Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda, hewan atau orang.

Contoh:

Raymond bought a new camera three months ago. He absolutely loves it.

Pada kalimat kedua di atas ada dua buah personal pronouns, yaitu He dan it. Kata he mengganti kata Raymond dan kata it mengganti kata camera.

Penggunaan personal pronouns tergantung dari beberapa hal, diantaranya yaitu:

  • Personal pronouns sebagai subject atau object
  • Personal pronouns sebagai singular atau plural
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang laki-laki atau perempuan
  • Personal pronouns sebagai pengganti orang pertama, kedua atau ketiga

Berikut ini adalah daftar kata personal pronouns:

Orang Jumlah Subject Object
Orang Pertama Singular I me
Orang kedua Singular you you
Orang ketiga Singular he/she/it him/her/it
Orang pertama Plural we us
Orang kedua Plural you you
Orang ketiga Plural they them

He/him digunakan untuk merujuk kepada laki-laki dan she/her untuk merujuk kepada perempuan. Saat kita tidak yakin apakah seseorang itu laki-laki atau perempuan maka kita bisa menggunakan they/them. Contoh:

  • This is Amadeo. He’s my brother. I don’t think you have met him.
  • This is Citra. She’s my sister. Have you met her before?
  • Talk to a teacher. Ask them to help you.
  • You could go to a friend. They might help you.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh penggunaan personal pronouns sebagai subject:

  1. You are happy.
  2. You are late.
  3. You are my best student.
  4. Do you like ice-cream?
  5. I like ice-cream.
  6. I love learning Japanese!
  7. I like your dress.
  8. I really like spaghetti.
  9. Ninda and I are meeting in Jakarta in July.
  10. He runs fast.
  11. He is my cousin
  12. He is clever.
  13. He is from Jogja.
  14. He is running up and down the stairs.
  15. She has a nice voice.
  16. She is on holiday
  17. She forgot his laptop.
  18. Novi did not come to school yesterday. She had to go to the doctor
  19. She is dreaming.
  20. She is riding his bike.
  21. She has got a sister.
  22. She often reads until late at night.
  23. Come look at my cat! She has climbed to the top of that tree.
  24. It doesn’t work.
  25. It is raining
  26. It was on the the refrigerator.
  27. It is easy to understand.
  28. It is Blue.
  29. We have to leave soon.
  30. We went home.
  31. We live in Australia.
  32. Should we go jogging before or after breakfast?
  33. Is it ok if we finish early today?
  34. We are watching TV.
  35. We would love for you to join us.
  36. Do you need a table for four?
  37. Would you prefer ice-cream or peppermint tea?
  38. They all cleaned up together.
  39. They come from Bandung.
  40. They all lived happily ever after.
  41. They won the league.
  42. I bought some batteries, but they weren’t included.
  43. They are on the wall.
  44. They are in the lobby.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh penggunaan personal pronouns sebagai object:

  1. Yayuk helped me.
  2. Can you help me please?
  3. Can they hear me?
  4. She is waiting for me.
  5. Stop laughing at me.
  6. Arif loves you.
  7. I can see you.
  8. I will wait for you.
  9. I’ll get it for you.
  10. Did Haryo beat him?
  11. Abe went with her.
  12. Ratri said she wants to marry him.
  13. She doesn’t like him.
  14. Give it to him.
  15. I told him to stay home and study instead of going out.
  16. Does Maryam know her?
  17. What’s wrong with him?
  18. I saw her in town yesterday.
  19. Krisna knows her.
  20. Why are you looking at her?
  21. I want him to listen.
  22. Can the man fix it?
  23. Who broke it?
  24. Please pick up that piece of paper and take it with you.
  25. Bluher drove us.
  26. He will email us tomorrow.
  27. Don’t take it from us.
  28. Did Orig and Kania beat you at doubles?
  29. Is anyone sitting next to you?
  30. Orig and Kania beat them.
  31. Ricky gave them the letter.
  32. I will take them.
  33. We saw them in campus yesterday, but they didn’t see [us.
  34. I’ll speak to them.
  35. Where are the reports? I thought I gave them to you.
  36. Ask them if they will be joining us.

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns digunakan untuk bertanya.

Kata yang termasuk interrogative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, dan what (Kata Whoever, whomever, whichever, dan whatever juga bisa digunakan sebagai interrogative pronouns walaupun jarang digunakan).

Kata who, whom dan which berguna untuk menggantikan orang sedangkan kata what dan which berguna untuk menggantikan hewan dan benda.

Berikut ini adalah contoh penggunaan kata interrogative pronouns:

  1. Who are you?
  2. Who called last night?
  3. Who came last night?
  4. Who is dancing?
  5. Who is laughing at me?
  6. Who is the villain here?
  7. Who is there?
  8. Who opened the refrigerator?
  9. Who said that?
  10. Who told you to do that?
  11. Who told you?
  12. Who was embarrassed the most?
  13. Who will design the new logo?
  14. Who won the race?
  15. Whom do I ask for at the desk?
  16. Whom do you suggest we nominate for class president?
  17. Whom did you call?
  18. Whom did you tell?
  19. Whom shall we ask?
  20. Whom were you speaking with this morning?
  21. Once you learn to speak Japanese, whom are you going to talk to?
  22. To whom are you speaking?
  23. To whom did you give the note?
  24. To whom was that said?
  25. Whose are these books?
  26. Whose camera is this?
  27. Whose is this?
  28. Whose question was that?
  29. Whose car is this?
  30. Whose socks are those?
  31. Whose watch is this?
  32. Which belongs to her?
  33. Which came first?
  34. Which did you buy?
  35. Which do you prefer?
  36. Which horse won the race?
  37. Which is the greater?
  38. Which is your coat?
  39. which jacket should I wear?
  40. Which keys are yours?
  41. Which of these two do you prefer?
  42. Which teacher said that?
  43. What are you talking about?
  44. What did you say?
  45. What do you want for your birthday?
  46. What do you want?
  47. What does the man want?
  48. What is that?
  49. What is the number on the door?
  50. What is your favorite color?
  51. What is your secret?
  52. What movie did you go to see last night?
  53. What’s happened?
  54. What’s your phone number?

Interrogative pronouns dengan akhiran -ever biasanya digunakan untuk memberi tekanan atau menunjukkan keterjutan.

  1. Whoever would want to eat such a gross thing?
  2. Whoever would want to do such a nasty thing?

Indefinite Pronouns

Penjelasan Indefinite Pronouns

Bila kita menggunakan demonstrative pronouns untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara jelas maka indefinite pronouns adalah kebalikannya.

Indefinite pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara tidak jelas. Secara tidak jelas maksudnya adalah benda yang ditunjuk tidak diketahui namanya, cirinya atau jumlahnya. Lihat contoh di bawah ini.

Somebody must have seen the driver leave.
(Indefinite pronouns = somebody. Somebody menunjuk kepada seseorang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia)

Everyone looked at me.
(Indefinite pronouns = everyone. Everyone menunjuk kepada semua orang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia)

Kata yang termasuk indefinite pronouns yaitu: all, another, any, anyone/anybody, anything, both, each, either, enough, everything, everyone/everybody, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, more, most, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, other, others, several, some, someone/somebody, something, such.

Singular atau Plural

Indefinite pronouns bisa berbentuk singular atau plural tergantung dari benda yang ditunjuk dan verb yang digunakan.

Singular: Another, Anybody, Anyone, Anything, Each, Either, Enough, Everybody, Everyone, Everything, Less, Little, Much, Neither, Nobody, No-one, Nothing, One, Other, Somebody, Someone, Something

Plural: Both, Few, Fewer, Many, Others, Several

Bisa keduanya (Singular dan Plural): All, Any, More, Most, None, Some, Such

Contoh Indefinite Pronouns

Di bawah adalah beberapa contoh indefinite pronouns dalam kalimat.

  1. All are welcome to attend the concert.
  2. All are welcome to come to the birthday party tonight.
  3. All are welcome to our house for Thanksgiving.
  4. All in the lobby must remain seated.
  5. All of the newspaper was soaked.
  6. All of the people clapped their hands.
  7. All have arrived.
  8. All is forgiven.
  9. You can fool all the people some of the time; you can fool some of the people all the time; but you can’t fool all the people all the time. (Abraham Lincoln, speech at the Republican state convention in Bloomington, Indiana, on May 29, 1856)
  10. He has one job in the day and another at night.
  11. Indrawan passed his card to another.
  12. That ice-cream was good. Can I have another?
  13. Windy gave the book to another.
  14. Are any coming?
  15. I don’t have any, but Betanti has some.
  16. I don’t have any.
  17. Is any left?
  18. Joko doesn’t have any.
  19. Anybody who came along would know something awful has happened here.
  20. Does anybody have a clue where the dog went?
  21. Does anybody have a clue?
  22. Does anybody have the time?
  23. Does anybody know a good place where I can go to get my nails done?
  24. I knocked on the door, but there was not anybody there.
  25. Is this anybody’s coat?
  26. Although it could have happened to anyone, it happened to me.
  27. Anyone can plainly see that she was asking for trouble.
  28. Anyone can play that game.
  29. Anyone can play the game as long as they follow the rules.
  30. Anyone can see what’s going on here.
  31. Anyone in their right mind would know better than to do that.
  32. Anyone that has ever lived in the city will never take for granted the peace of the country.
  33. Anyone would have agreed the woman in the black dress was gorgeous.
  34. Can anyone tell me why it is raining again?
  35. Can anyone answer this question?
  36. During my trip to the mall, I did not see anyone I knew.
  37. Have you told anyone about the treasure map?
  38. I needed to see if anyone was interested in dating my cousin.
  39. I will not dance on anyone’s grave. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
  40. If anyone cared about her, they certainly had an odd way of showing it.
  41. Is anyone available to babysit for me on Wednesday?
  42. Sometimes I wonder why anyone shops at this store.
  43. Anything is possible as long as you put your mind to it.
  44. Anything is possible if you believe.
  45. I don’t know anything about music. In my line, you don’t have to. (Elvis Presley, 1935-1977)
  46. My parents always told me that anything is possible.
  47. Sherly couldn’t hear anything at the concert.
  48. So that’s eggs, peas and chips. Do you want anything else?
  49. The doctor needs to know if you have eaten anything in the last two hours.
  50. When I looked around the house, I did not see anything out of the ordinary.
  51. Both are acceptable to me.
  52. Both of them are coming home tonight.
  53. Both of us match the donation.
  54. Yoga likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good.
  55. At the Thanksgiving dinner, each brought a plated dish to make the meal complete.
  56. Each brought a dessert to share.
  57. Each brought a dish to pass.
  58. Each of the members has one vote.
  59. Each of the players has a doctor.
  60. Each has his own thoughts.
  61. A little government and a little luck are necessary in life, but only a fool trusts either of them. (P. J. O’Rourke, Parliament of Whores. Grove Press, 1991)
  62. Do you want tea or coffee? / I don’t mind. Either is good for me.
  63. Either of the choices has its disadvantages.
  64. You may have either.
  65. Enough is enough.
  66. Everybody enjoyed the concert. They stood up and clapped.
  67. Everybody is busy finishing the quiz.
  68. Everybody left town for the weekend.
  69. Everybody likes a kidder, but nobody lends him money. (Arthur Miller, 1915-2005)
  70. Everybody loves Prismita.
  71. Everybody loves to eat chocolate.
  72. We can start the meeting because everybody has arrived.
  73. After the festivities, everyone was invited back to the house for the after-party.
  74. Everyone at the wedding could see how happy he made her.
  75. Everyone brought canned goods to the charity drive.
  76. Everyone clapped when the movie ended.
  77. Everyone did as he pleased.
  78. Everyone enjoyed the food and the company.
  79. Everyone enjoyed the movie.
  80. Everyone had a great time at the Christmas party.
  81. Everyone wandered aimlessly down the street wondering what would become of the space ships that occupied the otherwise clear blue sky.
  82. I really just needed some time away from everyone.
  83. Is everyone happy with his gift?
  84. Is everyone happy with his or her gift?
  85. Normally during the holidays, everyone leaves campus.
  86. Everything is fine between Caroline and Mariana.
  87. Everything is funny as long as it is happening to somebody else. (Will Rogers, 1879-1935)
  88. Everything is going as planned
  89. Everything is taken care of.
  90. Everything was ready for the party.
  91. I was told not to worry and that everything would be taken care of.
  92. It was a very clear day. We could see everything.
  93. They have no house or possessions. They lost everything in the earthquake.
  94. A few of the justices were voicing their opposition.
  95. Few came to the wedding after the bride had a melt down and lashed out at her family and friends.
  96. Few of the projects were good enough to go to the science fair.
  97. Few visited that park.
  98. Few have ever disobeyed him and lived.
  99. Of those who say nothing, few are silent. (Thomas Neill)
  100. Very few came to visit the crabby old woman on the corner, leaving many to wonder if anyone cared about her at all.
  101. Fewer are smoking these days.
  102. Less is more (Mies van der Rohe)
  103. Little is known about his early life.
  104. After the story of the plane crash hit the news, many called for information on loved ones aboard the flight.
  105. For many are called, but few are chosen. (Bible, Matthew 22.14)
  106. Many are planning to attend the party.
  107. Many are wishing they did.
  108. Many called for information.
  109. Many have expressed their views.
  110. Many missed the bus.
  111. Many have come already.
  112. More are coming.
  113. There is more over there.
  114. Most of the books are out of date.
  115. Most of the work is finished.
  116. Most have refused.
  117. Most is lost.
  118. Much has happened since we met.
  119. I keep telling Sofie and Anggia but neither believes me.
  120. Adhit told nobody the secrets that went on at her house.
  121. Asriningtias told nobody her secret.
  122. I phoned many times but nobody answered.
  123. Nobody came.
  124. I invited five friends but none have come.
  125. None are mine.
  126. None came forward to claim the prize.
  127. None is mine.
  128. They fixed the water so why is none coming out of the tap?
  129. All the family came, but no one else.
  130. I opened the door but there was no one at home.
  131. No one admitted to knocking over the base.
  132. No one came forward to admit the crime, so the whole class was punished.
  133. No one likes to eat vegetables.
  134. No one wants to hear about my sciatica. (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
  135. No one was home at the neighbor’s.
  136. We knew that no one had eaten the salami.
  137. I have nothing to declare except my genius. (Oscar Wilde)
  138. If you don’t know the answer it’s best to say nothing.
  139. Nothing happened.
  140. Can one smoke here?
  141. All the students arrived but now one is missing.
  142. I met two girls. One has given me her phone number.
  143. One could see the mountains from miles away.
  144. One could see the tornado forming from miles away.
  145. One of the girls gave up her seat.
  146. One of the great things about that cabin is that everything is included.
  147. One was tall and the other was short.
  148. I’m sure that others have tried before us.
  149. Several of the documents were filled with errors.
  150. Several performances are scheduled for next week.
  151. Several signed the card.
  152. Several turned out for the concert.
  153. They all complained and several left the meeting.
  154. After I painted my walls a deep shade of purple and installed jet black carpet, my room may be considered too gloomy for some.
  155. Elizabeth wanted some, but I do not have any.
  156. Here is some.
  157. Please take some to Ms. Dita.
  158. Some have the power to coax others to do what they want while others lack the power to do anything but follow.
  159. Some just do not know when to quit while they are ahead.
  160. Some will do anything to gain the attention of others.
  161. Some have arrived.
  162. The room is too gloomy for some.
  163. We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)
  164. Would you like to try some of these cookies?
  165. Clearly somebody murdered him. It was not suicide.
  166. I will tell somebody that dinner is ready. They have been waiting a long time.
  167. If Sarah can’t come we’ll ask somebody else.
  168. Somebody ate my sandwich!
  169. Somebody called the store.
  170. Somebody has forgotten her purse.
  171. Somebody rang the doorbell.
  172. They were staying in somebody’s house.
  173. Desiana walked in and handed the piece of paper to someone.
  174. Everyone knows it is impolite to point at someone.
  175. Maryam gave her ticket to someone.
  176. Nela gave that book to someone and never got it back.
  177. Saniya gave the form to someone.
  178. Someone called to tell me the horrible news.
  179. Someone drank all the soda.
  180. Someone has taken my new chemistry book.
  181. Someone really needs to come and mow my lawn.
  182. Someone should sue the pants off of that guy!
  183. Someone walked past the window and shouted.
  184. Someone whispered in my ear, but when I turned around there was not anybody there.
  185. Someone will clean up the kitchen.
  186. Someone yelled my name.
  187. A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read. (Mark Twain, 1835-1910)
  188. Listen! I just heard something! What could it be?
  189. He was a foreigner and he felt that he was treated as such.

Demonstrative pronouns

Melanjutkan pembahasan pronouns.

Penjelasan demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara jelas. Secara jelas maksudnya adalah benda yang ditunjuk jelas adanya, bentuk dan ciri-cirinya diketahui. Selain itu, demonstrative pronouns juga menjelaskan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk adalah singular atau plural.

Yang termasuk demonstrative pronouns yaitu this, that, these dan those.

Perhatikan bagaimana demonstrative pronouns mengganti nouns di bawah ini.

  • The pretzel-like yoga move we’re doing really hurts. >>> This really hurts.
  • The dinner you are cooking smells delicious. >>> That smells delicious.
  • The food you’re cooking smells heavenly. >>> That smells heavenly.
  • What is the strange, polka-dotted, Sasquatch-like creature coming toward us? >>> What is that?
  • The delicious, pink petit fours on my plate are my favorites. >>> These are my favorites.
  • The cockroaches currently giving birth under our kitchen sink are totally gross. >>> Those are totally gross.

This dan That sebagai pengganti singular nouns

This menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya dekat.

  • This is ridiculous.
  • This is your shirt.
  • This is my car.
  • This is very smelly.
  • This is the one I left in the car.
  • This smells heavenly.
  • This tastes good.
  • This tastes delicious.
  • This tastes scrumptious.
  • I don’t like this.
  • I really like this.
  • Is this yours?
  • Have you seen this?
  • Chefin, would you mail this?
  • Does the wallpaper the decorator selected go with this?

That menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk hanya satu dan letaknya jauh.

  • That is ridiculous.
  • That is beautiful.
  • That is a good idea.
  • That is incorrect.
  • That is my house on the corner.
  • That is one way to do it.
  • That is our house.
  • This is Yogi speaking.
  • That costs way too much money.
  • That sounds like Adhiet.
  • That will run for an hour.
  • That should take some time to complete.
  • You can smell [that] from here.
  • Look at that!
  • Bring me that!
  • I heard that.
  • Dita wrote that.
  • Jessica selected that.
  • The boxes were stacked against that.
  • Is that right?
  • Is that Jim?
  • Did you see that?
  • Did you do that?
  • This is heavier than that.
  • This is Faiz speaking. Is that Caroline?

These dan Those sebagai pengganti plural nouns

These menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya dekat.

  • These are hilarious cartoons.
  • These are bad times.
  • These are ridiculous.
  • These are our children.
  • These are the perfect earrings.
  • These look good.
  • These look perfect.
  • These smell rotten.
  • I’ll buy these.
  • I’ll take these.
  • Do you like these?
  • Can Bridget locate these by the deadline?
  • Please read over these, and get back to me.

Those menunjukkan bahwa benda yang ditunjuk banyak dan letaknya jauh.

  • Those are ridiculous.
  • Those were the days!
  • Those are my shoes.
  • Those belong over there.
  • Those belong to Mutia.
  • Those considering a career in architecture must study engineering.
  • Mouldie brought those.
  • Do not paint those!
  • I own those.
  • Arie purchased those for the kids.
  • Marcella can play with those.
  • Can you see those?
  • Shall I take those?
  • Which of those would you like?
  • These are nicer than those.
  • These are bigger than those.

Pronouns (Kata Ganti)

Melanjutkan pembahasan Possessive Nouns.

Pronouns digunakan untuk mengganti nouns. Yang dimaksud pronouns adalah kata seperti: he, she, they, none, dan which.

Contoh kalimat:

Clutching the coin, Priska ran to the shops. She went straight to the counter and bought the sweets.
(She adalah pronoun dan kita menggunakannya untuk mengganti kata Priska)

Tell the finance team that they can use the minibus tomorrow.
(they adalah pronoun dan kita menggunakannya untuk mengganti kata the finance team).

Not only is Muhammad Haidir a mountain climber, but he is also a motivational speaker.
(he adalah pronoun dan kita menggunakannya untuk mengganti noun Muhammad Haidir).

Berbagai macam Pronouns

Ada berbagai macam jenis atau type pronouns.

1. Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara jelas.

Yang termasuk demonstrative pronouns yaitu this, that, these dan those.

This is the one I left in the car.
(This menunjukkan sesuatu barang yang ada di mobil).

Shall I take those?

Bring me that.

2. Indefinite Pronouns

Bila kita menggunakan demonstrative pronouns untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara jelas maka indefinite pronouns adalah kebalikannya. Indefinite pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara tidak jelas.

Yang termasuk indefinite pronouns yaitu: all, some, someone, everyone, any, several, anyone, nobody, each, both, few, either, none, one dan no one.

Contoh:

Somebody must have seen the driver leave.
(somebody maksudnya adalah seseorang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia)

Everyone looked at me.
(Everyone maksudnya adalah semua orang yang kita tidak tahu siapa dia)

Someone yelled my name.

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)

I have nothing to declare except my genius. (Oscar Wilde)

3. Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns digunakan untuk bertanya.

Yang termasuk interrogative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, dan what.

Contoh:

Who told you to do that?

Who stole the cookie from the cookie jar?

Which dog won the race?

which jacket should I wear?

4. Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns biasanya digunakan untuk mengganti orang.

Yang termasuk personal pronouns yaitu: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, dan who.

Contoh:

We can’t all be heroes because somebody has to sit on the curb and clap as they go by.

I bought some batteries, but they weren’t included.

5. Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns digunakan untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan. Karena biasanya possessive pronouns digunakan sebagai ajectives (kata sifat) maka pronouns ini juga dikenal dengan nama possessive adjectives.

Yang termasuk possessive pronouns yaitu: my, your, his, her, its, our, dan their.

Contoh:

Have you seen her book?
(her menggantikan kata seperti Maya’s)

6. Absolute Possessive Pronouns

Pronouns ini juga menunjukkan kepunyaan seperti possessive pronouns. Bila possessive pronouns berfungsi sebagai adjective untuk nouns maka absolute possessive pronouns tidak berfungsi sebagai tambahan, melainkan bisa berdiri sendiri.

Yang termasuk absolute possessive pronouns yaitu: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, dan theirs.

Contoh:

The tickets are as good as ours.

Shall we take yours or theirs?

7. Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns digunakan untuk menambahkan informasi ke dalam sebuah sentence (kalimat).

Yang termasuk relative pronouns yaitu: Which, that, who, whom, whose dan where.

Contoh:

Dr Endang, who lectured at UGM for more than 12 years, should have known the difference.
(1. who merujuk pada Dr Endang. 2. who menambahkan clause (anak kalimat) who lectured at UGM for more than 12 years)

The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO.
(1. who merujuk pada the man. 2. who menambahkan clause who first saw the comet)

8. Reciprocal Pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns digunakan untuk tindakan atau perasaan yang berlawanan.

Yang termasuk reciprocal pronouns yaitu: each other dan one another.

Contoh:

They like one another.

They talk to each other like they’re babies.

9. Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns digunakan untuk merujuk kepada nouns yang ada dalam sebuah sentence (Biasanya subject of sentence) atau sesuatu melakukan sesuatu kepada dirinya sendiri.

Yang termasuk reflexive pronouns yaitu: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves.

Contoh:

The dog bit itself.
(Itself merujuk kepada the dog).

Are you talking to yourself?

I will go to school myself.

10. Intensive atau Emphatic Pronouns

Intensive pronouns digunakan untuk memperjelas nouns atau pronouns yang berada di dalam sentence. Intensive pronouns memiliki kata yang sama dengan reflexive pronouns, yang berbeda adalah hanya pada fungsinya saja.

Yang termasuk intensive pronouns yaitu: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves.

Contoh:

Charya bakes all the bread himself.
(himself memberikan penekanan kepada Charya).

The cat opened the door itself.

He himself visited the school.

Possessive Nouns (Kata Benda Kepunyaan)

Melanjutkan pembahasan singular dan plural nouns.

Penjelasan Possessive Nouns

Possessive Nouns artinya adalah kata benda kepunyaan.

Beberapa contoh possessive nouns:

  • a cat’s tuna (tuna punyanya si kucing)
  • a man’s jacket (jaket punyanya orang)
  • a fish’s eggs (telur punyanya si ikan)

Fungsi Possessive Nouns

Pada umumnya possessive nouns menunjukkan kepunyaan. Tetapi sebenarnya possessive nouns tidak selalu memiliki arti kepunyaan, bisa juga memiliki arti lainnya.

1. Possessive nouns menunjukkan kepunyaan.

  • It is Andika’s car.
  • They are Australia’s gold reserves.

2. Possessive nouns bisa berarti tempat seseorang bekerja, belajar, atau menghabiskan waktu.

  • This is Andika’s school.
  • This is Andika’s room.

3. Possessive nouns bisa menunjukkan hubungan persaudaraan antara individu.

  • Andika’s mother is running late.
  • Mrs Prabaharyaka’s colleague will not be coming to the meeting.
  • Michele Obama is the President’s wife.

4. Possessive nouns juga bisa menunjukkan hal yang tidak berwujud.

  • Andika’s patience is running out.
  • The politician’s hypocrisy was deeply shocking.

5. Possessive nouns bisa merujuk kepada churches, colleges, restaurants, shops, dan stores.

  • Is Saint Mary’s an all-girls school?
  • Is St. John’s a Catholic church?
  • Harvard’s attendance was down last year.
  • Let’s go to Solaria’s for lunch.
  • Shall we go to Luigi’s for lunch?
  • I’ve got an appointment at the dentist’s at eleven o’clock.

6. Possessive nouns bisa berfungsi sebagai time expressions (ekspresi waktu).

  • a day’s work
  • a day’s salary
  • today’s newspaper
  • two days’ salary
  • a month’s pay
  • in a year’s time
  • three years’ insurance
  • three years’ insurance

Cara membuat Possessive Nouns

Ada beberapa aturan yang harus kamu ikuti dalam membuat possessive nouns.

1. Untuk membuat singular nouns yang tidak berakhiran [s] menjadi possessive nouns, kamu perlu menambahkan [‘s].

  • Maryam’s new handbag matches her shoes perfectly.
  • Melissa’s imagination ran wild as she pictured the accident.
  • It is Ranggi’s kitten.
  • This is Ratri’s car.
  • The elephant’s cage needed cleaning.
  • The cat’s bowl is filled with cheeseburgers.
  • The kitten’s toy is a stuffed catnip mouse.
  • They are Berau’s coalmines.
  • I had to remove Ahmad’s label and replace it.
  • Where is Luthfi’s telephone?
  • Who took Haryo’s pen?
  • Wagner’s music is better than it sounds. (Mark Twain)
  • A foolish woman knows a foolish man’s faults.
  • A friend’s eye is a good mirror.
  • A guest should be blind in another man’s house.

2. Untuk membuat singular nouns yang berakhiran [s] menjadi possessive nouns, kamu bisa menambahkan [‘s] atau hanya [].

It is Charles’ birthday.
It is Charles’s birthday.
(Keduanya bisa digunakan)

The Smiths’s house.
The Smiths’ house.
(Keduanya bisa digunakan)

This is Thomas’s coat.
This is Thomas’ coat.
(Keduanya bisa digunakan)

I have not seen Wales’ new stadium.
I have not seen Wales’s new stadium.
(Keduanya bisa digunakan)

Dr Evans’ report.
Dr Evans’s report.
(Keduanya bisa digunakan)

Miss Williams’ victory.
Miss Williams’s victory.
(Keduanya bisa digunakan)

IT Solutions’ conference.
IT Solutions’s conference.
(Keduanya bisa digunakan)

4. Untuk membuat plural nouns yang berakhiran [s] menjadi possessive nouns, kamu hanya perlu menambahkan apostrophe [] pada akhir kata plural nouns.

Contoh kalimat:

  • The cars’ bumpers were locked in the traffic jam.
  • The girls’ toys were lined up neatly on the shelf.
  • The Imams’ house is the big blue one on the corner.
  • The lions’ usual source of water has dried up.
  • The gases’ odors mixed and became nauseating.
  • The witches’ brooms were hidden in the corner.
  • The babies’ beds were all in a row.
  • The horses’ hay is damp.
  • The ladies’ toilets are out of bounds.
  • The fairies’ wings glistened in the moonlight.
  • All of the Joneses’ tickets will be held for pickup during the family reunion.
  • Be careful when you take the bees’ honey from the hives.

5. Untuk membuat plural nouns yang tidak berakhiran [s] menjadi possessive nouns, kamu bisa menambahkan [‘s].

Contoh kalimat:

  • She plans on opening a women’s clothing boutique.
  • He is the people’s poet.
  • Children’s programming is not a high priority.
  • The geese’s food supply was endangered.
  • My watch was stolen from the men’s changing room.
  • All television is children’s television. (Richard P. Adler)
  • Zeus does not bring all men’s plans to fulfilment. (Homer, 800-700 BC)

6. Untuk membuat compound nouns menjadi posssive nouns maka kamu perlu menambahkan [‘s] atau [] tergantung huruf terakhirnya pada bagian akhir compound nouns.

Singular compound nouns

  • Attorney General’s job
  • Colonel-in-chief’s arrival
  • Front-runner’s confidence
  • Full moon’s brightness
  • Maid of honour’s bouquet
  • Middle class’s income
  • Mid-June’s heat
  • My sister-in-law’s advice
  • Notre Dame’s tower
  • Real estate’s decline
  • T-shirt’s logo
  • Komodo National Park’s hours
  • My mother-in-law’s recipe for meatloaf is my husband’s favorite.

Plural compound nouns

  • Bus stops’ repair
  • Changing-rooms’ door
  • Colonels-in-chief’s meeting
  • Ex-wives’ alimony
  • Six-year-olds’ excitement
  • Half sisters’ bedrooms
  • Maids of honour’s dresses
  • Oil spills’ costs
  • Post Offices’ hours
  • Sisters-in-law’s husbands
  • Six packs’ appeal
  • U-boats’ stealth
  • Water-bottles’ shape

7. Saat dua nouns digabungkan, tetapi masing-masing memiliki sesuatu yang berbeda, kamu bisa membuatnya menjadi posssessive nouns dengan menambahkan akhiran [‘s] pada masing-masing nouns.

Ninda’s and Orig’s coats are red and black.
(Masing-masing memiliki coat yang berbeda)

Bluher’s and Donal’s factories.
(Masing-masing memiliki factory yang berbeda)

Indonesia’s and Malaysia’s problems
(masing-masing memiliki problem yang berbeda)

Indah’s and Raymond’s dressing rooms were painted pink and blue.
(Masin-masing memiliki room yang berbeda).

Senator Obama’s and Senator Clinton’s educations are outstanding.
(Masing-masing memiliki education yang berbeda).

8. Saat dua nouns digabungkan dan keduanya memiliki sesuatu yang sama, kamu bisa membuatnya menjadi possessive nouns dengan menambahkan akhiran [‘s] pada nouns yang terakhir.

Niken and Taufik’s new car is the latest model.
(Sama-sama memiliki latest model car)

Bluher and Donal’s factory.
(Sama-sama memiliki factory yang sama).

Indonesia and Malaysia’s problems
(Sama-sama memiliki problem yang sama)

Jack and Jill’s pail of water features prominently in the nursery rhyme.
(Sama-sama nursery rhyme).

Abbot and Costello’s comedy skit “Who’s On First” is a classic act.
(Sama-sama classic act)

Singular dan Plural Nouns

Melanjutkan tutorial collective nouns.

Pengertian Singular Nouns dan Plural Nouns

Singular Nouns (Kata Benda Tunggal) artinya adalah satu.

Plural Nouns (Kata Benda Jamak) artinya adalah jamak atau lebih dari satu.

Contoh:

Singular Plural
boat boats
cat cats
house houses
river rivers

Mengubah Singular menjadi Plural

Ada beberapa peraturan untuk mengubah kata benda singular menjadi plural.

1. Pada umumnya untuk mengubah singular menjadi plural yaitu dengan menambahkan akhiran [s] pada singular nouns.

Singular Plural
cat cats
chair chairs
door doors
farm farms
flower flowers
fork forks
lamp lamps
pen pens
rock rocks
star stars

2. Nouns yang berakhiran [s], [x], [z], [ch], dan [sh], untuk menjadi plural harus ditambah akhiran [es].

Singular Plural
dress dresses
moss mosses
bus buses
box boxes
fox foxes
buzz buzzes
bench benches
church churches
dish dishes
wish wishes

3. Nouns berakhiran [y] yang sebelumnya ada huruf consonant (huruf mati), untuk menjadi plural ganti akhiran [y] menjadi [ies].

Singular Plural
baby babies
beauty beauties
berry berries
cherry cherries
city cities
country countries
duty duties
fly flies
history histories
injury injuries
lady ladies
lady ladies
penny pennies
pony ponies
sky skies
spy spies
story stories
study studies
theory theories

4. Nouns berakhiran [y] yang sebelumnya ada huruf vowel (vokal), untuk menjadi plural hanya perlu ditambahkan akhiran [s].

Singular Plural
boy boys
chimney chimneys
day days
essay essays
joy joys
play plays
toy toys
turkey turkeys
valley valleys
volley volleys

5. Umumnya nouns berakhiran [f] atau [fe], untuk menjadi plural harus mengganti akhiran [f] atau [fe] dengan [ves].

Singular Plural
beef beeves
calf calves
elf elves
gulf gulves
half halves
knife knives
leaf leaves
life lives
loaf loaves
proof prooves
self selves
sheaf sheaves
shelf shelves
thief thieves
turf turves
wife wives
wolf wolves

Khusus untuk nouns berakhiran [f] dan [fe] berikut ini, untuk menjadi plural harus ditambahkan akhiran [s].

Singular Plural
chief chiefs
fife fifes
grief griefs
hoof hoofs
kerchief kerchiefs
mischief mischiefs
roof roofs
safe safes

Khusus untuk nouns berakhiran [f] berikut ini, untuk menjadi plural boleh ditambahkan akhiran [s] atau mengganti akhiran [f] dengan akhiran [es].

Singular Plural
dwarf dwarfs/dwarves
scarf scarfs/scarves
wharf wharfs/wharves

6. Umumnya nouns berakhiran [o] yang sebelumnya ada huruf konsonan, untuk menjadi plural harus ditambahkan akhiran [es].

Singular Plural
calico calicoes
cargo cargoes
grotto grottoes
hero heroes
motto mottoes
potato potatoes
tomato tomatoes
volcano volcanoes

Umumnya nouns berakhiran [o] yang sebelumnya ada huruf vowel (vokal), untuk menjadi plural harus ditambahkan akhiran [s].

Singular Plural
cameo cameos
folio folios
portfolio portfolios
radio radios
studio studios

Khusus untuk nouns berakhiran [o] berikut ini, untuk menjadi plural hanya bisa ditambahkan akhiran [s].

Singular Plural
albino albinos
canto cantos
lasso lassos
memento mementos
photo photos
piano pianos
sirocco siroccos
solo solos

Khusus untuk nouns berakhiran [o] berikut ini, untuk menjadi plural boleh ditambahkan [s] atau [es].

Singular Plural
buffalo buffalos/buffaloes
halo halos/haloes
mango mangos/mangoes
mosquito mosquitos/mosquitoes
portico porticos/porticoes
tornado tornados/tornadoes

Khusus untuk nouns berakhiran [o] yang memiliki arti orang atau negara, untuk menjadi plural harus ditambahkan akhiran [s].

Singular Plural
Kennedy Kennedys
Germany Germanys

7. Nouns berikut ini, untuk menjadi plural harus dalam bentuk Irregular.

Singular Plural
child children
foot feet
goose geese
louse lice
man men
mouse mice
ox oxen
person people
tooth teeth
woman women

8. Nouns berikut ini hanya memiliki bentuk singular.

  • copper
  • corn
  • cotton
  • gold
  • molasses
  • silver
  • sugar
  • wheat

Nouns berakhiran [s] berikut ini merupakan singular.

  • news
  • Penyakit: measles, rabies
  • Mata pelajaran: athletics, economics, ethics, linguistics, politics, physics, gymnastics
  • Games: billiards, cards, darts, dominoes

9. Nouns berikut ini hanya memiliki bentuk plural.

  • bellows
  • binoculars
  • cattle
  • clippers
  • dregs
  • glasses
  • jeans
  • measles
  • mumps
  • oats
  • pants
  • pinchers
  • pliers
  • police
  • scissors
  • shears
  • shorts
  • snuffers
  • thanks
  • tongs
  • trousers
  • tweezers
  • vespers
  • victuals

Nouns berikut ini hanya memiliki bentuk plural karena memiliki arti yang berbeda dengan nouns aslinya.

  • customs (at the airport, not practices), guts (courage, not intestines)
  • quarters (lodgings, not 1/4s), clothes (garments, not fabrics)
  • goods (merchandise, not the opposite of bad), arms (weapons, not limb)

10. Nouns berikut ini bentuk singularnya sama dengan plural.

Singular Plural
aircraft aircraft
deer deer
deer deer
fish fish
moose moose
salmon salmon
sheep sheep
species species

11. Kata serapan bahasa inggris.

Bahasa Inggris juga memiliki kata serapan yang berasal dari bahasa lain. pada umumnya kata serapan tersebut berasal dari bahasa latin dan Yunani yang banyak digunakan pada bidang ilmu pengetahuan. Contoh dibawah adalah kata serapan tersebut dalam bentuk singular dan plural.

Akhiran Singular Plural
um – ia agendum agenda
bacterium bacteria
datum data
medium media
curriculum curricula
stadium stadia, stadiums
on – a criterion criteria
phenomenon phenomena
is – es analysis analyses
crisis crises
basis bases
hyphothesis hyphotheses
oasis oases
thesis theses
a – ae antenna antennas, antennae
alga algae
us – i radius radii, raiuses
fungus fungi
alumnus alumni
cactus cacti
nucleus nuclei
focus foci
ex/ix – ices index indices, indexes
matrix matrices
appendix apprendices, appendixes
o – i graffito graffiti
concerto concerti
virtuoso virtuosi

12. Jika nouns berupa compound nouns, untuk menjadi plural tambahkan akhiran [s] hanya pada nouns utamanya.

Singular Plural
air-conditioner air-conditioners
court-martial courts-martial
knight-templar knights-templar
lieutenant general lieutenant generals
mother-in-law mothers-in-law
son-in-law sons-in-law
washing-machine washing-machines

Pada compound nouns yang tidak jelas kalimat utamanya, untuk menjadi plural tambahkan akhiran [s] atau [es] pada bagian akhir kata compound nouns.

Singular Plural
forget-me-not forget-me-nots
toothbrush toothbrushes

13. Plural untuk Abbreviations (Singkatan).

Untuk membuat sebuah singular abbreviations menjadi plural, kamu bisa menambahkan akhiran [s].

Singular Plural
RTA RTAs
MOT MOTs
ATM ATMs

Untuk abbreviations yang aneh atau abbreviation berakhiran [S], maka kamu bisa menambahkan [‘s] untuk lebih membedakan.

Walaupun begitu, penambahan akhiran dengan apostrophes (tanda petik) haruslah dihindari karena akhiran ini bisa berarti possession. Namun kalau kamu merasa bahwa ini bisa membantu pembaca maka silahkan saja digunakan.

Singular Plural
COS COS’s
SUS SUS’s
BA BA’s

Plural untuk abbreviations dengan full stops (titik).

Untuk membuat abbreviations dengan full stops menjadi plural aturannya sama saja yaitu dengan menambahkan akhiran [s] atau [‘s].

Singular Plural
P.C. P.C.s
C.C.J. C.C.J.s
S.O.S. M.O.T.s
M.O.T. S.O.S.’s

Dikarenakan sebagian dari singular nouns dan plural nouns tidak mengikuti aturan penulisan maka ada baiknya kamu untuk melihat kamus maupun grammar tools lainnya saat kamu tidak mengetahui ejaan yang benar.

Collective Nouns (Kata Benda Kolektif)

Melanjutkan pembahasan Compound Nouns.

Collective Nouns adalah kata benda yang digunakan untuk menamakan sekelompok orang, binatang, atau benda.

Contoh Collective Nouns

Beberapa contoh collective nouns:

Flock, Crowd, Committee, Choir, Group, Team

Singular dan Plural sebagai Collective Nouns

Collective nouns bisa berbentuk singular atau plural tergantung dari makna kalimat yang digunakan.

1. Singular (Tunggal)

Collective nouns akan berbentuk singular bila setiap anggota dalam sebuah collective nouns diperlakukan sebagai sebuah kesatuan.

The team is winning! (team diperlakukan sebagai satu kesatuan, karena semua individu dalam team mendapatkan hal yang sama).

The herd is following the shepherd. (herd diperlakukan sebagai satu kesatuan).

The shoal was moving north. (Semua shoal bergerak dalam satu kelompok) .

The class listens carefully to its teacher’s instructions. (semua individu dalam class melakukan sebuah kegiatan yang sama).

Today, Dr. Monica’s class takes its first exam. (semua individu dalam [class] melakukan kegiatan yang sama dan dalam waktu bersamaan).

2. Plural (Jamak)

Collective nouns akan berbentuk plural bila setiap anggota dalam sebuah collective nouns beraksi sendiri-sendiri.

The team are cooperating well tonight. (prestasi sebuah team dilihat sebagai kumpulan dari prestasi masing-masing individu)

The herd are running in all different directions! (setiap individu dalam herd beraksi sendiri-sendiri)

The shoal were darting in all directions. (Setiap shoal bergerak sendiri-sendiri)

The class start their projects while the teacher grades their papers. (Setiap individu dalam class melakukan project masing-masing)

After the long exam, the class start their research papers on famous mathematicians. (Setiap individu dalam class melakukan kegiatan research masing-masing dan dalam waktu yang berbeda-beda).

Tambahkan sebuah kata keterangan untuk membedakan singular dan plural

Supaya memudahkan membedakan antara singular atau plural maka kamu bisa menambahkan sebuah kata keterangan pada sebuah kalimat dengan collective nouns.

Contoh, supaya memudahkan membedakan antara singular atau plural pada kata jury maka kamu bisa menambahkan members of sehingga collective nouns pasti plural.

The jury [is/are] to convene at 5 o’clock.
(Memerlukan informasi apakah jury singular atau plural?)

The members of the jury are to convene at 5 o’clock.
(Pasti jury plural karena kata members adalah plural)

Daftar Collective Nouns

Satu hal yang menarik dalam collective nouns adalah kata-katanya yang unik dan terkadang bisa terdengar seperti puisi.

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk orang

  • A faculty of academics
  • A troupe of acrobats
  • A cast of actors/players
  • A bench of aldermen
  • A conflagration of arsonists
  • A troupe of artistes
  • A team of athletes
  • A tabernacle of bakers
  • A babble of barbers
  • A promise of barmen
  • A thought of barons
  • A squad of beaters
  • A bevy of beauties
  • A bench of bishops
  • A blush of boys
  • A troop of boy scouts
  • A feast of brewers
  • A pack of Brownies
  • A shuffle of bureaucrats
  • A goring of butchers
  • A sneer of butlers
  • A slate of candidates
  • A chapter of canons
  • A company of capitalists
  • A congregation of churchgoers
  • A school of clerks
  • A cutting of cobblers
  • A hastiness of cooks
  • A shrivel of critics
  • A cowardice of curs
  • A troupe of dancers
  • A decanter of deans
  • A caravan of desert travelers
  • A board of directors
  • An obstruction of dons
  • A staff of employees
  • A panel of experts
  • A stalk of foresters
  • A talent of gamblers
  • A company of girl guides
  • A galaxy of governesses
  • A conjunction of grammarians
  • A herd of harlots
  • A melody of harpists
  • An observance of hermits
  • A gang of hoodlums
  • A cavalcade of horsemen
  • A blast of hunters
  • A bench of judges
  • A neverthriving of jugglers
  • A banner of knights
  • A gang of labourers
  • A bevy of ladiesAn eloquence of lawyers
  • A colony of lepers
  • An audience of listeners
  • An illusion of magicians
  • A bench of magistrates
  • A riches of matrons
  • A morbidity of majors
  • A band of men
  • A faith of merchants
  • A diligence of messengers
  • A troupe of minstrels
  • A side of morris dancers
  • A cortege of mourners
  • An [orchestra/band] of musicians
  • A tribe of natives
  • A superfluity of nuns
  • A crowd of onlookers
  • A curse of painters
  • A malapertness of pedlars
  • A crowd of people
  • A troupe of performers
  • A skirl of pipers
  • A team of players
  • A posse of police
  • A converting of preachers
  • A pity of prisoners
  • A band of robbers
  • A crew of sailors
  • A scolding of seamstresses
  • A house of senators
  • A subtlety of sergeants at law
  • An obeisance of servants
  • A posse of sheriffs
  • A blackening of shoemakers
  • A choir of singers
  • A squad of soldiers
  • A picket of strikers
  • A class of students
  • A simplicity of subalterns
  • A disguising of tailors
  • A glozing of taverners
  • A [den/gang/pack] of thieves
  • A board of trustees
  • A flock of tourists
  • An unction of undertakers
  • A prudence of vicars
  • An ambush of widows
  • A coven of witches
  • A gaggle of women
  • A gang of workmen
  • A congregation of worshippers
  • A worship of writers
  • A fellowship of yeomen

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk benda

  • A bouquet of flowers
  • A bunch of flowers
  • A fleet of ships
  • A forest of trees
  • A galaxy of stars
  • A pack of cards
  • A pack of lies
  • A pair of shoes
  • A range of mountains
  • A wad of notes

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk binatang

  • An army of ants
  • A flock of birds
  • A flock of sheep
  • A herd of deer
  • A hive of bees
  • A litter of puppies
  • A murder of crows
  • A pack of hounds
  • A pack of wolves
  • A school of fish
  • A swarm of locusts
  • A team of horses
  • A troop of lions

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk burung

  • A colony of auks
  • A colony of avocets
  • A flock of birds
  • A sedge of bitterns
  • A chain of bobolinks
  • A bellowing of bullfinches
  • A flock of bustards
  • A wake of buzzards
  • A tok of capercaillies
  • A muse of capons
  • A brood of chickens
  • A chattering of choughs
  • A covert of coots
  • A flight of cormorants
  • A sedge of cranes
  • A murder of crows
  • A head of curlews
  • A trip of dotterels
  • A dole of doves
  • A flush of ducks
  • A flight of dunbirds
  • A fling of dunlins
  • A convocation of eagles
  • A cast of falcons
  • A charm of finches
  • A stand of flamingos
  • A gaggle of geese
  • A charm of goldfinches
  • A dopping of goosanders
  • A flight of goshawks
  • A covey of grouse
  • A bazaar of guillemots
  • A colony of gulls
  • A mews of hawks
  • A brood of hens
  • A sedge of herons
  • A charm of hummingbirds
  • A colony of ibises
  • A band of jays
  • A desert of lapwings
  • A parcel of linnets
  • An exaltation of larks
  • A congregation of magpies
  • A sord of mallards
  • A plump of moorhens
  • A fleet of mudhens
  • A watch of nightingales
  • A pride of ostriches
  • A parliament of owls
  • A fling of oxbirds
  • A company of parrots
  • A covey of partridges
  • A muster of peacocks
  • A pod of pelicans
  • A colony of penguins
  • A cadge of peregrines
  • A nye of pheasants
  • A flight of pigeons
  • A knob of pintails
  • A congregation of plovers
  • A rush of pochards
  • A run of poultry
  • A covey of ptarmigans
  • A bevy of quails
  • An unkindness of ravens
  • A crowd of redwings
  • A parliament of rooks
  • A hill of ruffs
  • A fling of sandpipers
  • A cloud of seafowls
  • A squabble of seagulls
  • A dopping of sheldrakes
  • A walk of snipes
  • A host of sparrows
  • A murmuration of starlings
  • A mustering of storks
  • A flight of swallows
  • A herd of swans
  • A flock of swifts
  • A spring of teals
  • A mutation of thrushes
  • A flock of turkeys
  • A pitying of turtledoves
  • A colony of vultures
  • A plump of waterfowls
  • A company of widgeons
  • A trip of wildfowls
  • A fall of woodcocks
  • A descent of woodpeckers
  • A herd of wrens

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk mamalia

  • A cluster of antelopes
  • A shrewdness of apes
  • A pace of asses
  • A congress of baboons
  • A cete of badgers
  • A cloud of bats
  • A sloth of bears
  • A colony of beavers
  • A herd of bisons
  • A sute of bloodhounds
  • A herd of boars
  • A sounder of wild boars
  • A herd of bucks
  • A gang of buffalos
  • A drove of bullocks
  • A flock of camels
  • A herd of caribous
  • A clowder of cats
  • A destruction of wild cats
  • A herd of cattle
  • A herd of chamois
  • A coalition of cheetahs
  • A colony of chinchillas
  • A rake of colts
  • A bury of conies
  • A flink of cows
  • A pack of coyotes
  • A litter of cubs
  • A cowardice of curs
  • A herd of deers
  • A pack of dogs
  • A pod of dolphins
  • A herd of donkeys
  • A herd of elands
  • A herd of elephants
  • A gang of elks
  • A business of ferrets
  • A skulk of foxes
  • A brace of geldings
  • A horde of gerbils
  • A journey of giraffes
  • A herd of gnus
  • A trip of goats
  • A band of gorillas
  • A leash of greyhounds
  • A group of guinea pigs
  • A horde of hamsters
  • A drove of hares
  • A herd of harts
  • A herd of hartebeests
  • A array of hedgehogs
  • A parcel of hinds
  • A bloat of hippopotami
  • A drift of hogs
  • A stable of horses
  • A pack of hounds
  • A clan of hyenas
  • A herd of ibexes
  • A couple of impalas
  • A husk of jackrabbits
  • A mob of kangaroos
  • A kindle of kittens
  • A fall of lambs
  • A leap of leopards
  • A kindle of leverets
  • A pride of lions
  • A herd of llamas
  • A stud of mares
  • A richness of martens
  • A mischief of mice
  • A labour of moles
  • A band of mongooses
  • A troop of monkeys
  • A herd of moose
  • A barren of mules
  • A family of otters
  • A team of oxen
  • A pomp of pekingese
  • A drove of pigs
  • A doylt of tame pigs
  • A sounder of wild pigs
  • A farrow of piglets
  • An aurora of polar bears
  • A chine of polecats
  • A string of ponies
  • A prickle of porcupines
  • A school of porpoises
  • A coterie of prairie dogs
  • A litter of pups
  • A colony of rabbits
  • A field of racehorses
  • A nursery of raccoons
  • A colony of rats
  • A crash of rhinoceroses
  • A bevy of roe deers
  • A colony of seals
  • A flock of sheep
  • A surfeit of skunks
  • A dray of squirrels
  • A pack of stoats
  • A drove of swine
  • A doylt of tame swine
  • A sounder of wild swine
  • An ambush of tigers
  • A blessing of unicorns
  • A colony of voles
  • A huddle of walruses
  • A mob of wallabyies
  • A sneak of weasels
  • A grind of bottle-nosed whales
  • A school of whales
  • A destruction of wildcats
  • A herd of wildebeests
  • A pack of wolves
  • A mob of wombats
  • A herd of yaks
  • A cohort of zebras

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk ikan

  • A company of angel fish
  • A company of archer fish
  • A battery of barracudas
  • A shoal of barbels
  • A fleet of bass
  • A grind of blackfish
  • A school of butterfly fish
  • A school of cod
  • A swarm of dragonet fish
  • A troop of dogfish
  • A swarm of eels
  • A shoal of fish
  • A glide of flying fish
  • A glint of goldfish
  • A glean of herrings
  • A shoal of mackerels
  • A shoal of minnows
  • A pack of perch
  • A shoal of pilchards
  • A cluster of porcupine fish
  • A party of rainbow fish
  • A shoal of roach
  • A bind of salmons
  • A family of sardines
  • A herd of seahorses
  • A shoal of shads
  • A shiver of sharks
  • A troupe of shrimps
  • A quantity of smelts
  • A shoal of sticklebacks
  • A flotilla of swordfish
  • A hover of trouts
  • A float of tunas
  • A pod of whitings

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk amfibi dan reptil

  • A quiver of cobras
  • A bask of crocodiles
  • A herd of dinosaurs
  • A flight of dragons
  • An army of frogs
  • A mess of iguanas
  1. A rhumba of rattlesnakes
  2. A den of snakes
  3. A knot of toads
  4. A bale of turtles
  5. A nest of vipers

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk moluska

  • A bed of clams
  • A bed of cockles
  • A bed of mussels
  • A bed of oysters
  • An escargatoire of snails

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk serangga dan laba-laba

  • A colony of ants
  • A swarm of bees
  • A bike of wild bees
  • A flight of butterflies
  • An army of caterpillars
  • An intrusion of cockroaches
  • A swarm of flies
  • A cloud of gnats
  • A cloud of grasshoppers
  • A bike of hornets
  • A flight of insects
  • A flock of lice
  • A plague of locusts
  • A scourge of mosquitoes
  • A clutter of spiders
  • A colony of termites
  • A colony of wasps

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk invertebrata

  • A culture of bacteria
  • A stuck of jellyfish
  • A clew of worm

Daftar Collective Nouns untuk yang lain-lain

  • A wing of aircraft
  • A host of angels
  • A quiver of arrows
  • A bundle of asparagus
  • A belt of asteroids
  • A bunch of bananas
  • A grove of bayonets
  • A carillon of bells
  • A library of books
  • A batch of bread
  • A bavin of brushwood
  • A fleet of cars
  • A pack of cards
  • A network of computers
  • A dossier of documents
  • A clutch of eggs
  • A bundle of firewood
  • A bed of flowers
  • A colony of fungi
  • A pantheon of gods
  • A bunch of grapes
  • A battery of guns
  • A budget of inventions
  • A chain of islands
  • A cache of jewels
  • A ring of keys
  • A fleet of lorries
  • A rouleau of coins
  • A collective of nouns
  • A bank of monitors
  • A range of mountains
  • A troop of mushrooms
  • A rope of onions
  • A coterie of orchids
  • A ream of paper
  • A budget of papers
  • A string of pearls
  • A pod of peas
  • A phantasmagoria of phantoms
  • An anthology of poems
  • A rosary of quotations
  • A clump of reeds
  • A rabble of remedies
  • A nest of rumours
  • A fleet of ships
  • A pair of shoes
  • A shrubbery of shrubs
  • A flight of stairs
  • A galaxy of stars
  • An anthology of stories
  • An arcana of tarot cards
  • An agenda of tasks
  • A stand of trees

Pembahasan berikutnya: Singular dan Plural.

Compound Nouns (Kata Benda Majemuk)

Melanjutkan pembahasan countable dan uncountable nouns.

Compound nouns atau kata majemuk adalah kata benda yang terdiri dari gabungan dua kata atau lebih.

Penghubung kata pada Compound Nouns

Ada tiga bentuk compound nouns.

1. Tanpa spasi

bedroom, boyhood, chalkboard, eyelid, fundraiser, housework, schoolteacher, shotgun, snowboarding, speechwriter, sunglasses, toothpaste

2. Dengan spasi

address book, fish tank, grapefruit juice, grey matter, heart attack, human rights, movie stars, swimming pool, fool moon, tennis shoe

3. Dengan garis

baby-sitter, check-in, daughter-in-law, laughing-gas, self-interest, sister-in-law, six-pack

Tidak ada aturan baku dalam penggunaan penghubung pada compound nouns. Oleh karena itu kamu harus memeriksa kebenaran penulisan compound nouns menggunakan spellchecker atau kamus. Yang perlu diperhatikan adalah ada beberapa kata yang memiliki beberapa bentuk sekaligus.

Beberapa contoh Compound Nouns yang memiliki dua atau tiga bentuk sekaligus

  • changing-room / changing room (2 bentuk ini benar)
  • container-ship / containership / container ship (3 bentuk ini benar)
  • ice-axe / ice axe (2 bentuk ini benar)
  • ink-well / inkwell / ink well (3 bentuk ini benar)
  • laughing-gas / laughing gas (2 bentuk ini benar)
  • water-bottle / water bottle (2 bentuk ini benar)

Komposisi Compound Nouns

Pada umumnya compound nouns terdiri dari gabungan dua buah nouns atau gabungan antara adjective (kata sifat) dan noun (kata benda).

Part of Speech_ + Part of Speech_ = Compound Noun
adjective + noun = blackboard, full moon, greenhouse, hardware, highway, monthly ticket, redhead, software, whiteboard
adjective + verb = dry-cleaning, public speaking
adverb + noun = onlooker, bystander
adverb + verb = output, overthrow, upturn, input
noun + adverb = hanger-on, passer-by
noun + noun = bath tub, bedroom, bus stop, fire-fly, football, motorcycle, printer cartridge, saucepan, seaman, wall-paper, water tank, witchcraft
noun + preposition = hanger on
noun + verb = sunrise, haircut, rainfall, train-spotting
preposition + noun = influx, underground, underworld
preposition + Verb = output
verb + adverb = lookout, take-off, drawback
verb + noun = breakfast, driving license, swimming pool, washing machine
verb + preposition = checkout
verbal + noun = washing machine

Daftar Compound Nouns

Dibawah ini adalah beberapa contoh Compound Nouns

A

afterthought, airplane, another, anybody, anyhow, anyone, anything, anywhere, armchair

B

backbone, backspace, backwoods, become, bedroom, beeswax, birthday, birthright, blackberry, blackbird, blackmail, bloodvessel, bluebell, Board of Members, bodyguard, bookkeeper, bolthole, boyfriend, brainstorm, breadbin, brushwood

C

cardboard, carefree, caretaker, carpet, chairman, clockwork, cooking-oil, commonsense, copyright, cupboard, court-martials

D

daylight, dead weight, dining-table, downfall, downstairs

E

earring, earthwork, evergreen, everybody, everyday, everyone, everything, everywhere, eyeball

F

fatherland, fingerprint, firearm, fire-engine, firefly, fireman, fireplace, firework, first-rate, floppy disk, football, footlights, footman, footnote, footprint, footstep, forget-me-not, friendship

G

gasworks, goalkeeper, goldfish, goodlooking, good-morning, goodnight, gunboat, gun-carriage, gunmetal, gunpowder

H

handbook, handwriting, headdress, headland, headphones, headstone, headway, hereafter, herewith, herself, highlands, highway, himself, horsback, horseplay, horsepower, hourglass, houseboat, housekeeper, however

I

inasmuch, income, indoors, inland, inlet, inside, instep, into, itself

J

joystick,

K

keyboard

L

landmark, landslip, lawsuit, lighthouse, lipstick, loanshark, looking-glass, loophole

M

manhandle, manhole, manservant, meeting room, moonlight, mother-in-law, myself

N

network, newspaper, nightcap, nobody, nothing, nowhere

O

offspring, oncoming, oneself, oneline, onto, ourselves, outburst, outcome, outcry, outdoor, outgoing, outhouse, outlaw, outlet, outline, outlook, output, outside, outskirts, outstretched, overacting, overall overbalancing, overbearing, overcoat, overcome, overdo, overdressed, overfull, overhanging, overhead, overland, overleaf, overload, overlook, overseas, overseer, overshoe, overstatement, overtake, overtaxed, overtime, overturned, overuse, overvalued, overweight, overworking

P

pincushion, plaything , policeman, policewoman, postman, postwoman, postmark, postmaster, postoffice

Q , R

railway, receivership, runway, runaway

S

scarecrow, seaman, secondhand, shorthand, shutdown, sideboard, sidewalk, sinkhole, skyscraper, somebody, someday, somehow, someone, something, sometime, somewhat, somewhere, starlight, startup, steamship, suchlike, sunburn, sunlight, sunshade, sweetheart

T

themselves, timesheet, today, tonight, toothpaste, tradesman

U

underclothing, undercooked, undergo, undergrowth, undermined, undersigned, undersized, understatement, undertake, undertaker, undervalued, undo, update, upkeep, uplift, upon, upright, upstairs, uptake, uptight

V

viewpoint .

W

wallpaper, waterfall, weekend, well-being, well-off, whatever, whenever, whereas, whereby, wherever, whichever, whitewash, whoever, windpipe, within, without, woodwork, workhouse , workman, workmanship, workout

X

x-ray

Y

yearbook, yourself

Z

zookeeper

Pembahasan berikutnya: collective nouns.

Countable dan Uncountable Nouns

Melanjutkan pembahasan sebelumnya Concrete dan Abstract Nouns.

Countable Nouns

Nouns bisa kita bagi berdasarkan bilangan yaitu countable nouns dan uncountable nouns. Countable nouns artinya kata benda yang bisa dihitung sedangkan uncountable nouns adalah kata benda yang tidak bisa dihitung.

Contoh Countable Nouns

Ada banyak nouns yang bisa kita hitung, salah satunya adalah “car”. Kita bisa menyebutkan kalau kita memiliki one, two, three, atau more cars. Dibawah ini adalah beberapa contoh countable nouns.

animal, bag, bottle, box, cat, chair, coin, cup, dog, dollar, fork, litre, man, note, person, plate, suitcase, table

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns biasanya digunakan untuk nouns yang tidak bisa dibagi-bagi dan tidak bisa kita hitung. Nama lainnya dari uncountable nouns adalah mass nouns.

Contoh Uncountable Nouns

Salah satu uncountable nouns adalah “milk”. Walaupun kita bisa menghitung berapa banyak bottle of milk tetapi kita tidak bisa menghitung berapa banyak milk itu sendiri.

Beberapa contoh uncountable nouns lainnya berdasarkan kategori.

Kategori Contoh
Activity cooking, driving, homework, jogging, listening, playing, reading, sleeping, speaking, studying, swimming, walking, working, writing
Concept advice, bravery, confidence, courage, education, energy, democracy, fun, help, happiness, honesty, information, intelligence, laughter, news, patience, peace, progress, pride, space
Food bread, butter, cake, cheese, fish, fluor, fruit, honey, meat, milk, pasta, spaghetti, rice, salt, soup, toast
Gas air, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, smoke
Item Category clothing, furniture, luggage, mail, money, software
Language Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Liquid milk, coffee, petrol, tea, water, wine, beer
Material chalk, cloth, concrete, lumber, sand, wood, metal
Natural Phenomenon darkness, electricity, gravity, heat, humidity, ice, light, lightning, magnetism, rain, radiation, snow, sunshine, thunder, wind
Particles dust, flour, rice, salt, sugar
Sport baseball, basketball, bridge, chess, cricket, football, golf, hockey, poker, rugby, soccer, tennis
Subjects archaeology, architecture, chemistry, commerce, economics, history, math, music, photography, poetry, politics, psychology, science, sociology, vocabulary

Cara mengenali Countable Nouns dan Non-Countable Nouns

Countable Nouns

Countable nouns bisa kita ketahui dengan memberikan pertanyaan yang mengandung kata how many.

  • How many cars?
  • How many animals?

Countable nouns bisa berbentuk singular (tunggal) atau plural (jamak).

Singular Form Plural Form
cars cars
country countries
dog dogs
grape grapes
man men
onion onions
stadium stadia
table tables

Countable nouns bisa digunakan dengan indefinite article a/an.

A cat is an animal.

Bila countable nouns yang digunakan singular maka harus ditambahkan dengan kata a/the/my/this.

I want an orange.
Where is my bottle?

Bila countable nouns yang digunakan berbentuk plural maka kata tersebut tidak perlu ditambahkan dengan a/the/my/this.

I like oranges.
Bottles can break.

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns bisa kita ketahui dengan memberikan pertanyaan yang mengandung kata how much.

  • How much time?
  • How much wood?

Uncountable nouns hanya bisa menggunakan bentuk singular.

  • There is some milk on the floor.
  • Is there any sugar?

Biasanya uncountable noun tidak menggunakan indefinite article a/an. Kita tidak bisa menggunakan an information atau a music. Tetapi kita bisa menambahkan [a + something + of] pada uncountable noun.

  • a piece of news.
  • a bottle of water.
  • a grain of rice.

Penggunaan Quantifiers pada Countable dan Uncountable Nouns

Quantifiers digunakan untuk memberitahu kepada kita banyaknya jumlah dari sesuatu.

Beberapa kata berikut ini adalah quantifiers: a little, a lot of, several, dan a few.

Quantifiers ada yang bisa digunakan hanya untuk countable nouns, hanya untuk uncountable nouns, dan ada juga yang bisa digunakan untuk keduanya. Contoh beberapa quantifiers bisa dilihat dibawah ini.

Quantifiers untuk countable nouns Quantifiers untuk uncountable nouns Quantifiers untuk keduanya
 A few [cars]
A number of [cars]
Several [cars]
Many [cars]
A bit of [metal]
An amount of [metal]
A little [metal]
A lot of [metal / cars]
Any [metal / cars]
Lots of [metal / cars]
No [metal / cars]
Some [metal / cars]

Nouns yang bisa countable dan juga uncountable sekaligus

Ada beberapa noun yang bisa dimasukkan kedalam dua kategori diatas. Biasanya beberapa noun ini memiliki makna yang berbeda.

Countable noun Uncountable noun
There are three hairs in my coffee! I don’t have much hair.
There are four lights in our bedroom. Close the curtain. There’s too much light!
Our house has six rooms. Is there room for me to sit here?
Did you have a good time at the party? I don’t think I have time to do my hair before I leave.

Cara membuat uncountable nouns menjadi plural

Ada dua metode untuk membuat uncountable nouns menjadi plural.

Metode pertama

Tambahkan [countable noun + of] di depannya uncountable noun.

  • Three loaves of bread
  • Three blocks of cheese
  • A grain of rice.
  • A piece of information.
  • 2 glasses of water
  • litres of coffee
  • Three grains of sand
  • A pane of glass
  • A drop of rain
  • A piece of music

Metode kedua

Jadikan uncountable noun sebagai adjective (kata sifat) dan tambahkan pada countable noun.

  • three bread loaves
  • three cheese blocks

Pembahasan berikutnya: compound nouns.