

  1. Dad has been working hard all day.
  2. Dyah has always wanted to try skydiving.
  3. He had seen many cathedrals, but none so grand as that one.
  4. He had won the election.
  5. He has done the work.
  6. He has given his all.
  7. He/she has lived in America.
  8. I have finished my dinner.
  9. I have got a car.
  10. I have purchased a new pair of shoes to replace the ones that were lost in my luggage.
  11. I have visited London many times.
  12. In three years, we will have established community gardens.
  13. Indra has bought a new shirt to replace the one that was ruined earlier.
  14. She had been queen of the town.
  15. She has been living in Australia for 7 years.
  16. She has broken her leg.
  17. The judge had asked her to speak up.
  18. They have called me three times.
  19. They have decided to advertise your job.
  20. Unfortunately, our dinner has been eaten by the dog.
  21. We have done a lot so far.
  22. We have seen it before.
  23. We will have been flying for 21 hours by the time we get home.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat negatif:

  1. I have not got a car.
  2. I have not seen him for ages.
  3. Marie hasn’t called yet, she’s late as usual.
  4. My father has never visited the England.
  5. The secretaries haven’t written all the letters yet.

Contoh auxiliary verb have dalam kalimat tanya:

  1. Has anyone seen my mobile phone?
  2. Has Korentz left yet?
  3. Have I got a car?
  4. Have we practiced this song enough?
  5. Have you been to Japan?
  6. Have you done your homework?
  7. Have you heard that?

Singkatan

Berikut ini adalah daftar penulisan auxiliary dan modal verbs yang disingkat:

Auxiliary verbs:

  • are not = aren’t
  • do not = don’t
  • does not = doesn’t
  • had not = hadn’t
  • has not = hasn’t
  • have not = haven’t
  • he has = he’s
  • He/she has not = he/she hasn’t
  • I have = I’ve
  • I have not = I haven’t/I’ve not
  • it has = it’s
  • She is not = She’s not/She isn’t
  • they have = They’ve
  • They have not = they haven’t/they’ve not
  • we have = we’ve
  • We have not = we haven’t/we’ve not
  • you have = you’ve
  • You have not = you haven’t/you’ve not

Modal verbs

  • cannot = can’t
  • could not = couldn’t
  • might not = mightn’t
  • must not = mustn’t
  • should not = shouldn’t
  • we will not = We’ll not/we won’t
  • would not = wouldn’t

Ellipsis

Ellipsis adalah menyingkat kalimat (menghilangkan beberapa kata dari kalimat).

Contoh:

Pertanyaan: Can you sing?
Jawaban: Yes, I can.

Sebenarnya, kalimat jawaban di atas sudah disingkat dari kalimat jawaban yang lebih lengkap yaitu “Yes, I can sing”. Menyingkat kalimat seperti di atas disebut sebagai ellipsis.

Pada kalimat jawaban yang lebih lengkap “Yes, I can sing” terdapat modal verb “can” dan kata kerja biasa “sing”. Sedangkan pada kalimat jawaban yang telah disingkat “Yes, I can” hanya terdapat modal verb “can”.

Pada kalimat jawaban yang telah disingkat “Yes, I can”, walaupun kata “sing” telah dihilangkan namun sebenarnya kata “sing” tersebut dianggap masih ada pada kalimat tersebut. Sehingga walaupun auxiliary verb “can” tidak diikuti oleh kata kerja biasa “sing” namun kata kerja biasa “sing” tersebut dianggap masih ada. Hal ini sudah sesuai dengan aturan bahwa auxiliary verb tidak bisa berdiri sendiri dan harus diikuti oleh kata kerja biasa.

Catatan: Auxilary verb yang terdapat di dalam kalimat yang telah disingkat (ellipsis) terkadang disebut juga sebagai dummy verb.

Contoh lainnya:

  1. Can you speak English? Yes, I can (speak English)
  2. Do you have a sister? No, I don’t (have a sister)
  3. Do you like reading? Yes, I do (like reading)
  4. Does she work here? No, she doesn’t (work here).

Tag question

Tag question adalah sebuah kalimat tanya singkat yang mengandung auxiliary verb yang ditambahkan pada bagian akhir kalimat pernyataan. Jika kalimat pernyataan berupa kalimat negatif (dengan kata not) maka tag question berisi kalimat positif (tanpa kata not) dan begitu juga sebaliknya.

Contoh:

  1. Abe bakes a lot, doesn’t he?
  2. Abe doesn’t bake a lot, does he?
  3. He can’t speak French, can he?
  4. He plays piano well, doesn’t he?
  5. Maryam has been to Argentina twice, hasn’t she?
  6. They all had dinner, but I didn’t.
  7. You’re writing a book, aren’t you?

 

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Principal Parts of Verbs (Bentuk Dasar Verb)

Sebuah verb (kata kerja) memiliki beberapa bentuk yang penggunaannya tergantung dari jenis kalimat yang digunakan. Beberapa bentuk verb ini disebut sebagai “Principal Parts of Verbs”, diantaranya yaitu: present, past, past participle dan present participle.

Perhatikan perbedaan bentuk verbs berikut ini:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
catch catches caught caught catching
grow grows grew grown growing
love loves loved loved loving
read reads read read reading
work works worked worked working

Catatan: Berdasarkan perubahan bentuknya, verbs (kata kerja) bisa dibedakan menjadi regular dan irregular verbs (kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan). Regular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya mengikuti aturan atau pola. Irregular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya tidak mengikuti aturan atau pola yang pasti.

Present

Present adalah verb dasar yang digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat simple present tense.

Catatan: Jika kalimat simple present tense menggunakan orang ke 3 tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it) maka verbs ditambahkan akhiran -s atau -es.

Contoh kalimat simple present tense dengan verb dalam bentuk present:

  1. He prefers coffee to hot cocoa.
  2. I play football every weekend.
  3. I work in Bandung.
  4. It always rains here in winter.
  5. Now the class begins.
  6. she goes out every Saturday night.
  7. She walks to class.
  8. Your exam starts at 10.00.

Past

Past adalah bentuk verb yang digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat simple past tense.

Catatan: Simple past tense adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa sebuah peristiwa sudah berlangsung pada waktu lampau.

Contoh kalimat simple past tense dengan verb dalam bentuk past:

  1. He looked at her friend.
  2. I began the work last week.
  3. I climbed the mountain yesterday.
  4. I cooked for him last night.
  5. I gave a book to Andika.
  6. I ran away because of the screams.
  7. I saw it.
  8. I slapped him because he insulted me.
  9. I went to Bali for vacation.
  10. Indrawan talked to the child harshly.
  11. The little girl blew a bubble.
  12. We wanted to see the show.
  13. Yesterday, I walked to school.

Past participle

Past participle adalah verb yang memiliki beberapa kegunaan, diantaranya yaitu digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect) dan membentuk kalimat pasif.

Membentuk kalimat perfect tense

Catatan: Past participle diletakkan setelah have, has atau had pada kalimat perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect).

Contoh kalimat perfect tenses dengan verb dalam bentuk past participle:

  1. Rian has drunk two glasses of water this afternoon (present perfect).
  2. I have seen it (present perfect).
  3. We had drunk all the water before the order arrived (past perfect).
  4. I had seen it (past perfect).
  5. He will have drunk two bottles by the end of the evening (future ferfect).
  6. I will have seen it (future ferfect).

Membentuk kalimat pasif

Selain berguna untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tense, past participle juga digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat pasif.

Catatan:

  • Kalimat aktif adalah jika subject yang melakukan tindakan sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah jika bukan subject yang melakukan tindakan.
  • Past participle diletakkan setelah verb “be” pada kalimat pasif.

Contoh kalimat pasif dengan dengan verb dalam bentuk past participle:

  1. Fish are eaten by cats.
  2. Her hair was well brushed.
  3. It was seen.
  4. Some apples will be bought by him.
  5. Some books were brought by me.
  6. The book was stolen by the thieves.
  7. The boys were beaten by the man.
  8. The food has been eaten by the children.
  9. The vase was broken by Firman.
  10. We were ordered to sit down.

Sebagai adjective

Dalam beberapa kasus, past participle juga bisa digunakan sebagai adjective. Contoh:

  • He had a broken arm.
  • A torn jacket is soon mended, but hard words bruise the heart of a child~Henry Longfellow.

Perbedaan Past dan Past Participle

Past Past Participle
Verb dalam bentuk past berguna untuk membentuk kalimat simple past tense. Verb dalam bentuk past participle berguna untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tense (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect) dan kalimat pasif.

Present participle

Present participle adalah verb yang ditambahkan akhiran -ing.

Contoh kalimat yang menggunakan present participle:

  1. I saw Budi eating his dinner.
  2. The company is building new headquarters in the Semarang.
  3. We are going to Bekasi.

Catatan: Present participle disebut juga sebagai active participle karena present participle digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat aktif.

Daftar Irregular Verbs (Kata Kerja Tidak Beraturan)

Berdasarkan perubahan bentuknya, verbs (kata kerja) bisa dibedakan menjadi regular dan irregular verbs (kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan).

Regular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya mengikuti aturan atau pola sedangkan irregular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya tidak mengikuti aturan atau pola yang pasti. Walaupun irregular verbs tidak memiliki aturan pasti pada perubahan bentuknya namun irregular verbs dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa kelompok, yaitu:

1. Present, past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
beset besets beset beset besetting
bet bets bet bet betting
broadcast broadcasts broadcast broadcast broadcasting
burst bursts burst burst bursting
cast casts cast cast casting
cut cuts cut cut cutting
hit hits hit hit hitting
hurt hurts hurt hurt hurting
let lets let let letting
put puts put put putting
quit quits quit quit quitting
read reads read read reading
set sets set set setting
shed sheds shed shed shedding
shut shuts shut shut shutting
slit slits slit slit slitting
split splits split split splitting
spread spreads spread spread spreading
thrust thrusts thrust thrust thrusting
upset upsets upset upset upsetting

Walaupun pada beberapa irregular verbs tidak terjadi perubahan bentuk ejaan atau huruf pada bentuk past dan past participle namun ada perubahan pengucapan atau bunyi (Contoh: pada verb read terjadi perubahan bunyi yang cukup jelas perbedaannya pada bentuk past dan past participle).

2. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
abide abides abode abode abiding
behold beholds beheld beheld beholding
bend bends bent bent bending
bind binds bound bound binding
bleed bleeds bled bled bleeding
breed breeds bred bred breeding
bring brings brought brought bringing
build builds built built building
buy buys bought bought buying
catch catches caught caught catching
cling clings clung clung clinging
creep creeps crept crept creeping
deal deals dealt dealt dealing
dig digs dug dug digging
feed feeds fed fed feeding
feel feels felt felt feeling
fight fights fought fought fighting
find finds found found finding
flee flees fled fled fleeing
fling flings flung flung flinging
grind grinds ground ground grinding
have has had had having
hear hears heard heard hearing
hold holds held held holding
keep keeps kept kept keeping
lay lays laid laid laying
lead leads led led leading
leave leaves left left leaving
lend lends lent lent lending
lose loses lost lost losing
make makes made made making
mean means meant meant meaning
meet meets met met meeting
pay pays paid paid paying
rend rends rent rent rending
say says said said saying
seek seeks sought sought seeking
sell sells sold sold selling
send sends sent sent sending
shoot shoots shot shot shooting
sit sits sat sat sitting
sleep sleeps slept slept sleeping
slide slides slid slid sliding
sling slings slung slung slinging
slink slinks slunk slunk slinking
spend spends spent spent spending
spin spins spun spun spinning
spit spits spat spat spitting
stand stands stood stood standing
stick sticks stuck stuck sticking
sting stings stung stung stinging
string strings strung strung stringing
sweep sweeps swept swept sweeping
swing swings swung swung swinging
teach teaches taught taught teaching
tell tells told told telling
think thinks thought thought thinking
understand understands understood understood understanding
weep weeps wept wept weeping
win wins won won winning
wring wrings wrung wrung wringing

3. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang berbeda

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
arise arises arose arisen arising
awake awakes awoke awoken awaking
be is was/were been being
bear bears bore borne bearing
beat beats beat beaten beating
become becomes became become becoming
befall befalls befell befallen befalling
beget begets begot begotten begetting
begin begins began begun beginning
bite bites bit bitten biting
blow blows blew blown blowing
break breaks broke broken breaking
choose chooses chose chosen choosing
come comes came come coming
do does did done doing
draw draws drew drawn drawing
drink drinks drank drunk drinking
drive drives drove driven driving
eat eats ate eaten eating
fall falls fell fallen falling
fly flies flew flown flying
forbear forbears forbore forborne forbearing
forbid forbids forbade forbidden forbidding
forget forgets forgot forgotten forgetting
forgive forgives forgave forgiven forgiving
forsake forsakes forsook forsaken forsaking
freeze freezes froze frozen freezing
give gives gave given giving
go goes went gone going
grow grows grew grown growing
hide hides hid hidden hiding
know knows knew known knowing
lie lies lay lain lying
ride rides rode ridden riding
ring rings rang rung ringing
rise rises rose risen rising
run runs ran run running
saw saws sawed sawn sawing
see sees saw seen seeing
sew sews sewed sewn sewing
shake shakes shook shaken shaking
show shows showed shown showing
shrink shrinks shrank shrunk shrinking
sing sings sang sung singing
smite smites smote smitten smiting
speak speaks spoke spoken speaking
spring springs sprang sprung springing
steal steals stole stolen stealing
swear swears swore sworn swearing
swim swims swam swum swimming
take takes took taken taking
tear tears tore torn tearing
throw throws threw thrown throwing
tread treads trod trodden treading
undertake undertakes undertook undertaken undertaking
wear wears wore worn wearing
withdraw withdraws withdrew withdrawn withdrawing
write writes wrote written writing

Regular dan Irregular Verbs (Kata Kerja Beraturan dan Tidak Beraturan)

Berdasarkan perubahan bentuknya, verbs (kata kerja) bisa dibedakan menjadi regular dan irregular verbs (kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan).

Regular verbs (kata kerja beraturan)

Regular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya mengikuti aturan atau pola.

Contoh beberapa regular verb dan perubahan bentuknya:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
cry cries cried cried crying
live lives lived lived living
love loves loved loved loving
play plays played played playing
work works worked worked working

Simple present tense

Pada kalimat simple present tense, regular verbs tidak mengalami perubahan bentuk dari bentuk dasar kecuali jika kalimat menggunakan orang ke 3 tunggal (3rd person singular: he/she/it). Berikut ini adalah beberapa aturan perubahan bentuk regular verbs jika pada kalimat simple present tense menggunakan orang ke 3 tunggal:

  • Regular verbs pada umumnya hanya ditambahkan akhiran -s (seem->seems, look->looks).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir vokal selain -e: tambahkan akhiran -es (veto->vetoes).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -s, -z, -ch, -sh dan -x: tambahkan akhiran -es (kiss->kisses, fizz->fizzes, punch->punches, wash->washes, mix->mixes).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir konsonan+y: ubah y menjadi i dan tambahkan akhiran -es (hurry->hurries, clarify->clarifies).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir vokal+y: tambahkan akhiran -s (play->plays, enjoy->enjoys).

Simple past tense

Beberapa aturan perubahan bentuk regular verbs pada kalimat simple past tense, yaitu:

  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa konsonan atau vokal selain -e: tambahkan akhiran -ed (seem->seemed, laugh->laughed, look->looked).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -e: tambahkan akhiran -d (love->loved, recede->receded, hope->hoped, amaze->amazed).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir konsonan+y: ubah y menjadi i dan tambahkan akhiran -ed (carry->carried, clarify->clarified, cry->cried, dirty->dirtied, fry->fried, hurry->hurried, magnify->magnified, try->tried).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir vokal+y: tambahkan akhiran -ed (decay->decayed, enjoy->enjoyed, play->played, survey->surveyed).
  • Regular verbs yang tersusun dari satu suku kata dan diakhiri dengan huruf konsonan: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ed (shop->shopped, stop->stopped, plan->planned).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa huruf vokal+konsonan yang menekankan pada bagian terakhirnya: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ed (compel->compelled, defer->deferred, incur->incurred,refer->referred, regret->regretted, reship->reshipped).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -c: tambahkan akhiran -k sebelum menmbahkan akhiran -ed (frolic->frolicked).

Past participle

Perubahan bentuk regular verbs pada kalimat dengan past participle sama dengan kalimat simple past tense.

Contoh kalimat:

  • Bentuk dasar: Don’t copy other students’ answers or you will get an F (present tense).
  • Bentuk past: I think he copied my answers (past tense).
  • Bentuk past participle: The only answers he got right were the ones he had copied (past perfect tense).

Catatan: Past participle adalah bentuk verb yang memiliki beberapa kegunaan, diantaranya yaitu digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect atau future perfect) dan membentuk kalimat pasif.

Lihat perbedaan past dan past participle.

Present participle

Beberapa perubahan bentuk regular verbs pada kalimat dengan present participle, yaitu:

  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa konsonan atau vokal selain -e: tambahkan akhiran -ing (laugh->laughing, boo->booing).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -e: ubah huruf terakhir -e menjadi -ing (love->loving, hope->hoping, amaze->amazing).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir y: tambahkan akhiran -ing (hurry->hurrying, clarify->clarifying).
  • Regular verbs yang tersusun dari satu suku kata dan diakhiri dengan huruf konsonan: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ing (shop->shopping).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir berupa huruf vokal+konsonan yang menekankan pada bagian terakhirnya: gandakan huruf konsonan terakhir dan tambahkan akhiran -ing (refer->referring).
  • Regular verbs yang memiliki huruf akhir -c: tambahkan akhiran -k sebelum menmbahkan akhiran -ing (frolic->frolicking).

Irregular verbs (kata kerja tidak beraturan)

Irregular verbs adalah verbs yang perubahan bentuknya tidak mengikuti aturan atau pola yang pasti.

Walaupun irregular verbs tidak memiliki aturan pasti pada perubahan bentuknya namun irregular verbs dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa kelompok, yaitu:

1. Present, past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama:

verb 3rd person singular,

present tense

past past participle present participle
burst bursts burst burst bursting
cut cuts cut cut cutting
put puts put put putting
read reads read read reading
spread spreads spread spread spreading

Walaupun pada beberapa irregular verbs tidak terjadi perubahan bentuk ejaan atau huruf pada bentuk past dan past participle namun ada perubahan pengucapan atau bunyi (Contoh: pada verb read terjadi perubahan bunyi yang cukup jelas perbedaannya pada bentuk past dan past participle).

2. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang sama

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
bleed bleeds bled bled bleeding
catch catches caught caught catching
feed feeds fed fed feeding
leave leaves left left leaving
win wins won won winning

3. Past dan past participle memiliki bentuk yang berbeda

verb 3rd person singular,
present tense
past past participle present participle
arise arises arose arisen arising
come comes came come coming
fly flies flew flown flying
grow grows grew grown growing
ride rides rode ridden riding

Contoh irregular verbs di dalam kalimat dalam bentuk past dan past participle:

verb past past participle
Bite-bit-bitten A dog bit her leg. The dog has bitten a hole in my sleeve.
Come-came-come I came here yesterday. We had just come home when he arrived.
Catch-caught-caught I caught four fish yesterday. I had caught three butterflies by the time she arrived.
Draw-drew-drawn Bunga drew that picture last week. Andika has drawn four portraits today.
Drive-drove-driven Amanda drove to Jakarta yesterday. He has already driven into town.
Eat-ate-eaten He ate a box of chocolates. He had already eaten lunch when we arrived.
Fall-fell-fallen He fell down the stairs. The hiker had fallen and broken his back and agonized for hours before being found by a search team.
Feel-felt-felt He felt at home. He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery (Barack Obama).
Fly-flew-flown I flew to Surabaya last week. She has flown many times in her life.
Go-went-gone Aditya went to Semarang last week. They had already gone to the show so we didn’t go.
Hang-hung-hung The keys hung on the wall beside the door. Many have hung from the gallows in the medieval fortress.
Lay-laid-laid He laid the boxes on the ground. He has laid the boxes on the ground and left the room.
Rise-rose-risen She rose from her chair. The book has risen to the top of best-seller lists.
Shrink-shrank-shrunk My jeans shrank in the wash. The cotton material had shrunk in the wash.
Sink-sank-sunk The storm sank the boat. The sun has just sunk below the horizon.

Catatan: Tidak ada aturan atau rumus yang pasti untuk mengetahui perubahan bentuk irregular verbs sehingga kita harus melihat kamus yang ada. Selain itu pemilihan jenis kamus juga penting karena ada verb yang perubahan bentuknya berbeda antara kamus Amerika dan Inggris. Contoh, bentuk past untuk verb “dive” pada kamus British adalah “dived” sedangkan pada kamus Amerika adalah “dove”.

Lihat daftar irregular verbs yang lebih lengkap.