Active dan passive verbs (Kata kerja aktif dan pasif)

Kalimat aktif adalah jika subject yang melakukan tindakan sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah jika bukan subject yang melakukan tindakan. Kata kerja (verbs) yang ada di dalam kalimat aktif disebut sebagai active verbs (kata kerja aktif) sedangkan yang berada di dalam kalimat pasif disebut sebagai passive verbs (kata kerja pasif).

Contoh active verbs:

The man baked a pancake.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (the man) yang melakukan tindakan membuat kue (pancake). Active verbs: baked.

  1. Luthfie baked a big cake.
  2. Brazil beat Italy in the final.
  3. Someone has cleaned the windows.
  4. Imam climbed the ladder.
  5. He can not decide what to do.
  6. Haryo was eating an apple.
  7. Abdil hit the tree with his stick.
  8. The man jumped off the step.
  9. I actually love pancake!
  10. Ranggi opened the present.
  11. The actors had performed the play by Shakespeare.
  12. The boy picked up the coin.
  13. The boys pushed the tree over.
  14. The staff is required to watch a safety video every month.
  15. A stone smashed the window.
  16. Somebody stole my laptop.
  17. The professor teaches the students.
  18. Krisna told Aso a lie.
  19. The murderer used a knife.
  20. Taufik was watching the birds.
  21. She was walking to the park.
  22. The girl was washing the dog.

Contoh passive verbs:

A pancake was baked by the man.
Pada contoh di atas, subject (a pancake) bukanlah yang melakukan tindakan. Passive verbs: was baked.

  1. A babysitter has to be arranged for this evening.
  2. Ranggi’s travel plans have to be arranged by September.
  3. The cookies were baked Saturday.
  4. France was beaten in the final.
  5. She was born into a wealthy family.
  6. A bridge is going to be built within the next three years.
  7. New houses are going to be built in our neighborhood.
  8. Are they cleaned regularly?
  9. The windows have been cleaned
  10. Will they not be dismissed?
  11. The car had been driven into a wall by the thief.
  12. A trap was devised to catch the murderer.
  13. They will never be employed by us.
  14. The candles were extinguished as we rushed to the scream.
  15. The car was fixed.
  16. Haven’t they been forgotten?
  17. Lucky was given a warning.
  18. A scream was heard coming from across the house.
  19. All the employees had hired before the store opened.
  20. The new manager had been hired before Raymond left the company.
  21. The victims were hospitalized immediately.
  22. We were invited to Orig and Dini’s wedding.
  23. Ricky was invited to speak at the conference.
  24. The football was kicked by Picky.
  25. The milk had been knocked over by a cat.
  26. The car will have been loaded by the time he gets home.
  27. Rizki is loved by Eka.
  28. The egg was laid by the bird.
  29. The knife was left on the table by Erika.
  30. The crime was illuminated shortly by flashes of lightning.
  31. The crates will have been loaded by then.
  32. Wine is made from grapes.
  33. She had been murdered.
  34. Is he not notified immediately?
  35. You are not paid to watch TV.
  36. When your order is shipped, we will send you a confirmation email.
  37. Everyone was startled by the power outage.
  38. That start-up has been sold for $3 million.
  39. The rights to his book have been sold for $750,000.
  40. Has your wallet been stolen?
  41. The room was strewn with books and magazines.
  42. The contract will be signed next week.
  43. The documents will all be signed by tomorrow.
  44. The document is being sent right now.
  45. A knife was used to commit the murder.
  46. The phone was being used by Mr Saputra.
  47. A safety video will be watched by the staff every month.
  48. The windows had been washed.
  49. Their cars were being washed while they were in the mall shopping.
  50. The dog was being washed by the girl.
  51. The dog was being washed when I got home.

Dalam kalimat pasif, orang atau pihak yang melakukan aksi atau tindakan disebut sebagai agent. Jika kita ingin menunjukkan orang atau pihak yang melakukan tindakan dalam sebuah kalimat pasif maka kita bisa menggunakan kata by. Contoh:

  1. He was attacked by a dangerous dog.
  2. Lieutenant B was caught by the brilliant detective A.
  3. The Pancake was eaten by Carya.
  4. The card was made by Donal.
  5. The picture was painted by Korentz.
  6. The area is mainly populated by families with small children.
  7. The money was stolen by her husband.
  8. The students are taught by the professor.

Kalimat pasif bisa di dapatkan dengan menambahkan verb to be dan past participle (verb dengan tambahan -d atau -ed untuk regular). Contoh:

  1. Our computers were being attacked by hackers.
  2. They are being bullied.
  3. His mother had been brought up in England.
  4. The windows have been cleaned.
  5. The work will be finished soon.
  6. They might have been invited to the party
  7. Have you been interviewed for many jobs?
  8. Arrangements will be made to move them to other locations.
  9. Dinner was being served.
  10. All the merchandise will have been shipped by next week.
  11. English is spoken all over the world.
  12. He is taken to school by his mum.
  13. We were told not to touch anything.

Terkadang verb get juga bisa digunakan untuk mendapatkan kalimat pasif. Contoh:

  1. Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.
  2. Indra got hurt in a crash.
  3. Brazil got beaten by France.

Cara mengubah kalimat aktif yang memiliki indirect object menjadi kalimat pasif adalah dengan menjadikan indirect object tersebut menjadi subject pada kalimat pasif. Contoh:

Aktif: I gave him a book for his birthday (verb: gave, indirect object: him)
Pasif: He was given a book for his birthday (verb: was given)

Pada contoh di atas, indirect object (him) pada kalimat pertama menjadi subject (He) pada kalimat kedua. Contoh lainnya:

Aktif: Someone sent her a cheque for a hundred euros (verb: sent, indirect object: her)
Pasif: She was sent a cheque for a hundred euros (verb: was sent)

Kalimat pasif lebih susah dimengerti buat pembaca dibandingkan dengan kalimat aktif karena memiliki lebih banyak kata. Untuk mengurangi kata yang terlalu banyak dalam sebuah tulisan kita bisa mengubah beberapa kalimat pasif menjadi kalimat aktif. Contoh:

  • Pasif: At dinner, five shrimp were eaten by Alim.
  • Aktif: Alim ate five shrimp at dinner.
  • Pasif: All the pies were eaten by Iman.
  • Aktif: Iman ate all the pies.
  • Pasif: The last cookie was eaten by whom?
  • Aktif: Who ate the last cookie?
  • Pasif: Cheese was eaten by Rati.
  • Aktif: Rati ate the cheese.
  • Pasif: The students questions are always answered by the teacher.
  • Aktif: The teacher always answers the students questions.
  • Pasif: May you be blessed with happiness!
  • Aktif: May God bless you with happiness!
  • Pasif: A diamond necklace was bought by her.
  • Aktif: She bought a diamond necklace.
  • Pasif: A house is being built by them.
  • Aktif: They are building a house.
  • Pasif: A house was built by him
  • Aktif: He built a house
  • Pasif: A house has been built by him
  • Aktif: He has built a house
  • Pasif: A house will be built by him
  • Aktif: He will build a house
  • Pasif: It might be bought.
  • Aktif: Somebody might buy it.
  • Pasif: A new bridge was built by the government.
  • Aktif: The government built a new bridge.
  • Pasif: For the bake sale, three dozen cookies will be baked by Ratih.
  • Aktif: Ratih will bake three dozen cupcakes for the bake sale.
  • Pasif: Dinner is cooked by someone every day.
  • Aktif: Somebody cooks dinner every day.
  • Pasif: The room will be cleaned by Wira every Saturday.
  • Aktif: Wira will clean the room every Saturday.
  • Pasif: The house will be cleaned by me every Monday.
  • Aktif: I will clean– the house every Monday.
  • Pasif: The project will have been completed before the deadline.
  • Aktif: They will have completed the project before the deadline.
  • Pasif: The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
  • Aktif: They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
  • Pasif: The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater.
  • Aktif: The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams.
  • Pasif: The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch.
  • Aktif: The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch.
  • Pasif: The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow.
  • Aktif: The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow.
  • Pasif: The flat tire was changed by Dyota.
  • Aktif: Dyota changed the flat tire.
  • Pasif: Once a week, the house is cleaned by Adji.
  • Aktif: Once a week, Adji cleans the house.
  • Pasif: The ballots were counted by the volunteers.
  • Aktif: The volunteers counted the ballots.
  • Pasif: Recently, the work has been being done by Bhuana.
  • Aktif: Recently, Bhuana has been doing the work.
  • Pasif: I don’t want to be disturbed.
  • Aktif: I dont want anyone to disturb me.
  • Pasif: The town was destroyed by fire.
  • Aktif: Fire destroyed the town.
  • Pasif: The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire.
  • Aktif: The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb.
  • Pasif: Water is drunk by everybody.
  • Aktif: Everybody drinks water.
  • Pasif: The fishing rig was designed by Indrawan.
  • Aktif: Indrawan designed the fishing rig.
  • Pasif: Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Glen.
  • Aktif: Glen generously donated money to the homeless shelter.
  • Pasif: Reading is enjoyed by Nurul.
  • Aktif: Nurul enjoys reading.
  • Pasif: That piece is really enjoyed by the choir.
  • Aktif: The choir really enjoys that piece.
  • Pasif: I saw it being eaten by the cat.
  • Aktif: I saw the cat eating it.
  • Pasif: Grapes are being eaten by the child.
  • Aktif: The child is eating bananas.
  • Pasif: The cat was fed by me.
  • Aktif: I fed the cat.
  • Pasif: The jar is filled with sand.
  • Aktif: Sand filled the jar.
  • Pasif: The work will be finished by 7:00 PM.
  • Aktif: Someone will finish the work by 7:00 PM.
  • Pasif: I knew the work would be finished by 7:00 PM.
  • Aktif: I knew John would finish the work by 7:00 PM.
  • Pasif: The job has been finished by me.
  • Aktif: I have finished the job.
  • Pasif: My work having been finished, I went home.
  • Aktif: Having finished my work, I went home.
  • Pasif: My phone wasn’t fixed yesterday.
  • Aktif: They didn’t fix my phone yesterday.
  • Pasif: He ought to be forgiven.
  • Aktif: They ought to forgive him.
  • Pasif: She wasn’t sure how long she’d been being followed.
  • Aktif: She wasn’t sure how long they’d been following her.
  • Pasif: The application for a new job was faxed by her.
  • Aktif: She faxed her application for a new job.
  • Pasif: Instructions will be given to you by the manager.
  • Aktif: The manager will give you instructions.
  • Pasif: The ball is hit by Maya.
  • Aktif: Maya hits the ball.
  • Pasif: He will be hanged at dawn.
  • Aktif: They will hang him at dawn.
  • Pasif: Bunga’s being helped by Ado.
  • Aktif: Ado’s helping Bunga.
  • Pasif: The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
  • Aktif: The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
  • Pasif: You could have been badly hurt.
  • Aktif: It could have badly hurt you.
  • Pasif: I wondered why I hadn’t been invited.
  • Aktif: I wondered why they hadn’t invited me.
  • Pasif: The lion was killed by the hunter.
  • Aktif: The hunter killed the lion.
  • Pasif: Anindya’s schedule was kept meticulously.
  • Aktif: Anindya kept her schedule meticulously.
  • Pasif: If you told me, your secret would be kept.
  • Aktif: If you told me, I would keep your secret.
  • Pasif: I have a feeling that a secret may be being kept.
  • Aktif: I have a feeling that you may be keeping a secret.
  • Pasif: His training regimen had been kept up for a month.
  • Aktif: He had kept up his training regimen for a month.
  • Pasif: Your bicycle would have been kept here if you had left it with me.
  • Aktif: I would have kept your bicycle here if you had left it with me.
  • Pasif: The bird, having been kept in a cage for so long, might not survive in the wild.
  • Aktif: Having kept the bird in a cage for so long, Maya wasn’t sure it could survive in the wild.
  • Pasif: A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Diah tonight.
  • Aktif: Diah is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
  • Pasif: I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Dira tonight.
  • Aktif: I thought Dira was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
  • Pasif: All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner.
  • Aktif: The wedding planner is making all the reservations.
  • Pasif: The pies would always be made by my mother.
  • Aktif: My mother would always make the pies.
  • Pasif: The cows will be moved after tea by the farm-hands.
  • Aktif: The farm-hands will move the cows after tea.
  • Pasif: The tin of tuna fish was opened by Dewi.
  • Aktif: Dewi opened the tin of tuna fish.
  • Pasif: The servant was punished by the master.
  • Aktif: The master punished the servant.
  • Pasif: How is his name pronounced?
  • Aktif: How does one pronounce his name?
  • Pasif: I insisted on being paid.
  • Aktif: I insisted on them paying me.
  • Pasif: The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew.
  • Aktif: The crew paved the entire stretch of highway.
  • Pasif: The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Aditya for two years before he moved to Paris.
  • Aktif: Chef Aditya had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
  • Pasif: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo Da Vinci.
  • Aktif: Leonaro Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.
  • Pasif: The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Aktif: The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Pasif: The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Aktif: The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over five months by the time it is finished.
  • Pasif: The entire house was painted by Adhit.
  • Aktif: Adhit painted the entire house.
  • Pasif: The five apples were paid by me.
  • Aktif: I paid for five apples.
  • Pasif: The bills used to be paid by Yoga.
  • Aktif: Yoga used to pay the bills.
  • Pasif: The video was posted on Facebook by Dika.
  • Aktif: Dika posted the video on Facebook.
  • Pasif: He can be questioned for two hours.
  • Aktif: They can question him for two hours.
  • Pasif: He won’t be being questioned when you get there.
  • Aktif: They won’t be questioning him when you get there.
  • Pasif: The novel was read by Mom in one day.
  • Aktif: Mom read the novel in one day.
  • Pasif: The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell.
  • Aktif: The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell.
  • Pasif: The papers say he may be released.
  • Aktif: The papers say they may release him.
  • Pasif: My sales ad was not responded to by anyone.
  • Aktif: No one responded to my sales ad.
  • Pasif: Sugar cane is raised by some people in Indonesia.
  • Aktif: Some people raise sugar cane in Indonesia.
  • Pasif: The obstacle course was run by me in record time.
  • Aktif: I ran the obstacle course in record time.
  • Pasif: The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes.
  • Aktif: Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah.
  • Pasif: Your car will have been repaired by 4pm.
  • Aktif: They will have repaired your car by 4pm.
  • Pasif: The car was repaired by Budi.
  • Aktif: Budi repaired the car.
  • Pasif: Many cars had been repaired by Rian before he received his mechanic’s license.
  • Aktif: Rian had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
  • Pasif: The printer cartridge was replaced by the engineer.
  • Aktif: The engineer replaced the printer cartridge.
  • Pasif: Dinner has been served.
  • Aktif: Kid has served dinner.
  • Pasif: The treaty is being signed by the three kings.
  • Aktif: The three kings are signing the treaty.
  • Pasif: Spanish is spoken by more than 200 million people worldwide.
  • Aktif: More than 200 million people speak Spanish.
  • Pasif: The report was sent yesterday.
  • Aktif: I sent the report yesterday.
  • Pasif: My purse had been stolen by somebody.
  • Aktif: Somebody had stolen– my purse
  • Pasif: Is Thriller going to be sung at the party?
  • Aktif: Is he going to sing Thriller at the party?
  • Pasif: English is taught by him.
  • Aktif: He teaches English.
  • Pasif: I should have been told.
  • Aktif: You should have told me.
  • Pasif: The matter will be taken forward by Kaisar.
  • Aktif: Kaisar will take the matter forward.
  • Pasif: It seems to have been taken.
  • Aktif: They seem to have taken it.
  • Pasif: Everything used to be taken care of by Wahyu.
  • Aktif: Wahyu used to take care of everything.
  • Pasif: She’ll have been being treated for exactly two months tomorrow.
  • Aktif: They’ll have been treating her for exactly two months tomorrow.
  • Pasif: The flowers were trampled by the dog.
  • Aktif: The dog trampled the flowers.
  • Pasif: A movie is going to be watched by us tonight.
  • Aktif: We are going to watch a movie tonight.
  • Pasif: That house has been being watched for weeks.
  • Aktif: The police have been watching that house for weeks.
  • Pasif: A letter is being written by her.
  • Aktif: She is writing a letter.
  • Pasif: Right now, the letter is being written by Della.
  • Aktif: Right now, Della is writing the letter.
  • Pasif: A book was being written by him.
  • Aktif: He was writing a book.
  • Pasif: A letter was written to Bluher by Pandu.
  • Aktif: Pandu wrote a letter to Bluher.
  • Pasif: By whom was this letter written?
  • Aktif: Who wrote this letter?
  • Pasif: A scathing review was written by the critic.
  • Aktif: The critic wrote a scathing review.
  • Pasif: A green shirt was worn by him.
  • Aktif: He wore a green shirt.
  • Pasif: Seat belts must be worn.
  • Aktif: Passengers must wear seat belts.
  • Pasif: At 9:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
  • Aktif: At 9:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
  • Pasif: At 9:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by Danu.
  • Aktif: At 9:00 PM tonight, Danu will be washing the dishes.
  • Pasif: The comet was viewed by the science class.
  • Aktif: The science class viewed the comet.
  • Pasif: The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year.
  • Aktif: Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year.
  • Pasif: That castle has been visited by many tourists.
  • Aktif: Many tourists have visited that castle.
  • Pasif: Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew.
  • Aktif: The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night.

Dalam beberapa kasus, untuk mengubah kalimat pasif menjadi aktif kita harus menambahkan subject. Contoh:

  • Pasif: The engine was fixed.
  • Aktif: He fixed the engine.

Pada contoh di atas, subject (He) harus ditambahkan ke dalam kalimat untuk mengubah kalimat pasif menjadi aktif. Contoh lainnya:

  • Pasif: Fish that are not popular in the restaurants are discarded.
  • Aktif: They discard the fish that are not popular in the restaurants.
  • Pasif: He was being interrogated when I called.
  • Aktif: They were interrogating him when I called.
  • Pasif: The ficus will be kept.
  • Aktif: Deo will keep the ficus.
  • Pasif: My house is being kept tidy.
  • Aktif: Bluher is keeping my house tidy.
  • Pasif: The puppy was happy to have been kept.
  • Aktif: Maya was happy to have kept the puppy.
  • Pasif: A seat was being kept for you.
  • Aktif: The theater was keeping a seat for you.
  • Pasif: All your old letters have been kept.
  • Aktif: I have kept all your old letters.
  • Pasif: The book wants to be kept.
  • Aktif: She wants to keep the book.
  • Pasif: The butter is kept in the fridge.
  • Aktif: I keep the butter in the fridge.
  • Pasif: The map had been misplaced.
  • Aktif: Aso misplaced the map.
  • Pasif: The crowbar was used to open the window.
  • Aktif: The burglar used a crowbar to open the window.
  • Pasif: The dishes are washed.
  • Aktif: Abe washed the dishes.

Dua cara menggunakan verbs ini (aktif dan pasif) disebut sebagai voices. Dalam penggunaan sehari-hari, kalimat aktif lebih sering digunakan. Sedangkan kalimat pasif hanya digunakan untuk beberapa situasi tertentu atau untuk memberi penekanan bahwa tindakan yang dilakukan lebih penting daripada orang yang melakukannya. Berikut ini adalah beberapa situasi kalimat pasif digunakan:

  1. Untuk melaporkan sebuah peristiwa kejahatan yang pelakunya belum diketahui, polisi biasanya menulis “the bank was robbed”.
  2. Pembawa acara berita melaporkan peristiwa kejahatan dalam bentuk pasif untuk menghilangkan penekanan pada pelaku tindakan seperti: “Police are being notified that three prisoners have escaped”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya “The dispatcher is notifying police that three prisoners have escaped”.
  3. Untuk mengaburkan orang yang bertanggung jawab, politisi biasanya menulis “Mistakes were made” atau “Shots were fired”.
  4. Untuk dokumen-dokumen formal seperti laporan penelitian. Contoh: “The results were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association” atau “A fair grading system was found to be important to all students”.
  5. Penulis novel misteri biasanya menulis dalam pasif voice seperti: “the jewels were taken” untuk lebih memfokuskan pada peristiwa yang terjadi.
  6. Pelaku bisnis menggunakan pasif voice supaya sebuah kalimat tidak terlihat begitu memaksa dengan menulis “Your service will be shut off”. Bandingkan dengan aktif voice yang terlihat lebih memaksa “We are going to shut off your service”.
  7. Untuk lebih menekankan pada penerima tindakan dibandingkan pelaku tindakan. Contoh: “President Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya: “Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy”.
  8. Untuk digunakan dalam pengumuman: “Passengers are reminded to fasten their seatbelts”. Bandingkan dengan kalimat aktifnya: “The Captain reminds passengers to fasten their seatbelts”.
Advertisements

Reflexive dan Intensive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Refleksif dan Penegasan)

Reflexive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Refleksif)

Reflexive pronouns digunakan untuk merujuk kepada subject sebuah kalimat yang melakukan sesuatu kepada subject itu sendiri.

Kata yang termasuk reflexive pronouns yaitu:

  • Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
  • Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Contoh:

I saw myself in the mirror.
myself merujuk kepada I, Aku melihat diriku sendiri

Widya still does not trust herself.
herself merujuk kepada Widya, Widya tidak percaya sama dirinya sendiri

  1. I hurt myself.
  2. I really hurt myself this morning when I fell down the stairs.
  3. Teguh hurt himself while he was fixing his car.
  4. He hurt himself on the rusty nail and had to get a shot.
  5. He hurt himself playing hockey.
  6. Dian hurt herself.
  7. My dog hurt itself.
  8. Don’t touch that electric wire. You will hurt yourself.
  9. I enjoyed myself at the concert.
  10. She enjoyed herself at the party.
  11. We enjoyed ourselves during the picnic.
  12. I made myself a sandwich.
  13. You can make yourselves at home.
  14. My brother made himself some dinner.
  15. She made herself a pullover.
  16. She made herself a cup of tea and sat down in front of the television.
  17. We ate so much turkey and pumpkin pie that we made ourselves sick.
  18. We do not always make ourselves practice what we preach.
  19. I bought myself a new pair of sunglasses for our trip to the beach.
  20. Wira bought himself a shirt.
  21. Ratie bought herself a new pair of shoes.
  22. She bought herself a new purse for her new job.
  23. The queen bought herself a dog.
  24. You should buy yourself a new computer.
  25. At 12.30, Ratih and I went to the cafeteria to buy ourselves some lunch.
  26. We bought ourselves pretzels at the fair.
  27. My sister and I bought ourselves popcorn at the movie.
  28. You can help yourselves to drinks.
  29. Can you help yourselves?
  30. Krisna blames himself.
  31. He blames himself for the accident.
  32. Why do you blame yourself?
  33. We blame ourselves.
  34. We blame ourselves for the results of the election.
  35. They blame themselves for the accident, because they didn’t pay attention to road signs.
  36. Parents often blame themselves for the way their children behave.
  37. I saw myself reflected in her eyes.
  38. I saw myself as a famous actor.
  39. When I saw myself in the mirror, I realized that I had paint on my cheek.
  40. When I saw myself in the mirror, I was horrified, there was red paint on my nose!
  41. The puppy saw itself in the mirror.
  42. It saw itself in the mirror.
  43. What happens when a fighting fish sees itself in the mirror?
  44. She looks at herself in the mirror.
  45. She looked at herself in the mirror for hours.
  46. She looked at herself in the bathroom mirror.
  47. The girl looked at herself in the mirror.
  48. They cannot look after themselves.
  49. Iman sent himself a copy.
  50. Dyota sent herself a copy.
  51. He cut himself on the broken glass.
  52. Anna accidentally cut herself.
  53. You cut yourself while cutting tomatoes.
  54. He accidentally cut himself while he was chopping the vegetables.
  55. I gave myself 12 weeks to get in shape.
  56. I gave myself plenty of time to get to work.
  57. The cat gave itself a bath.
  58. The girls gave themselves enough time to finish the project.
  59. I will give myself five days to finish that job.
  60. Della and her husband own their own company, so they can give themselves a holiday any time they like.
  61. We treated ourselves to a night on the town.
  62. We treated ourselves to pizza.
  63. They cannot help themselves.
  64. You helped yourselves to more ice cream.
  65. You may help yourself to any of the snacks on the table.
  66. You fellows can help yourselves to the drinks.
  67. We helped ourselves to the free drinks at the launch party.
  68. Would you like to help yourself to another drink?
  69. We asked ourselves if the new system would actually work.
  70. We often ask ourselves why we left London.
  71. Have you asked yourselves why you are here?
  72. My grandmother is no longer able to feed herself, so I help her.
  73. Can you feed yourselves?
  74. The soccer team decided to call themselves the Viking.
  75. The band call themselves “Electric”.
  76. I taught myself how to speak English, I never had a teacher.
  77. I taught myself to play the guitar.
  78. We taught ourselves French.
  79. I used a video to teach myself how to knit.
  80. Did you take a class in engineering, or did you teach yourself?
  81. Can I ask you a question, Adji? Did you go to classes to learn German, or did you teach yourself?
  82. The dog scratched itself.
  83. The dog had fleas and was scratching itself the whole day!
  84. The dog is scratching itself, it must have fleas!
  85. They think of themselves as upstanding members of the community.
  86. Adit promised himself to work harder next semester.
  87. Misbah promised herself a reward for her hard work.
  88. My cat always licks itself.
  89. One of the dogs spent hours licking itself.
  90. The terrorist shot himself.
  91. He shot himself.
  92. I was in a hurry, so I washed the car myself.
  93. Look! There’s a little bird washing itself in the river.
  94. I like myself.
  95. I cannot bring myself to do it.
  96. I burnt myself on the stove this morning.
  97. I often quote myself. It adds spice to my conversation.
  98. I introduced myself to my new neighbor.
  99. I consider myself fortunate to have escaped before the house collapsed.
  100. I had to content myself with a few Euros.
  101. If you don’t know what is wrong with yourself, then ask a doctor.
  102. You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
  103. You should let yourself into the house.
  104. When you save money in the bank, it’s like you are paying yourself.
  105. Kaisar e-mailed himself a copy of the report.
  106. He has landed himself in great trouble.
  107. If he wasn’t always pushing himself at the gym, he wouldn’t be so buff.
  108. He tried to be himself and not be like Michael Jackson all the time
  109. He found himself lying by the side of the road.
  110. He busied himself in the kitchen.
  111. She applied herself to the job of mending the lights.
  112. Because she wanted to be like her sister, Tri forced herself to practice each day.
  113. She cooked herself a quiche.
  114. She baked herself a birthday cake.
  115. She thumped herself.
  116. The old woman poisoned herself.
  117. Maya poured herself a glass of milk.
  118. The parrot admired itself in the mirror for several hours each day.
  119. The kitten groomed itself.
  120. The cat chocked itself.
  121. A house divided against itself cannot stand.
  122. The television uses a timer to turn itself off after one hour.
  123. Without strong steel architecture, the building would collapse in on itself.
  124. We often deceive ourselves.
  125. The students are able to monitor themselves.
  126. The boys hid themselves.
  127. The boys hid themselves behind the door.
  128. They believed in themselves.
  129. They have got themselves into a mess.
  130. Some people are so full of themselves.
  131. They injured themselves during the rugby match.
  132. The new robotic toys can put themselves away.
  133. They used to camera on the cell phone to take pictures of themselves.
  134. The members argued among themselves for an hour.
  135. The jurors could not agree among themselves.
  136. They spent some time familiarizing themselves with the new workplace.
  137. Some animals protect themselves through camouflage.
  138. The players prepared themselves by staying in shape.
  139. They managed themselves very well as members of the conference panel.
  140. The accountants perjured themselves when testifying before Congress.
  141. I wish the children would behave themselves.
  142. We forfeit three-fourths of ourselves in order to be like other people. (Arthur Schopenhauer, 1788-1860)
  143. If the world should blow itself up, the last audible voice would be that of an expert saying it can’t be done. (Peter Ustinov, 1921-2004)
  144. If history repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, how incapable must man be of learning from experience. (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950)
  145. Certain tomopterid worms defend themselves by squirting out a bioluminescent fluid. (Bruce Robison, “Light in the Ocean’s Midwaters,” Scientific American)

Berdasarkan letaknya, reflexive pronouns bisa diletakkan sebagai direct object, indirect object atau preposition object.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai direct object:

  1. I am teaching myself to play the piano.
  2. I pinched myself to see whether it was a dream.
  3. He saw himself in the mirror and was shocked.
  4. He shot himself in the head.
  5. Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai indirect object:

  1. I bought myself a slice of cake.
  2. He made himself coffee.
  3. Would you like to pour yourself a drink.
  4. We’ve brought ourselves something to eat.

Contoh reflexive pronouns sebagai object of a preposition (to, for, by, dll):

  1. He gave the present to himself.
  2. Bhuana read quietly to himself.
  3. Anindya read to herself.
  4. He spoke to himself.
  5. I talk to myself when I am nervous or excited.
  6. Budi is a bit crazy. He always sits alone and talks to himself.
  7. That man is talking to himself.
  8. The man talked to himself as he walked down the street.
  9. Are you talking to yourself?
  10. She likes to look at the mirror and smile to herself.
  11. The young girl was singing happily to herself.
  12. I whistled to myself to calm down.
  13. Sometimes I think to myself that it is time to lose some weight.
  14. You should address the letter to yourself.
  15. You often talk to yourself and nobody knows what you talk about.
  16. She bought a present for herself.
  17. She had to cook for herself.
  18. They had to cook for themselves.
  19. We had to cook for ourselves since mom didn’t want to make dinner.
  20. He was feeling very sorry for himself.
  21. I bought a present for myself.
  22. When you go shopping for me, buy a present for yourself.
  23. She did it by herself.
  24. We thought to ourselves, this has been the best day we have ever spent together!

Reflexive Pronouns memiliki nilai yang penting di dalam kalimat sehingga jika di dalam kalimat yang ada reflexive pronouns-nya dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya maka kalimat tersebut akan memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda dengan sebelum dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya. Contoh:

I hurt myself (Aku melukai diriku sendiri)
I hurt (makna kalimat tidak jelas)

He made himself coffee (Dia membuat coffee yang sudah pasti untuk dirinya sendiri)
He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun tidak pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)

Kata preposition by + reflexive pronoun digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang melakukan sebuah kegiatan sendiri atau tanpa bantuan orang lain:

  1. She lives by herself.
  2. He lived by himself in an enormous house.
  3. Indrawan went to the party by himself.
  4. I went to the USA by myself.
  5. You go to the movies by yourself.
  6. You are too young to go out by yourselves.
  7. Why don’t you go by yourself?
  8. She likes to go on holiday by herself.
  9. He ate dinner by himself.
  10. You ate all of the ice cream by yourselves.
  11. She walked home by herself.
  12. You can walk to school by yourself.
  13. I prepared the whole meal by myself.
  14. The children got dressed by themselves.
  15. I did my homework by myself.
  16. She fixed her car by herself.
  17. It got its food out of the cupboard by itself.
  18. We ruined everything by ourselves.
  19. They painted the house by themselves.
  20. He made breakfast all by himself.
  21. The children made the entire meal by themselves.
  22. She created all the Christmas decorations by herself.

Reflexive pronouns tidak bisa digunakan setelah kata feel, meet, concentrate dan relax. Selain itu, reflexive pronouns biasanya tidak digunakan setelah verbs yang memiliki makna kegiatan yang sering atau biasa dilakukan untuk dirinya sendiri seperti wash, shave dan dress kecuali benar-benar diperlukan untuk memperjelas atau memberi penekanan siapa yang melakukan aksi. Contoh:

  • He cannot relax – correct
  • He cannot relax himself – incorrect
  • He washed in cold water – correct
  • He washed himself in cold water – incorrect
  • I washed clean in the bathtub – correct
  • I washed myself clean in the bathtub – incorrect
  • After I got up, I washed – correct
  • After I got up, I washed myself – incorrect
  • He always shaved before going out in the evening – correct
  • He always shaved himself before going out in the evening – incorrect
  • Iesa dressed and got ready for the party – correct
  • Iesa dressed himself and got ready for the party – incorrect
  • I dressed this morning – correct
  • I dressed myself this morning – incorrect
  • My daughter likes to dress without my help – correct
  • My daughter likes to dress herself without my help – incorrect
  • The little girl learned how to dress for school – correct
  • The little girl learned how to dress herself for school – incorrect
  • The children are able to dress – correct
  • The children are able to dress themselves – incorrect

Reflexive pronouns tidak diperlukan di dalam sebuah kalimat jika kalimat tersebut sudah memiliki makna reflexive:

  • I took my mother with me – correct
  • I took my mother with myself – incorrect

Reflexive pronouns tidak digunakan setelah place preposition, namun menggunakan personal pronouns. Contoh:

  • He put the backpack next to him – correct
  • He put the backpack next to himself – incorrect

Intensive Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penegasan)

Intensive pronouns digunakan untuk memberi penekanan (emphatic) pada subject atau object bahwa kata tersebut merupakan kata yang penting atau kata itu sendiri yang melakukan sesuatu. Intensive pronouns disebut juga emphatic pronouns.

Kata yang termasuk intensive pronouns yaitu:

  • Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
  • Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Contoh:

My sister herself paid for my popcorn.
herself memberi penekanan pada subject My sister, yang menandakan bahwa saudarinya sendiri (My sister) yang membayar popcorn.

I made a sandwich for the President himself.
himself memberi penekanan pada object the President, yang menandakan bahwa Presiden sendiri yang dibuatkan sandwich.

  1. I myself heard his remarks.
  2. I myself went to the market and bought it.
  3. I myself did it without any help from anybody.
  4. I myself heard the remark.
  5. I myself am sick of the heat.
  6. I myself am tired of all this rain.
  7. I myself am tired of doing homework.
  8. I myself can look after the whole place.
  9. I myself forgot about these issues and most people are too polite to mention them.
  10. I myself made it atau I made it myself.
  11. You must believe me. I myself heard him shout at her.
  12. You yourself are to blame for this confusion.
  13. You yourself are responsible for this mess!
  14. You yourself will have to answer for your action.
  15. You yourself can change your life.
  16. Have you yourself seen it? atau Have you seen it yourself?
  17. You yourselves asked us to do it.
  18. You yourselves can win this game.
  19. I suggest that you yourselves figure out how to resolve this dispute.
  20. Wahyu himself will be piloting this aircraft across the Atlantic.
  21. Yoga himself was not aware of the plan.
  22. The mayor himself spoke to the crowd.
  23. The minister himself said this.
  24. The prime minister himself gave me the award.
  25. President Nixon himself resigned a year later due to his involvement in an illegal cover-up related to his re-election campaign.
  26. The President himself promised to stop the war.
  27. The president himself appeared at the rally.
  28. The president himself wrote me a letter.
  29. After rescheduling three meetings, the president herself conducted the meeting.
  30. He himself told me that I was to be promoted.
  31. He himself said so.
  32. He himself told me this.
  33. He himself painted the walls.
  34. He himself repaired the machine.
  35. Bunga herself told me that she was quitting her job.
  36. The actress herself wrote the play.
  37. The actress herself wrote those lines.
  38. The queen herself came forward to help.
  39. The queen herself gave the knight the award atau The queen gave the knight the award herself.
  40. She herself opened the door.
  41. She herself spoke to me atau She spoke to me herself.
  42. Even though everyone expected her to know it already, she herself was surprised by the news.
  43. The exam itself wasn’t difficult, but exam room was horrible.
  44. The town itself is not very large.
  45. The dog itself opened her fridge raider.
  46. The cat itself caught the mouse.
  47. Balikpapan itself is quite a small town.
  48. We ourselves cooked the cake.
  49. We ourselves made the meal.
  50. We ourselves made the delicious meal.
  51. We ourselves built the tree house.
  52. We ourselves witnessed the accident.
  53. They themselves set up the makeshift camp.
  54. They themselves admitted their mistake.
  55. The boys themselves led the entire team to victory.
  56. The Bhutanese themselves call their country Druk-Yul or the ‘Land of the Thunder Dragon’.
  57. The soldiers themselves do not want to attack the enemy fort.
  58. The troops themselves helped the people escape the burning building.
  59. The firefighters themselves helped the people escape the building.
  60. They recommend this book even though they themselves have never read it atau They recommend this book even though they have never read it themselves.
  61. I finished the job myself.
  62. I repaired the tire myself.
  63. I cut her hair myself.
  64. I baked the bread myself.
  65. I will do it myself.
  66. I’ll do it myself.
  67. I did it myself.
  68. I will go to school myself.
  69. I am not a very punctual person myself.
  70. I heard the lie myself.
  71. I can look after the whole place myself.
  72. I did not want to believe it and then I saw the UFO myself.
  73. Did someone paint your house?” “No, I painted it myself.”
  74. You will have to explain to them yourself.
  75. You don’t need help. You can do it yourself.
  76. You can choose a lawyer yourself or one will be selected for you.
  77. Fanny, you’ll have to do your homework yourself.
  78. Wow! Did you write this book yourself?
  79. Boys, can you make your beds yourselves?
  80. I was introduced to Barack Obama himself.
  81. Andika did it himself.
  82. Erwin fixed the car himself.
  83. The pitcher scored the winning run himself.
  84. The father decided to repair the car himself.
  85. My brother spoke to his boss himself about a raise.
  86. He baked the cake himself.
  87. He fixed the leaking roof himself.
  88. He was planning to ask his assistant to go, but in the end he went himself.
  89. He wanted to impress her, so he baked a cake himself.
  90. She made this dinner herself.
  91. The mayor presented the new program herself.
  92. Chendy does chores herself because she doesn’t trust others to do them right.
  93. She’s old enough to wash herself.
  94. The author signed the book for me herself!
  95. My sister made the bread herself.
  96. The queen bought the dog herself.
  97. She mended the car herself.
  98. She will do it herself.
  99. She wrote the short story herself.
  100. When Satri saw the battleship itself, he knew that he had chosen the right profession.
  101. Never mind. We’ll do it ourselves.
  102. We cooked the whole meal ourselves.
  103. We can move the table ourselves.
  104. We painted the house ourselves. Nobody helped us!
  105. We don’t have to go out, we can fix dinner ourselves.
  106. The boys baked these scones themselves.
  107. The students made the scenery themselves.
  108. They did the homework themselves.
  109. They ate all the food themselves.
  110. The children are able to tie their shoes themselves.
  111. You don’t need to help them. They can do it themselves.
  112. Nobody wanted to help them, so they cleaned the streets themselves.
  113. The actors saved the local theater money by making costumes themselves.
  114. The responsibility for renting out school facilities will be transferred direct to the schools themselves.
  115. The firefighters fought the fire themselves although they received some help from the affected residents.

Berdasarkan manfaatnya atau nilainya di dalam kalimat, intensive pronouns bukanlah kata yang harus ada sehingga walaupun intensive pronouns dihilangkan dari kalimat maka kalimat tersebut masih bisa dimengerti dan maknanya masih sama. Contoh:

  • My sister herself paid for my popcorn -> My sister paid for my popcorn.
  • I made a sandwich for the President himself -> I made a sandwich for the President.

Dengan menghilangkan intensive pronouns dari sebuah kalimat maka kita bisa mengetahui apakah di dalam kalimat tersebut mengandung intensive pronouns atau tidak. Jika intensive pronouns telah dihilangkan dan kalimat tersebut masih bisa dimengerti dan maknanya masih sama maka kalimat tersebut mengandung intensive pronouns.

Intensive pronouns biasanya diletakkan appositive (setelah subject atau object). Contoh:

My sister herself paid for my popcorn.
Intensive pronouns herself diletakkan setelah subject My sister.

I made a sandwich for the President himself.
Intensive pronouns himself diletakkan setelah object the President.

Biasanya intensive pronouns digunakan untuk memberi penekanan pada sesuatu yang penting atau orang terkenal. Contoh:

Sir Paul McCartney himself sang the final song.
himself memberi penekanan pada subject Sir Paul McCartney yang merupakan seorang penyanyi legendaris. Penyanyi legendaris itu sendiri yang menyanyikan lagu terakhir.

The queen gave the knight the award herself.
herself memberi penekanan pada subject The queen yang merupakan seorang ratu. Ratu itu sendiri yang memberikan hadiah.

Intensive pronouns tidak bisa digunakan sebagai subject. Contoh:

  • Andrea and myself went there – incorrect
  • Andrea and I went there – correct
  • Herself swam in the river – incorrect
  • She swam in the river – correct
  • I invited herself to tea – incorrect
  • I invited her to tea – correct

Dalam beberapa kasus, intensive pronouns bermakna also. Contoh:

Aisyah was pretty happy last night. I was pretty happy myself.

Umumnya intensive pronoun diletakkan setelah subject atau object yang dirujuk, namun bisa juga diletakkan sebelumnya walaupun kalimat seperti ini sangat jarang digunakan. Contoh:

Myself, I would never do a thing like that.

Intensive pronouns memiliki kata yang sama dengan reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves). Perbedaannya adalah pada fungsi, nilai dan letaknya. Berikut ini adalah beberapa perbedaan antara reflexive dan intensive pronouns:

Fungsinya:

  • Reflexive Pronouns merujuk kepada subject.
  • Intensive Pronouns memberi penekanan pada subject atau object.

Nilainya:

  • Reflexive Pronouns memiliki nilai yang penting di dalam kalimat sehingga jika di dalam kalimat yang ada reflexive pronouns-nya dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya maka kalimat tersebut akan memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda dengan sebelum dihilangkan reflexive pronouns-nya.
  • Intensive Pronouns boleh dihilangkan dari kalimat. Kalimat yang sudah dihilangkan intensive pronounsnya masih memiliki arti dan makna yang sama.

Subject dan Object:

  • Reflexive Pronouns digunakan di dalam kalimat jika subject dan object dalam kalimat tersebut memiliki makna yang sama.
  • Intensive Pronouns tidak digunakan di dalam klaimat jika subject dan object dalam kalimat tersebut memiliki makna yang sama.

Object:

  • Reflexive Pronouns digunakan sebagai object sebuah kalimat.
  • Intensive Pronouns tidak bisa digunakan sebagai object.

Reflexive pronouns sebagai indirect objects dan intensive pronouns memiliki struktur yang hampir sama sehingga membingungkan walaupun memiliki makna dan arti yang berbeda. Contoh:

  • Reflexive: He made himself coffee (Dia membuat coffee yang sudah pasti untuk dirinya sendiri)
  • Intensive: He made coffee himself (Dia sendiri yang membuat coffee namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)

Cara untuk mengetahui apakah kedua kalimat di atas mengandung reflexive atau intensive pronouns adalah dengan menghilangkan reflexive atau intensive pronouns dari kalimat dan lihat arti dari kalimat setelahnya. Contoh:

  • He made himself coffee -> He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)
  • He made coffee himself -> He made coffee (Dia yang membuat coffe namun belum pasti untuk siapa dia membuat coffe)

Pada contoh di atas, kalimat pertama sudah pasti mengandung reflexive pronouns karena makna kalimat berubah antara sebelum dan sesudah reflexive pronuns dihapus. Sedangkan kalimat kedua sudah pasti mengandung intensive pronouns karena makna kalimat tidak berubah antara sebelum dan sesudah intensive pronuns dihapus.

Reciprocal Pronouns (Kata Ganti Timbal Balik)

Reciprocal pronouns (kata ganti timbal balik) digunakan saat dua pihak atau lebih melakukan hal yang sama satu sama lain.

Kata yang termasuk reciprocal pronouns yaitu: each other dan one another.

Contoh:

  1. Nurul and Chendy are waving to each other.
  2. Iesa and Adib admire each other.
  3. Febrie and Andrea loathe each other.
  4. Rian and Adji were laughing on each other in the school ground.
  5. Fanny and Yoga hate each other.
  6. Carya and Ratri love each other.
  7. Rizky and Eka gave each other gold rings on their wedding day.
  8. Orig and Adyati has given golden rings to each other on their wedding day.
  9. Jhon and Winarti gave each other diamond rings on their engagement ceremony.”
  10. Kaisar and Melissa kissed each other at the end of the ceremony.
  11. Dini and Laksmi were talking to each other in the hallway.
  12. Ceren and Dewi waved goodbye to each other as they left the playground.
  13. Adhit and Budi like to throw the ball to each other.
  14. Indira and Amanda like to give surprise gifts to each other.
  15. Both teams played hard against each other.
  16. Both groups fought hard against each other.
  17. Me and my friend has shared a gift to each other on new year.
  18. Our dog and cat love each other.
  19. They asked each other the same question and the same time.
  20. They always distrust each other.
  21. They can’t see each other.
  22. They gave each other gifts.
  23. They talk to each other like they’re babies.
  24. They celebrate the ring ceremony by kissing each other at the end.
  25. The boats were bumping against each other in the storm.
  26. The cars were bumping into each other on the icy road.
  27. The cars were touching each other in the traffic jam.
  28. The cats were happily grooming each other.
  29. We gave each other gifts.
  30. We give each other gifts during the holidays.
  31. Why don’t you believe each other?
  32. Why do you question each other?
  33. Our three dogs and your cat love one another.
  34. The defendants blamed one another for the crime they were charged with.
  35. The doctors rely on one another for peer consultations.
  36. The five prisoners were all blaming one another.
  37. The gangsters were fighting one another.
  38. The gang of boys was accusing one another.
  39. The horses were tripping one another as the race came to an end.
  40. The kids spent the afternoon kicking the ball to one another.
  41. The prisoners were fighting one another.
  42. The sisters were hugging one another.
  43. The students congratulated one another after giving practice speeches.
  44. The students helped one another perform the group experiment.
  45. The students in this classroom cooperate with one another.
  46. The teachers gathered to congratulate one another on the year’s conclusion.
  47. The ten angry men were all pointing fingers at one another.
  48. Customers are fighting to one another for a single product.
  49. Many kids are playing in the ground by kicking the ball to one another.
  50. Seniors have congratulated one another on their farewell party.
  51. Teachers were talking one another about the exam.

Berdasarkan aturan lama, each other digunakan untuk merujuk dua orang atau dua pihak, sedangkan jika pihak yang dirujuk lebih dari dua maka menggunakan one another. Namun peraturan ini menghilang jika menggunakan english modern.

Jika menggunakan peraturan english modern atau terkini maka tidak ada perbedaaan antara keduanya (each other dan one another).

Contoh:

We sent each other Birthday cards.
(We sent them a Birthday card, they sent us a Birthday card)

Firman and Yoggie helped one another.
(Firman helped Yoggie, Yoggie helped Firman.)

They didn’t look at one another.
(He didn’t look at her, she didn’t look at him.)

Dengan menambahkan –'s pada reciprocal pronouns maka kita bisa mendapatkan kalimat possessive. Contoh:

  1. Ratih and Widya can wear each other’s clothes.
  2. Kaisar and Indrawan can wear each other’s jacket.
  3. Do you two admire each other’s courage?
  4. Do you three admire one another’s courage?
  5. Sports persons can wear one another’s clothes.

Relative Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penghubung)

Relative pronouns (kata ganti penghubung) berguna untuk menghubungkan kalimat utama dan anak kalimat. Kalimat utama adalah kalimat yang bisa berdiri sendiri sedangkan anak kalimat fungsinya hanya menjelaskan atau menerangkan nouns (kata benda) yang ada di dalam kalimat utama. Anak kalimat yang diawali dengan relative pronouns ini disebut sebagai adjective clause atau relative clause.

Contoh:

Dr Endang, who lectured at UGM for more than 12 years, should have known the difference.

Kalimat di atas merupakan gabungan dari dua buah kalimat yaitu kalimat utama dan anak kalimat dengan relative pronouns who sebagai penghubung:

  • Kalimat utama: Dr Endang should have known the difference.
  • Anak kalimat: Dr Endang lectured at UGM for more than 12 years.
  • Relative pronouns: who
  • Nouns: Dr Endang

Anak kalimat di atas berguna untuk menerangkan mengenai [Dr Endang] yang ada pada kalimat utama.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [Dr Endang] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

Kata yang termasuk relative pronouns yaitu: who, whom, whose, which dan that.

Relative pronouns berdasarkan kata yang digantikan:

  • Who dan whom digunakan untuk orang.
  • Whose digunakan untuk kepemilikan.
  • Which digunakan untuk benda.
  • That digunakan untuk benda dan orang (tidak resmi).

Walaupun that bisa digunakan untuk orang namun sebagian pembaca tidak senang bila that digunakan untuk orang. Oleh karena itu hindari menggunakan that untuk orang terutama dalam penulisan resmi seperti surat-menyurat. Kamu bisa menggunakan that untuk orang dalam kalimat percakapan atau situasi tidak resmi.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh kalimat dengan relative pronouns (relative pronouns ditebalkan dan adjective clause diberi garis bawah):

  1. Dena, who is very kind, is my friend.
  2. He is the bank teller who helped us open an account.
  3. Her brother who works at the barbershop is a friend of mine.
  4. Her brother, who works at the barbershop, is a friend of mine.
  5. I am looking for someone who could give me a ride to Jakarta.
  6. I think anyone who speaks in public is nervous beforehand.
  7. I went to Malang with the girl who lives next door.
  8. I went to Surabaya with Irna, who lives next door.
  9. Liana, who is still at the airport, will arrive before 5 o’clock.
  10. Mr Arif, who is a doctor, lives on the corner.
  11. Mr Hendy, who is 56, has just retired.
  12. Ms Yayuk, who is very kind, is my aunt.
  13. My aunt, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
  14. My mother, who called me this morning, says she is coming to visit me this week.
  15. My wife, who lives in New York, has just written me a letter.
  16. People who are clever can always find a way.
  17. She’s the old lady who lent me her phone.
  18. That’s Fazlur, the boy who has just arrived at the airport.
  19. The girl who wore a white dress attracted everybody’s attention at the party.
  20. The man who doesn’t read good books has no advantage over the man who can’t read them. (Mark Twain)
  21. The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO.
  22. The man who you saw in the house is my brother.
  23. The old lady who you have just spoken to is my teacher.
  24. The man who wrote this poem is coming to tea.
  25. The parents who we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  26. The person who called me last night is my cousin.
  27. The person who phoned me last night is my aunt.
  28. The woman who called me yesterday was my aunt.
  29. The woman who I saw yesterday was Aini.
  30. The woman who is talking to Windy is my mother.
  31. The woman who lives next door is a doctor.
  32. The world is a much sunnier place for people who have a positive attitude.
  33. This is the girl who comes from Bekasi.
  34. Tias, who has worked in Jakarta ever since leaving Bandung, will be starting a teaching course in February.
  35. Wulan, who I haven’t seen for ages, rang me this morning.
  36. He is a famous scientist, about whom many books have been written.
  37. I had an uncle in Surabaya whom I inherited a bit of money from.
  38. My cousin, whom I helped to install his computer, always forgets his password.
  39. My sister, whom you met yesterday, wants to speak to you.
  40. She wrote to the person whom she had met last year.
  41. The man to whom you have just spoken is my teacher.
  42. The parents whom we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  43. The Pope, whom I had never met before, spoke to me last night.
  44. This is Adhiet’s brother, with whom I went to school.
  45. This is Zeneth, whom you met at our house last month.
  46. Chefin, whose sister I used to shared a house with, has gone to work in Makassar.
  47. I have a friend whose dog is annoying.
  48. I talked to the woman whose car had broken down in front of the supermarket.
  49. My uncle, whose child you just met, is a doctor.
  50. Students whose parents are wealthy pay extra.
  51. The car, whose driver is a young man, is from Surabaya.
  52. The chief of police, whose work is very important, takes care of the public safety.
  53. The man whose name I always forget is coming to tea.
  54. The Pelican, whose beak can hold more than his belly can, is a queer-looking bird.
  55. The student whose phone just rang should stand up.
  56. The woman, whose father is a doctor, forgot her umbrella.
  57. There was me and there was Sarah, whose party it was, and then there were three other people.
  58. This is Nico, whose brother went to school with me.
  59. Another activity which I have chosen is photography.
  60. Budapest, which is on the Danube, is a beautiful city.
  61. Geometry, about which I know nothing, seems a very dull subject.
  62. Grass, which cows and horses love, is always green in England.
  63. I cannot forget the song which they played yesterday.
  64. I saw the cat which ate the sandwich.
  65. It was the same picture which I saw at the library.
  66. My bike, which I bought yesterday, was stolen.
  67. Pizza, which many of us enjoy, can be messy.
  68. She won’t have much time to prepare for the meeting, which is this morning.
  69. The book which is on the table belongs to Chefin.
  70. The book which is lying on the table is mine.
  71. The cafe, which sells the best coffee in town, has recently been closed.
  72. The car which hit me was red.
  73. The car which I drive is new.
  74. The carpets which you bought last month have gone moldy.
  75. The fruit which was put in the fruit bowl needs to be put in the picnic basket.
  76. The large map, in the middle of which you can see part of the Artic Circle, belonged to my uncle.
  77. The police are looking for the car of which the driver was masked.
  78. The supermarket which we visited last month is closed now.
  79. The theater, in which the play debuted, housed 500 people.
  80. The tower of London, about which a lecture is to given, is a famous historic building.
  81. This is the bank which accepted my identification.
  82. We didn’t bring the receipt, which was a big mistake.
  83. We drove past my old school, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year.
  84. We had a lovely meal at the place which Chefin recommended.
  85. A person that you don’t trust won’t trust you either.
  86. Another activity that I have chosen is photography.
  87. He blamed himself for everything that had happened.
  88. He is the kind of person that will never let you down.
  89. I am looking for someone that could give me a ride to Jakarta.
  90. I cannot remember the hotel that we stayed at.
  91. I had an uncle in Jakarta that I inherited a bit of money from.
  92. I think anyone that speaks in public is nervous beforehand.
  93. Pizza is all that she wants.
  94. She went to the school that my mother went to.
  95. The 7.30 is the train that you need to get.
  96. The bike that I bought yesterday was stolen.
  97. The book that I put on the table is mine.
  98. The book that you were looking at just now is mine.
  99. The cafe that sells the best coffee in town has recently been closed.
  100. The car that hit me was blue.
  101. The car that I drive is new.
  102. The house that Fariz built is large.
  103. The library did not have the book that I wanted.
  104. The man that you met yesterday is coming to tea.
  105. The man that you spoke to yesterday is coming to tea.
  106. The parents that we interviewed were all involved in education in some way.
  107. The person that phoned me last night is my mother.
  108. The police usually ask for every detail that helps identify the missing person.
  109. This is the cake that Caroline baked.
  110. This is the house that had a great decoration.

Berdasarkan subject dan object:

  • Who digunakan untuk mengganti subject dan object (tidak resmi).
  • Whom digunakan untuk mengganti object (resmi).
  • Whose, which dan that bisa digunakan untuk mengganti subject maupun object.

Contoh:

Mrs Sofie, who is very kind, is my teacher.

  • Kalimat utama: Mrs Sofie is my teacher.
  • Anak kalimat: Mrs Sofie is very kind.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [Mrs Sofie] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

The person that phoned me last night is my mother.

  • Kalimat utama: The person is my mother.
  • Anak kalimat: The person phoned me last night.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [The person] memiliki posisi sebagai subject dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns that.

The man who you saw in the house is my brother.

  • Kalimat utama: The man is my brother.
  • Anak kalimat: You saw the man in the house.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [the man] memiliki posisi sebagai object dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns who.

The carpets which you bought last year have gone moldy.

  • Kalimat utama: The carpets have gone moldy.
  • Anak kalimat: You bought the carpets last year.

Pada anak kalimat di atas, [the carpets] memiliki posisi sebagai object dan akan digantikan oleh relative pronouns which.

Who dan whom memiliki arti yang sama namun berbeda dalam penggunaan.

Walaupun who bisa digunakan sebagai pengganti object namun who yang digunakan sebagai pengganti object tidak bisa digunakan untuk bahasa resmi. Sebaliknya, whom hanya bisa digunakan untuk bahasa resmi. Sangat jarang sekali ada yang memakai whom untuk bahasa tidak resmi seperti bahasa percakapan.

Contoh:

  1. The person whom I phoned last night is my mother.
  2. The person who I phoned last night are my mother.
  3. The person that I phoned last night is my mother.

Pada ketiga contoh di atas, relative pronouns whom, who dan that menggantikan object [The person].

Contoh 1 hanya digunakan untuk kondisi resmi, sedangkan contoh 2 dan 3 hanya digunakan untuk kondisi tidak resmi.

Berdasarkan arti atau makna dari anak kalimat maka anak kalimat bisa dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu [menjelaskan identitas] atau [memberi informasi tambahan].

1. Menjelaskan identitas

Contoh:

The lady who made your white dress is waiting inside.

Pada contoh di atas:

  • Kalimat utama: The lady is waiting inside.
  • Anak kalimat: who made your white dress.

Bila dilihat berdasarkan arti atau maknanya maka anak kalimat di atas menerangkan mengenai siapa [The lady] atau [The lady] yang mana yang dimaksud karena [The lady] yang dimaksud pada kalimat utama bisa siapa saja.

2. Memberi informasi tambahan

Contoh:

Mrs Anggia, who owns a boutique, is waiting inside.

Pada contoh di atas:

  • Kalimat utama: Mrs Anggia is waiting inside.
  • Anak kalimat: who owns a boutique.

Bila dilihat berdasarkan arti atau maknanya maka anak kalimat di atas hanya [memberi informasi tambahan] mengenai [Mrs Anggia]. Informasi tambahan tersebut tidaklah penting dan bisa dihilangkan tanpa mengganggu makna kalimat utama.

Perbedaan jenis anak kalimat antara [menjelaskan identitas] dan [memberi informasi tambahan] adalah pada penting atau tidak pentingnya anak kalimat. Anak kalimat yang penting disebut sebagai restrictive clause sedangkan anak kalimat yang tidak penting disebut sebagai non-restrictive clause.

Bila anak kalimat tidak dianggap penting maka anak kalimat akan masuk ke dalam kategori [memberi informasi tambahan] dan sebaliknya bila anak kalimat dianggap penting maka anak kalimat akan masuk ke dalam kategori [menjelaskan identitas].

Selain perbedaan di atas, berdasarkan penulisannya, anak kalimat yang [memberi informasi tambahan] harus ditulis di antara symbol koma [,]. Sebaliknya anak kalimat yang [menjelaskan identitas] tidak ditulis di dalam symbol koma.

Contoh:

  1. My sister who lives in Semarang bought a house.
  2. My sister, who lives in Semarang, bought a house.

Kedua contoh di atas bisa digunakan namun memiliki arti dan makna yang berbeda.

Pada contoh 1, anak kalimat memiliki arti atau makna [menjelaskan identitas] [My sister]. Sedangkan Pada contoh 2, anak kalimat memiliki arti atau makna hanya [memberi informasi tambahan] mengenai [My sister].

Anak kalimat pada contoh 1 sifatnya sangat penting untuk menjelaskan siapa itu [My sister]. Sedangkan anak kalimat pada contoh 2 sifatnya tidak penting hanya untuk [memberi informasi tambahan] sehingga anak kalimat pada contoh 2 bisa dihapus.

Asumsinya pada contoh 1 adalah dia memiliki banyak saudara perempuan kemudian oleh anak kalimat dijelaskan mengenai saudara perempuan yang mana yang dimaksud.

Sedangkan asumsi pada contoh 2 adalah dia hanya memiliki satu saudara perempuan dan oleh anak kalimat diberi informasi tambahan bahwa saudara perempuannya itu sekarang tinggal di Semarang. Berdasarkan asumsi tersebut maka kita bisa mengambil kesimpulan bahwa anak kalimat pada contoh 2 tidak menjelaskan saudara perempuan yang mana, anak kalimat hanya memberi informasi tambahan.

Khusus untuk anak kalimat dengan awal relative pronouns that hanya bisa digunakan untuk [menjelaskan identitas].

1. His car, which was very old, broke down after just one kilometres.
2. His car, that was very old, broke down after just one kilometres.

Contoh 1 di atas adalah contoh yang benar secara grammar sedangkan contoh 2 adalah contoh yang salah dan tidak bisa digunakan.